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TRANSACTIONS 




OF 



,VJG 19 1'^^'^ 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN. 



VOL. IV. 

[ttrprtnt: eHi'trH tip tijt CownnL] 



CONTENTS: 

PAGE. 

PTcliminary Catalogue of the Japanese Kinds of Woods, by Dr. Geerts i to 26 

Experiments upon the Strength of Japanese Woods, by Professor R. H. Smith. 27 „ 28 
On Some Copper Bells, by Kanda Takahira. The Governor of Hiogo Ken. ... 29 „ 33 
Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the Japanese, by Dr. Geerts.— Quicksilver. 34 „ 47 

On Some Japanese Woods, by J. A. Lindo, Esq 50,, 54 

On the Winds and Currents of Japan, by Captain Scott 57 „ 62 

On the Temperature of the Japanese Waters, by J. H. Dupen, H. M. S. 

Ringdove 63 „ 64 

Notes taken during a Visit to Okinawa Shima — Loochoo Islands, by R. H. 

Brunton. Esq 66 „ 77 

On the Arrow Poison in Use among the Ainos of Japan, by Stuart Eldridge, 

Esq.. M. D 78,, 86 

Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the Japanese, by Dr. Geerts. — Gold 89 „ 108 

The Bonin Islands, by Russell Robertson, Esq iii „ 140 

On Cotton in Japan, by T. B. Poate, Esq 145 „ 151 

Notes of a Trip from Yedo to Kidto vi4 Asama-yama, the Hokurokudo. and 

Lake Biwa, by Professor D. H. Marshall 152 „ 174 

Chalybeate Springs 177 „ 178 



' Yokohama, Shanghai & Hongkong : Kelly & Walsh L'd, 

Tokyo. — The Hakubunsha. — Z. P. Maruya & Co. L'd. 

London : Trubner & Co. — Paris : Ernest Leroux. 

Leipzig & Berlin : K. F. Koehler's Antiquarium. 




^ 



PRICE 



niABCH, 1888. 



$1.50 




The Hakubunsha, Printers, No. i, Shichume, Ginza, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. 



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TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN. 



VOL. IV. 



From 2oth October, 1875, 



TO 



12th July, 1876. 



(ilfprtnt of x%t {Original C^tittfon, 



(REPRINTED AT THE " HAKUBUNSHA," TOKYO.) 

1888. 



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CONTENTS. 



Preliminary Catalogue of the Japanese Kinds] 

of Woods, by Dr. Geerts ) 

Experiments upon the Strength of Japanese) 

Woods, by Professor R. H. Smith j 

On Some Copper Bells, by Kanda Taka-| 

hira, The Governor of Hiogo Ken j 

Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the 

Japanese, by Dr. Geerts. — Quicksilver ... 

On Some Japanese Woods, by J. A. Lindo, 
Esq 

On the Winds and Currents of Japan, by 
Captain Scott 

On the Temperature of the Japanese Wa-] 
ters, by J. H. Dupen, H. M. S. Ringdove^ 

Notes taken during a Visit to Okinawa 
Shima — Loochoo Islands, by R. H. 
Brunton. Esq 

On- the Arrow Poison in use among the] 
Ainos of Japan, by Stuart Eldridge, I- 
Esq., M. D. j 

Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the Japa-] 
nese, by Dr. Geerts. — Gold | 

The Bonin Islands, by Russell Robertson,) 
Esq j 

On Cotton in Japan, by T. B. Poate, Esq 

Notes of a Trip from Yedo to Ki6to via 
Asama-yama, the Hokurokudo, and Lake 
Biwa, by Professor D. H. Marshall 

Chalybeate Springs 



Page 

I TO 26 
27 „ 28 

29 ,. 33 

34 » 47 

50 „ 54 

57 >» 62 

63 » 64 

66 „ 77 

78 n 86 

89 „ 108 

III „ 140 
H5 »» 151 

152 „ 174 

177 »» 178 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Honorary Members. 

Admiral Sir C. Shadwell, K.C.B. Captain Arthur, R.N. S. Wells 
Williams, L.L.D. Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B. Sir T. F. Wade, 
K.C.B. Dr. Hooker C.B., Kew. Professor George E. Day, Yale 
College, U.S. Professor W.D. Whitney, New Haven, U.S. Honble. 
George P. Marsh, U.S. 



Resident. 



Albinson, T. A. 

Allen, H. Jnr. 

Anethan, Baron d* 

Aston, W. G. 

Atkinson, Prof. R. W. 

Audsley, G., Ashdown. 

Ayrton, Prof. W. E. 

Bellamy, A. 

Benson, E. S. 

Bingham, Hon. J. A. 

Bisset, J. 

Bowers, J>. 

Boyle, R. V., C.S.I. 

Brennwald, C. 

Brent, A. 

Bridgford, Capt. S. T. 

Brinkley, Capt. F. 

Brooke. J. H. 

Brown, Revd. Dr. S. R. 

Brown, A. R. 

Brown, Dr. Nathan 

Brown, R. M. 

Burnside, Revd. H. 

Brvner, J. 

Caldwell, Dr. J. 

Cargill, W. W. 

Chamberlain, B. H. 

Chipman, H. S. 

Christy, F. C. 

Cochran, Revd. G. 

Cocking, S. 

Dallas, C. H. 

Davison, J. 

Day. F. 

De Boinville, C.A.C. 

Dc Groote, His Excellency C. 



De San, E. 
D'lfiFanger, F. 
Dickins, F. V. 
Dillon, E. 
Dodds, J. 
Duer, Y. 
Dyer, H. 
Eldridge, Dr. J. 
Elmore, T. F. 
Eusden, R. 
Fagan, C. S. F. 
Farmer, J. 
Faulds, Dr. H. 
Flanders, C. A. 
Flowers, M. O, 
Eraser, J. A. 
Gay, A. O. 
Geerts, Dr. J. A. 
Glover, T. B. 
Goodwin, C. W. 
Gower, E. 
Gowland, W. 
Green, Revd. D. C. 
Gregory, G. E. 
Gribble, H. 
G rigor, J. 
Grigsby, Prof. 
Gubbins, J. H. 
Hall, F. 
Hall, J. C. 
Hall, Dr. 
Hamao, A. 
Hamilton, G. 
Hartley, J. 
Hatakeyama, Y. 
Hawes, Lieut., A.G.S. 



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Hay, D. 
Hellyer, F. 
Hellyer. T. E. 
Henderson, J. Y. 
Hepburn, Dr. J. C. 
Holme, R. 
Home, Jnr., H. A. 
House, E. H. 
Howell, W. G. 
Hunt, H. J. 
Irwin, R- W. 
James, F. S. 
Jonas, F. M. 
Kilby, E. F. 
Kinder, Major. T. W. 
Kinder, C. W. 
Kingdon, N. P. 
Kirkwood, M. 
Lawrence, C. W. 
Lothrop, S. K. 
Lyman, B. S. 
McCartee, Dr. D. B. 
McClatchie, T. R. H. 
MacDonald, Revd. R. D. 
McDonald, W. 
Mackenzie, H. 
Maclagan, R. 
Maclay, Revd. Dr. R. S. 
McRjtchie, J. 
Manning, Dr. 
Marks, F. W. 
Marshall, Prof. D. H. 
Mayers, W. F. S. 
Miller, Revd. E. R. 
Milnes, A. 
Mondy, Prof. F. 
Mori, The Hon. A. 
Mounat, J. 
Mounsey, A. H. 
Murray, Dr. D. 
Ness, G. P. 
Ojeda, Don E. de 
Ouston, A. 

Parkes, His Excel. Sir H. 
Parson, Revd. W. E. 
Perry, Prof. J. 
Pitman, J. 
Poate, T. P. 
Pole, G. H. 
Pryer, H. 
Purcell, Dr. T. A. 
Rickett, J. Jnr. 



Ringer, J. 

Robertson, J. 

Robertson, R. 

Rockwell, Prof. G. J. 

Rosen, Baron 

Sanjo, Jnr. 

Saumarez. Honble. J. St. V. 

Savatier, Dr. 

Scott, M. M. 

Shand, A. 

Shand, W. J. S. 

Shaw, Revd. A. C. 

Sichel, J. P. 

Sitwell, J. A. 

Smale, Sir John 

Smedley, J. 

Smith, W. H. 

Smith, J. H. 

Smith, Prof. R. 

Smith, Hon, C. C. 

Stone, N. J. 

Struve, His Excel. C. de 

Summers, Revd. J. 

Sutton, F. W., R.N. 

Syle, Revd. E. W. 

Thomson, G. W. 

Thornicraft, Dr. T. C. 

Toyama, M. 

Troup, J. J. 

Van der Pot, J. J. 

Veeder, P. V. 

Von Brandt, His Excel. H. 

Von Siebold, Baron 

Wakayama, N. 

Walker, F. 

Walsh, J. G. 

Walsh, T. 

Walter, J. 

Warren, Revd. C. F. 

Watson, E. B. 

Wauchope, G. 

Wetmore, F. R. 

Wheeler, Dr. E. 

Wilkin, A. J. 

Wilkinson, H. S. 

Williams, G. B. 

Wilson, J. A. 

Woolley, W. A. 

Wright, A. 

Wright, Revd. W. B. 

Zappe, £. 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



The fourth annual meeting of the Asiatic Society of 
Japan was held in the Society's room at the Imperial 
University in T6ki6, on Wednesday, the 14th July. The 
members present were : The Revd. Dr S. R. Brown, Sir 
Harry S. Parkes, Professors Syle, Veeder, Grigsby, Sum- 
mers, Ayrton and Perry, Mr. De Boinville and Mr. C. 
H. Dallas. 

The Chair was occupied by the Revd. D. Brown, the 
President. 

The minutes of the last general meeting were read and 
confirmed. 

The substance of the Council's Annual Report and a 
statement of the financial condition of the Society were 
given by the President. 

The latter was shewn to be comparatively flourishing, 
there being a balance at the close of the half-year, ending 
June 30th, of $207.75 in the Treasurer's hand. 

Sir Harry Parkes moved that the Report and Treasur- 
er's account be received as read, which was seconded by 
Mr. Dallas and carried. 

The President announced that the proposal made at the 
last general meeting to amend the Rules of the Society, 
relative to the number of its officers, had been considered 
by the Council and the committee of ordinary members 
appointed for the purpose, and that they had agreed to 
submit the following recommendation to the present meet- 
ing. 

** That Rule 10 be amended by substituting the words 
* ten Councillors ' for * five Councillors ' and * two Record- 
ing Secretaries ' for * one Recording Secretary '." 



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Moved by Mr. Dallas and seconded by Dr. Veeder that 
this recommendation be adopted, and the Rule be amended 
accordingly. Resolution carried. 

The election of the Council and officers for the ensuing 
year was then proceeded with, and the following gentle- 
men were found to be elected. 

President.— Sir Harry S. Parkes, K.C.B. 

Vice-Presidents. — Revd. Professor Syle, H. E. Mon. 
C. de Groote. 

Councillors. — Resident in Yokohama ; Dr. J. C. Hep- 
bum, Revd. Dr. S. R. Brown, Messrs. Russell Robertson,'^' 
W. G. Howell, A. J. Wilkin.* Resident in T6ki6 ; H. E. 
M. de Struv6, The Hon. Arinori Mori, Rev. Dr. Veeder, 
Mr. W. G. Aston, Rev. Geo. Cochran. 

Recording Secretaries: for Yokohama, Mr. C. H. 
Dallas. — For Tdkio, Rev. Prof. Summers. 

Corresponding Secretary: Prof. W. E. Ayrton. 

Treasurer: Mr. John Walter. 

Prof. Syle moved — ** That the Council be requested to 
'* consider the possibility of constituting an Historical 
" Section among the members of the Society." Dr. S. R. 
Brown seconded the motion, which was carried. 

Prof. Syle then moved that the Council be also request- 
ed to consider the desirableness of establishing Branches 
of the Society at Kobe and Nagasaki. Prof. Summers 
seconded the motion, which was carried. 

After a few further remarks upon the hours of meeting 
in Yokohama and T6ki6, and the difficulty experienced 
by members from either place attending the meetings at 
the other place, the session was bfought to a close by a 
few appropriate complimentary remarks by Sir Harry 
Parkes to the President retiring, and by a cordial vote of 
thanks for the services he had rendered to the Society 
during the two years of his Presidency. 

Dr. Brown, in reply, regretted that failing health from 
time to time had prevented his doing so much for the 
society as he had desired. 

• Since resigned and succeeded by Messrs. J. J. Keswick, and 
G. P. Ness. 



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Ill 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ASIATIC 

SOCIETY OF JAPAN FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING JULY 1876. 

The Council has much pleasure in reporting the con- 
tinued success of the Society, and the progress that has 
been made during the last year. They congratulate the 
Society on having had the use of a convenient room 
granted to them by the Director of the Imperial Univer- 
sity. In this room the whole of the Society's property 
has been deposited. The Library and Museum are now 
open daily from two to five o'clock for the use of the 
members and their friends. The following donations have 
been made during the course of the past year : — 

Enumeratio Plantarum, Vol. 1 Part 2, presented by the 

Author, Dr. Savatier. 
An Ancient Bell, presented by the Kenrei of Hiogo, 

through Sir Harry Parkes. 
Numerous Specimens of Clothing, Shoes, &c., worn by 
the Peasants of the Yonezawa District, presented 
by C. H. Dallas, Esq. 
A Collection of Japanese Butterflies, presented by 

H. Pryer, Esq. 
Charts for Object Lessons introduced into Japanese 

Schools, presented by A. Hamao, Esq. 
In Exchange for the Society's Journal the following 
Journals, Transactions, &c., have been received from 
England, France, Germany, Italy, India, China, and the 
United States. 
The Royal Asiatic Society. — Proceedings. 
The Royal Society. — Proceedings. 
The Royal Geographical Society. — Proceedings. 
The Philological Society. — Extra volumes and Transac- 
tions. 
The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and 

Ireland. — ^Journal. 
The Microscopical Journal. 
La Soci6te de la Geographie. — Bulletin. 



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IV 

La Soci6t6 d'Acclimatation. — Bulletin mcnsuel. 

Le Congees d'Orientalistes.— Notices. 

La Soci6t6 des Etudes Japonaises. — Annuaire. 

Monatsschrift fur den Orient, Wien. 

Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft. — Yokohama. 

Cosmos : from Guido Cora. 

The Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch. — Proceed- 
ings. 

The Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch. — Proceed- 
ings. 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal. — Proceedings & Journal. 

The Royal Asiatic Society, North China Branch. — Pro- 
ceedings. 

The China Review. 

The American Oriental Society. — Proceedings. 

The Boston Society of Natural History. — Proceedings. 

The American Philological Society. — Proceedings. 

The following Books have been purchased. 

Travels of Marco Polo, edited by Col. Yule. 

Macfarlane's Japan, i vol. 

Timkowski's Travels, 2 vols. 

Basil Hall's Loochoo, i vol. 

Barrow's Travels, i vol. 

Ritter's Erdkunde von Asien, 13 vols. 

Shaw's Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar, i vol. 

Life and Letters of Lord Elgin, i vol. 

De Carne's Travels in Indo-China. 

Life of Buddha Gautama (Bigaudet), i vol. 

Manual of Buddhism (Spence Hardy) i vol. 

Abel's China, i vol. 

Buddhagosha's Parables (Max Muller), i vol, 

Cortambert's La Cochin-Chine, *i vol. 

Histoire de la Religion Chretienne au Japon, 2 vols. 

Semedo's History of China, i vol. 

Tavernier's Travels in the East, i vol. 

D'Herbelot's Biblioth^que Orientale, 4 vols. 

Remusat's Recherches sur les Langues Tartares, i vol. 



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Ide*s (Ysbrant's) Travels from Moskow to Peking, i vol. 

Memoirs of Sir G. Staunton, 1856, i vol. 

Bunsen's Philosophy of Universal History, 2 vols. 

Elphinstone's History of India, 2 vols. 

Titsingh*s Illustrations of Japan, i vol. 

Pfizmaier on the Aino Language, i vol. 

The General Meetings, as well as the Council Meetings, 
have been held during the past' twelve months alternately 
at Yokohama and T6ki6, an arrangement which, although 
attended with some inconvenience, is considered the best 
at the present time for the general interests of the So- 
ciety. 

The number of new Members elected has been 15, 
making a total number of 174 Ordinary Members, and 9 
Honorary Members. 

During the Session eleven papers have been read, viz. : 

I. — On Some Copper Bells, by Kanda Takahira, 
The Governor of Hiogo Ken. 

II. — Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the Japan- 
ese, by Dr. Geerts. 

III. — On Some Japanese Woods, by J. A. Lindo, Esq. 
IV.»— On the Winds and Currents of Japan, by Cap- 
tain Scott. 
V. — On the Temperature of the Japanese Waters, 
by J. H. Dupen, H.B.M. Ringdove. 

VI. — Notes taken during a Visit to Okinawa — Loo- 
choo Islands, by R. H. Brunton, Esq. 

VII. — On the Arrow Poison in use among the Ainos 
of Japan, by Stuart Eldridge, Esq., M.D. 
VIII. — Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the Japanese 
by Dr. Geerts. 
IX. — The Bonin Islands, by Russell Robertson, Esq. 

X.— On Cotton in Japan, by T. P. Poate, Esq. 
XI. — Notes of a Trip from Yedo to Ki6to, via Asama- 
yama, the Hokurokudo, and Lake Biwa, by 
Professor D. H. Marshall. 



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VI 

Two Lectures have been delivered under the Society's 
auspices : — 

On Indigo, by Professor Atkinson, at the Hall of the 
Horaisha. 

On the Musical Notation of the Chinese, and its count- 
erpart in Japan, by Professor Syle, at the University. 



The following is the Treasurer's Report. 

1st July to 31st December, 1875. 
Dr, 

To Balance in hand 1st July ... ... ... 317.32 

,, Subscriptions collected from 7 members 

at $5 each 35-oo 

,, Sale of ** Transactions " ... ... ... 41.00 

„ Balance 106.55 

$499.87 

Cr, ^^''^''^ 

By Fire Insurance 10.00 

,, Printing, Stationery, Advertising, Postage... 318.02 

,, Rent at No. 28, 6 months at $20 per month... 420.00 

„ Librarian's wages 35-85 

„ Sundries 16.00 



1st January to 30th June, 1876. 



Dr. 



$499.87 



To Subscriptions collected from 120 members 

at $5 each ... ^ 510.00 

„ Sale of 4 copies of ** Transactions " 4.00 

,, Received from Mr. Ayrton ... ... ... 9.59 

$523-59 



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VII 



Cr. 

By Cheque to Mr. Thurbum, for Balance due 

Treasurer December 31, 1875 

,, Printing, Stationery, Advertising, and 
Postage 

Librarian's wages 

Rent for January 

Moving Library and Museum to T6ki6 

Purchase of a chair and tables 

Payment for mounting maps 

Purchase of a copy of ** Marco Polo" 

Payment to Captain Scott ... 

Expenses at Horaisha in connection with 
Prof. Atkinson's lecture ... 

Sundries 

Purchase of a bookcase 

Balance 



106.55 

71-50 
29.00 
20.00 

13-25 
13.00 
4.00 
15.00 
10.00 

8.50 
1. 21 

23-83 
207.75 



$523-59 



To Balance deposited in the Hongkong and 

Shanghai Bank ... ... ... ... $207.75 

John Walter, 
Hon, Treasurer, 



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PRELIMINARY CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



JAPANESE KINDS OF WOOD, 

with the names of the timber trees from 
which they are obtained. 

By Dr. GEERTS, of Kioto. 



-:o: 



The following Index intends only to give the exact 
Japanese, Sinico-Japanese, and botanical names of the 
trees, from which the Japanese take their different woods. 
Till yet the Japanese woods are imperfectly known. 
Thunberg gives some few notices in his " Flora Japonica." 
Lipsiae 1784 ; Miguel mentions in the " II vol. of 
Siebold's Flora Japonica " the use of several coniferous 
woods; Veitch gives in the "II vol. of Alcock's three 
years in Japan " pag. 480 a list of 36 kinds of woods, of 
which 15 species, however, remained undetermined. The 
other communications in different books about Japan are 
not worthy to be mentioned because the writers had no 
knowledge of the subject alluded to by them. 

I therefore believe it a matter of some practical interest 
to draw up a list of all the woods, which have come under 
my knowledge. It is possible that a few kinds from the 
north of Japan are not mentioned, because I made my in- 



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vestigations chiefly in the south and the middle of this 
empire. I trust, however, that the number of these 
" omissions " will be proved to be very small. 

This preliminary catalogue will afterwards be followed 
by a description of the woods. The list may, perhaps, be 
a useful guide for others, who like to collect and examine 
the Japanese woods. 

Many of the kinds of wood mentioned in this list are 
used very seldom. Besides there are still many trees in 
Japan, which are not used at all as timber trees. These 
are therefore not mentioned in this catalogue. The clas- 
sical Japanese botanical work of Ono Ranzan called 
" Hon-zO'ko-moku-kei-mo " has been perused for the ex- 
act Japanese names and synonyms, whilst the botanical 
names are accepted after MiqueVs " Prolusio florae Japo- 
nicae," Amsterdam, 1867. 



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19 

Chinese Woods, used in Japan ; the trees of which could 
not be determined ; they are mostly heavy woods and 
only used in joinery and cabinet work. 

122. i^ Jp ;tc Chan-no-ki 

Yu'Shi'boku Brown coloured wood, 

with coarse grain. 
122. H 7[c 0-ki. 0-boku,.. .Fine yellow wood. 

124. '^ '^ JIS ^ ..,,Mai-budo Nice brown and hard 

wood with numerous 
knots. 

125. j$ ;fg Td'giri Greyish fine hard wood. 

126. >i -f 1^ ^ ...Me'i'Saku Heavy, purple-brown. 

wood. 

127. Jit jA To-yusu Very heavy, strong yel. 

low wood, with fine 
grain. 

128. ^ ;fc Ko'boku Very heavy, dark vio- 

let wood, with very 

fine grain. 

129. -y A ;fc Yamu Light brown wood, res- 

sembling chantioki, 

130. 1^ -v A ^ka-yamu Fine, red, heavy wood 

with fine grain. 
131' K J? # Goshinko Dark red heavy wood, 

silky lustre. 
132. ^i^ Tetsu-tO'boku... .Strong, heavy black 

wood. 
^33- 3r y -y -^ yTagayasan 

Tetsu-riyoku- 

boku Dark brown hard and 

heavy wood. 
i34« T * ^ Akaki Heavy red wood which 

polishes extremely 

well. 

Of some of the above mentioned woods there exist 

numerous varieties, especially of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis 

obtusa, Endl.) ; Sugi (Cryptomeria Japonica, Don) ; Kuwa 

(Morusalba, L) ; Keyaki (Planera Japonica, Miq.) ; Tabu 



Digiti 



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20 

(Cinnamomum pedunculatum, Nees); Kusu (Cinnamomum 
Caphora, Nees) ; Kiri (Pauwlonia Imperialis, S, Z.) 
Sendan (Melia Japonica. Don) ; Yusu (Distylium race- 
mosum, S. Z.) ; Sakura (Prunus Puddum, Wall) ; &c. 
The following have already come to our knowledge : — 

Varieties of Hi-no-ki — (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Endl.) 

yo-hin-hi-nO'ki. — Best kind of i quality. 

Chiu-dori-hi-nO'Oi , — Middle quality. 

Owari-masa-hi-no-ki. — Very fine, striped wood, much 
valued. 

Masabi or Masa-hi-no-ki, — Striped variety. 

Midare hi-no-ki, — With irregular fibres, 

Masa-ita. — Thin plates for covering roofs of Temples 
{Hiwadahuki,) 
Varieties of Suji. — (Ciyptomeria Japonica, Don.) 

Yakushima Sugi or Yaku-Sugi, — Fine brown flame- 
coloured fibre (high value.) 

Shiro-Yaku-Sugi. — Precious ; white variety. 

T amino -Sugi, — Fine striped wood. 

Masa-sugi. — Striped variety. 

d'tnasa-Sugi. — ^With large elongated veins, 

Jo-hin-Masa-Sugi, — Much valued kind, with very nar- 
row fibres. 

Miyako-Masa-Sugi, — The same, but the colour light. 

Shihu-ita-Sugi, — Lower quality of a greyish colour. 

OkinO'Sugi, — Long fibre wood. 

Ku-rohe-Sugi, — Reddish-brown variety of middle qua- 
lity. 

Tani'Sugi, — The same, a little more dark. 

Tosa-Sugi, — Reddish variety, much valued for coopers* 
works. 

Oni-Sugi or Udzura-moku, — With dark coloured knots. 

Kurobe-ita, — Thin plates of grey colour for covering 
roofs. 

None-ita, — The same, but of reddish colour. 

Sugi-Masa-ita, — The same, but with prominent rectili- 
near fibres. 
Varieties of Kuwa, — (Morus alba, Linn.) 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



21 

yo-hin-ma-kuwa, — Fine, silky wood of ist qual. 

Chiu-dori-kuwa, — Middle quality. 

Shira-kuwa. — White variety. 

To-kuwa. — Dark-coloured, much valued variety from 

China. 
Mishima-kuwa, — Good, much valued quality. 
Varieties of Keyaki, — (Planera japonica, Mio.) 

Nebori-keyaki, — Root-wood with curved knots, much 

valued variety. 
Tama-kiyaki, — With fine cui-ved knots, much valued. 
Tama-shirO'keyaki. — The same, but with white colour. 
^o-hin-masa-keyaki, — First quality wood with narrow 

rectilinear fibres. 
Chiu-dori-masa-keyaki. — Middle quality wood. 
ShirO'keyaki, — Light coloured variety of ordinary 

wood. 
Moku-keyaki, — The ordinary kind oi keyaki wood. 
Varieties of Tabu. — (Cinnamomun pedunculatum, Nees.) 
Bent-tabu. — Red variety of this beautiful wood. 
Shira-tabu. — White variety, less valued. 
Hama-tabu. — Brown variety, with curved, irregular 

fibres. 
Masa-tabu. — With rectilinear stripes. 
Shima-tabu. — With very prominent rectilinear fibres. 
Hana-tabu. — Fine variety with fine lustre. 
Kara-tabu. — Dark-brown variety. 

Tama-tabu. — The best and finest variety, with curved 
knots, and light yellow colour. 
Varieties of Kusu. — fCinnamomum Camphora, Nees.) 
Ma-kusu. — Light-brown variety of good quality. 
Shirata-kusu. — Greyish variety of inferior quality. 
Shima-kusu. — With rectilinear fibres and reddish co- 
lour. 
Shira-kusu. — White variety of inferior value. 
. Aka-kusu. — Dark reddish-brown variety. 
Kami-kusu. — Strong wood. 
Hei-kusu. — Greyish, bad variety. 
Hania-kusu. — Good quality. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 

Moku-kusu, — ^The same. 

Ko-kusu. — With a very strong smell of camphor. 

Masa-kusu, — Fine striped kind. 

Kara-kusu. — Dark-coloured, hard variety. 

Inu-kusu, — Less valued quality. 

Aokusu, — Blueish variety of inferior quality. 

Sato-kusu, — Soft quality, with much lustre. 
Varieties of Kiri, — (Pauwlonia imperialis S.Z.) 

yo-hin-kiri. — Best quality, with brilliant lustre. 

Shima-kiri. — With dark coloured rectilinear stripes. 

Sato-giri, — Very light wood. 

Itame-kiri, — Nice wood with curved veins. 

Yama-kiri, — Common wood of inferior quality. 

Ad'giri. — The greyish-blue wood of Firmiana plata- 
NiFOLiA R. Brn., which tree is unjustly considered 
by the Japanese to be a kind of kiri (Pauwlonia). 
Varieties of Sendan. — (Melia Japonica, Don). 

Tama-mokU'Sendan, — Beautiful wood with dark knots 
on a yellow base. 

jfO'hin-Sendan, — Best quality of straight wood. 

ChiU'doriSendan. — Middle quality. 

Kawa-Sendan, — Ordinary, common variety. 

Masa-Sendan, — Good quality with prominent rectili- 
near veins. 
Varieties of Yusu. — (Distylium Racemosun, S.Z). 

Hana-yusu. — Light purple-coloured, heavy wood. 

Yusu, — Good ordinary wood for hydraulic works. 

Inu-yusu. — Common blueish variety. 

Aka-yusu, — Reddish variety. 

To-yusu, — Dark, very hard and heavy wood. 
Varieties of Sakura, — (Prunus Puddum, Wall.) 

Yama-Sakura, — Common reddish-brown wood, excel- 
lent for furniture. 

Aka-sakura. — More reddish coloured variety. 

Kikori'Sakura. — Used for wood-cuts. 

Kioto 12th June, 1875. 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



23 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE JAPANESE NAMES. 



A. 

Abora-giri 55 Ao-ki 90 

Aka-gashi 38 Ao-toneriko 71 

Akaki 134 Ansu iia 

Aka-matsu 5 Araragi 12, 13 

Aka-yama .. .. 130 Ara-kashi 39 

Ao-giri 80 Asunaro 14 



Bai 1 10 Biwa 106 

Bakunl>oku 24 Bodaiju 79 

Bebe-kaya 20,21 Buna-no-ki 43 

Biaku-dan 67 Bun-bo-ju 89 

Binro-boku 2 Bun-ko-kuwa 48 

Biro I 

C. 

Cha-bai 84 Chisha-no-ki 23 

Chan-no-ki 122 Chosen-matsu 7 



Dara-no-ki 88 Dzui-ko 57 

Dzin-cho 57 



Fuji 118 Furanda-boku 75 

Fuji-matsu 8 Fu-shi 105 

Fukura-kochi 95 

G. 

Gai-shiku 77 Go-to 80 

Ginan ig Go-yo-no-matsu 6 

Go-shin-ko 131 Go-yo-8ho 6 

H. 

Hai-no-ki 27 Hiyaku-nichi-ko 102 

Hakari-no-mi 109 Hinoki 15 

Hari-no-ki 35bisHiragi 73bis 

Hari-yanagi 35 Hiwa 106 

Has£ loi Hiyon-no-ki 89 

Hata-ukon 63 a 63! Ho-bi-sho 9,11 

Hara-toku 53 Ho-i 105 

Hama-biwa 66 Ho-ki i 

Hazibami 44 Ho-no-ki 75 

Hen-baku 15 Ho-ju 85 

Hi 22 Hoku-shu 25 

Hiba 14 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



24 

I. 

Ibota .. 70 Inu-sansho .. ." 77 

Icho ig Inu-tsu^^ 56 

Inu-biwa 48 Inoko-shiba 25, 28 

Inu-kaya 20, 21 Iso-gama-hai-no-ki 25 

Inu-kusu 6obis, 62 

J. 
Jo-tei 69 

K. 

Kago-kashi 65 Koga-no-ki 65 

Ka-ju- ; 36 Koku-sho 4 

Kanugi 41 Koku-tan 29 

Kara-kuwa 47 Ko-ritsu 37 

Kara-ko-to i2obi8Ko-son-ju 19 

Kara-matsu 8 Ku-kotsu 73l>i8 

Kara-sho 9 Kuro-gaki 30 

Kashhva 4obisKurogi 26, 27 

Katsura 76 Kuro-tnatsu 4 

Kaya 22 Kuro-modji 62, 64 

Kawara-buna 34 Kuro-tsudzu 59 

Kawa yanagi 32, 32! Kuri-no-ki 42 

Kei 76 Ku-sho 62, 64 

Kei-jou 66 Ku-so 60 

Keyaki 49 Kuso-kashi 39 

Kin-ren-shi 23 Kuwa-haku 16 

Kiri 74 Kuwa-boku 33 

Kiwada 77bisKuwa-no-ki 46 

Kiyo 112 Kuwai-ju 115 

Ko-boku 75,128 Kuwarin 104 

Kobu-nir6 5obis 

M. 

Mai-budo 124 Momo 113 

Maki 18 Moku-koku 81 

Mamegi 48 Mochi-no-ki 93 

Mannen-ju 93 Momidji 85 

Mayumi 98 Mukuroshi 86 

Mei-saku 126 Mukuwanshi 86 

Miyama-nigaki 28 Muku 51 

Mo 43 Mume no 

Momi 9,13 

N. 

Namame 95 Nedzu 61 

Nan 6obisNedzurni-mochi ' 94 

Nankin-hase 54 Nire 50 

Nara 40 No-gurumi 120 

O. 

0-ba-chisha 24 0-ki 123 

0-baku 77bisO-ro loi 

0-dan 68 O-shi-do 55 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



25 



R. 



Rakan-haku 14 

Rakan-sho 18 

Rai-den-giri 121 

Raku-yo-sho 8 

Ren 78 

Ri 114 



Riku-haku 65 

Ritsu-boku 42 

Riu 31 

Riyo-boku 104 

Roku-ri 103 



S. 



Sakaki 82 

Sakura .. .. iii 

Sakura-mochi 94< 97 

San 17 

San-o-to Ill 

San-ro 100 

San-pan 27 

San-shu-yu 91 

San-za-shi 108 

Saru-suberi 102 

Sasa-kashi 41 

Sasankuwa 84 

Sawara 16 

Sei-ton-kuwa 23 

Seki-kuwa 81 

Seki-sho 5 

Seki-so 91 

Scki-yo 35 

Scndan 78 

Shich-yo-ju 87 

Shidare-yanagi 31 

Shin 83, 44, 71 

Shinanoki 79 

Shima-gaki 30 

Shii-no-ki . . . . 36 

Shira-kaba 33 



Shira-side, 109 

Shiraki 53 

Shiro-damo 61 

Shirogi 13, 95 

Shiro-kashi .37 

Shiro-modji 63' 63t 

Shiro-tsudzu 61 

Shi-tan 116, 117 

Shi-to 118 

Shiu 121 

Shuro-no-ki 3 

Side 105 

Sho 60 

So-boku 46, 88 

So-hi 20, ^i 

So-cho 73 

Some-shiba 27 

So-riyo 3 

Sugi 17 

Suga-no-ki iig 

Sui-moku-sei 81 

Sui-ro-ju 70 

Sui-sho 13 

Sui-yo . . 32, 32t 

Su-momo 114 



T. 

Tabu 59 Toneriko 7it 72 

Tagayasan 133 To-momi 9 

Tani-watashi 69 Tora-momi 11 

Tamu-no-ki 72 Tori-mochi 92,94 

Tarayo 97bisTori-shiba 64 

Tcn-sen-kuwa 4JB Tori-iomaradzu 99 



Ten-tsiku kei . . . . 58, 59, 61 

Tetsu-to-boku 132 

To 40, 113 

Tochi-no-ki 87 

Toga-matsu 12 

To-giri 125 

To-hase 54 



To-kurumi 



To-ro-ju 120 

To-sei 93 

Tou 74 

To-yo-san-go 90 

To-yusu 127 

Tsubaki 86 

Tsuge 56 



i2obisTsuru-mume-modoki 



99 



U. 



Ukiu-boku 53» 54 

U-kon-bana 63,63t 

Umi-matsu 7 



Uno-modoki 96 

U-yaku 93 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



26 

Y. 

Yabu-nikkei 58 Ya-nir6 . . . . • 50 

Yagiri . . . . 5obisYei-bo 98 

Yama-biwa 119 Yenoki .. ., 52 

Yama-has^ . . 100 Yeso-matsu 10 

Yama-gurumi .. .. %. .. 120 Yen-ju * 115 

Yama-hari-no-ki 35 Yo .. .. «. .. *. •. 49 

Yama-moku-koku 107 Yo-bai 45 

Yama-momo 45 Yo-to 82 

Yama-nashi 103 Yu 40,50 

Yama-sakura .... .... iii Yu-shi-boku 122 

Yamu 129 Yusu 89 



Zaiburi 105 Zo-yo-ju .. 51 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



27 



EXPERIMENTS 

UPON 

THE STRENGTH OF JAPANESE WOODS. 

BY 

• Professor R. H. SMITH. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of yapan, on the 
2oth of October, 1875. 



The experiments upon timber, the results of which are 
exhibited in the accompanying table, were made by the 
Junior Class of Engineering, in the Kaisei Gakko, Tokio, 
in the months of May and June, 1875. They were made 
with the help of a very simple self-registering machine, 
built of wood. Three bars of each kind of wood 
were ordered about i"* 200"™" long, and of a rectangular 
section of 50'"" x 30™*°. The bar was laid upon brass 
supports, both at the same level, and exactly i™ distant 
from each other, and the load was gradually piled up on a 
tray which hung by a large hook from the middle of the bar. 
From this hook ran a thread over a pulley to the side of 
the machine, and the movement of this thread, which was 
kept tightly stretched by a weight, shewed the deflection 
produced by each load as it was applied. This deflection 
was recorded on a sheet of paper stretched on a board, by 
means of a pencil which was drawn upwards by the thread 
coming from the pulley, while at the same time the board 
on which the paper was fastened was drawn cross-wise 
by hand through a distance proportional to the weight on 
the tray. This weight was increased by 10 kilogrammes 
at a time, and, when the bar was about to give way, by 
5 1 or 3» or sometimes only i kilogramme at a time. 
The "stepped" curve thus obtained is in every way 
quite as useful as a continuous curve, which might easily 



Digiti 



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^8 

be got by a more complicated arrangement '•" f • 

at the breaking point was calculated from th^ 

, Breaking Load x Distance between suppc . : 

Strength =— ^ — : — ^7— r-; :: : 7^ 

2 Sectional Breadth x square of sectional Dep* 

The strength at the limit of elasticity was K .-*'•., 
of course, in exactly the same way, the' coi : ' 

load being in most cases easily obtained by insp^ : v*c 

diagram on the paper. It is right to say, however, that 
in most cases the curve begins to bend upwards -slightly 
very soon, and as this bending upwards continues to in- 
crease gradually, it is sometimes difficult to say which 
point ought to be taken as the limit of elasticity. The 
point fixed upon, therefore, depends to some extent upon in- 
dividual judgment. 

The modulus of elasticity was calculated from the 

equation : 

,, , , ^ „, . . 100 klgrs. X cube of distance between supports. 

Modulus of Elasticity =---T—^: ; ^ 

Deflection produced by loo klgrs., x 4 X sect- 
ional breadth x cube of sectional depth ; 

the diagram up to 100 kilos in every case approximating 
closely to a straight line. The actual deflection caused 
by a stress greater than that corresponding in these experi- 
ments to a load of 100 kilos would, therefore, be greater 
than would be calculated using the tabulated modulus of 
elasticity. It is also to be noticed that in many cases — in 
almost a majority of cases — the elasticity varies too much 
in the different experiments to make it properly allowable 
to take an average between them. The same may be said 
of the Specific Gravities. The very evident principal reason 
of this is the very bad seasoning of Japanese timber. 
. It is said that it is impossible to season Japanese timber 
properly, but, although it may be quite true that with 
ordinary means it cannot be so well seasoned as European 
and American timber, still there can be no doubt that by 
proper attention to the subject of both growing and sea- 
soning, vastly better results could be obtained than are at 
present arrived at. 

I think I may guarantee that all the measurements apd 
calculations have been accurately made. 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



g 



#. 



LTIMATE 
FLECTIONS. 



29.0 
26.0 
32.0 



i 



37-5 
305 
32.0 



^ 



390 
32.0 
27.0 



39.0 

29.0 

*^ 37-5 



450 
34.0 

45-0 



M 

w 



49.0 
450 

57-5 






28.5 
34.0 
25.0 



29-5 
28.0 
41.0 



• 3J 12.' 

n 16. 
4 13.1 



B 



31.0 
17.0 
24.0 



t 



Load at Limit 
OF Elasticity. 



170 
160 
140 



340 

330 
300 



180 
200 
180 



80 

no 

60 



200 
140 
140 



180 
200 
210 



Deflection at 

Limit of 

Elasticity. 



14.0 

13.0 

9-5 



25-5 
23-5 
21.5 



18.0 
14.0 
18.0 



6.0 
9.0 

4-5 



9.0 
12.0 
12.0 



15.0 
16.0 
i8.o 



Calcu 



.2 
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46.7 

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4-9 

;4-» 

4-7 



3.6 
4-7 
4-7 



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JO.I 

■, 9-3 
■J0.4 



6.1 
5-' 
5-« 



I.; 
2. 
2. 



I.] 



I.: 
o.( 
I.' 



6.0 

5-9 
4.0 



4.6 
4.6 



7.6 
6.4 



5-4 
5-8 



i.< 



5-4 
33 
5-5 



D i y i i i /nti by 



/Coo gte' 



LATED Breaking 
Strength. 


Calculated Modulus 
OF Elasticity. 


29..- 

Calculated strengti 3ii 

32-i 
AT Limit of Elasticit 


59 


Average. 


944-4 
1029.0 
1 180.6 


Average. 


3-54 
3-39 
2.92 


Average. * 


4-59 


■ • ■ 37 


66 
54 


1051.3 


3.»8 30 


54 
6o 

54 


7-93 


1089.7 
1025.6 
1249.2 


1121.5 


7.00 
6.40 
6.11 


22 

16 

6.50 40 


29 


5-33 


800.4 
1287.8 

798.5 


962.2 


3.81 
4.16 
3-73 


25 

it 

3-90 3: 


75 
6o 
6o 


2.92 


808.3 
740.7 
372.8 


640.6 


1.63 
2.20 

'•25 


5 


87 


5.58 


2361.0 

988.4 

1127.0 


1492.1 

• 


4.16 

3-15 
2.91 


4 
340 3 


65 

31 


6.10 


971.9 

1036.7 

580.4 




6.20 
4-43 
4-32 


4.98 


16 

'9 


1 d' 
1 '-9^ I 


.0009918 
.0005937 
.0003843 


Deflection. 

L>=IeD(lh in mm 
D=ExtenMl diam. 
V/MoLoaa in kilo*. 

000656 dT 






56 
59 


) d3 
1.84 J 


.000501 
.000585 
.000848 


.OO06446IW 




• • • VV 

'f 


(I 
'>9 

J2 


1 ^' 


.00048 
.000823 
.000657 


.ooo6533Jfw 




A 


>8 
$4 


1 1.286-^ 


.00078 

.0006 

.00053 


.0006756HW 







Digiti 



zed by Google 





LTIMATE 
FLECTION. 


Load at Limit 
OF Elasticity. 


Deflection at 

Limit of 

Elasticity. 


Calcul 
S 




29-3 

31-5 
32.5 


220 

240 

t20 


16.0 
H'5 
H'5 


6.Z 
6.2I 

5-8 




42.0 

37-5 
30.0 


250 
270 
230 


21.0 
19.0 
i6-o 


6.7 

6.4 
6.4 




22.5 
16.0 
40.0 


160 
160 
160 


lO.O 

8.5 
13.0 


4.9 
4.S 
4-7 




25.0 
28.0 
32.5 


140 
160 

180 


"•5 
12.0 

12.5 


3.6 
4-7 
4-7 




52.0 
24.0 
39.0 


150 
120 
170 


17.0 


4.J 
3-5 
4.2 


i 


45-0 
350 
39-5 


380 

340 
390 


21.0 
22.0 
20.0 


10. 1 

9-3 
10.4 


16.0 
16.0 
12.0 






6.0 

5-9 
4.0 


22.0 
44.0 
40.0 


120 

160 


133 
14.0 
14.0 


3-3 

4.S 

4.^ 


1 


. 70.0 • 
I 46.0 
39.0 


200 
240 
200 


, 14.0 
22.0 
17.0 


7.d 


i 

i 


31.0 
28.0 

27-5 


200 


17.6 

18.0 

12.S 


5-4 
5-^ 


«' 


66.5 

33-5 
350 


no 


13.0 
16.0 

I3-S 


5-4 
3-3 








Digitized b 


yGooQle 



ATED Breaking 

TRENGTH. 


Calculated Modulus 
OF Elasticity. 


Calculated strength 
AT Limit of Elasticiy. 


4 
4 

I 


Average. 


1416.7 
1770.8 
183 1. 8 


Average. 


4-58 
4.99 

4-53 


Average. 


6.09 


1673.1 


4.70 


7 

2 

5 


6.54 


885.4 
1526.8 
1390.9 


1267.7 


5-21 
5-50 
4-79 


5-16 


9 
9 
7 


4.88 


1370.0 
1627.0 
1028.8 


1341.9 


3-57 
3.40 

3-37 


3.41 


7 
9 
3 


4.06 


1057.0 

976.9 

1416.6 


1150.1 


2.85 
2-33 
3-75 


3-31 


4 
3 
5 


3-94 


745-6 
729.8 
764.4 


746-6 


3.12 
2.77 
3-85 


3-24 


7 
7 
o 


9.98 


1807.9 
1447.8 


1557-3 


7-70 
7-30 
7.80 


7.60 


4 
o 

3 


5.32 


1770.8 
1748.6 
1496.4 


1671.9 






3 
6 
8 


4.22 


590-3 
847.4 

944-4 


794.0 


2.50 
3-10 
3-33 


3-31 


8 

I 
o 


6.53 


1231.8 

1332-2 

784-3 


1116.1 


6.16 
5.10 
3.80 


5.02 


I 
I 
3 


5-15 


1486.2 
1581.0 
1574-0 


1547-6 


4.16 
4.12 
3-95 


4-08. ■ V 


9 

I 

5 


4.78 


781.6 

535-1 
725.8 


680.8 


2.74 
2.13 
2.91 


2.58 



Digiti 



zed by Google 



*9 



ON SOME COPPER BELLS. 

BY 

KANDA TAKAHIRA. 
The Governor of Hiogo Ken. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of jfapattj on the 
20th October, 1875. 



These copper bells are of a description that has fre- 
quently been dug out of the ground in Japan. There are 
no trustworthy traditions with regard to the use to which 
they were put in very ancient times. One report is to 
the effect that they were suspended from the comers of 
the roofs of temples or pagodas, and this is the opinion that 
I myself hold ; but still, the fact that upon the dragon- 
shaped handle there have not been left any marks of 
friction of some other metal fastening affords grounds for 
doubt. These copper bells have only been dug out of 
the earth, and there is no instance known of one having 
been handed down from olden days above the ground. 
The localities in which they have been found have mostly 
been to the west of Kawachi, T6t6mi, in the five Home 
Provinces, the Central Provinces, and in Shikoku. No- 
thing has been heard of their being discovered in the 
circuit to the east of the Hakon6 Barrier, in the Aok*kai- 
d6, or in Kiushiu. Their size, also, differs considerably. 
The very largest go so far as four or five feet, while the 
smallest are but one or two inches. Their apparent 
shape is for the most part similar, except that in some 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



30 

cases there may be slight differences in the pattern of 
the outer surface. These slightly different specimens 
are of greatly enhanced value in the eyes of Japanese 
antiquarians, the reason being that they are thus enabled 
to offer them as a basis for speculation regarding traces of 
very ancient times. The first instance of the discovery 
of a copper bell is of exceedingly old date. A short 
time ago I visited a friend of mine, Mr. Yokoyama 
Yoshikiyo, a widely read and well informed antiquarian, 
and questioned him on the subject, when I obtained from 
him a written reply that is of great importance. This I 
give below : — In Vol. 5 of the ** Fusd-riyak'ki" it is 
stated that on the 17th day of the ist month of the 7th 
year of the Emperor Tenji's reign — corresponding to the 
year 669 A.D. of the foreign calendar — when the temple 
of S6-fuku-ji was being erected in the Department of 
Shiga and province of Omi, and the earth was being pre- 
paratorily levelled, a strange and valuable bell was dug 
up from the ground. Its height was 5 ft. 5 in. There 
was also dug up a wonderful kind of white stone, 5 inches 
in length, which shone brightly at night. 

Again, in Vol. 6 of the " Nihonki" we find it said that 
in the 7th month, in the autumn of the 6th year of the 
period Wat6, corresponding to the year 714 A.D. of the 
foreign calendar, during the reign of the Emperor Gem- 
mei, a person named Muragimi Aflzumando, — a Taishdi 
nO'jSy* — belonging to the village of Namisaka, in the 
Department of Uta and province of Yamato, found, in the 
uncultivated district of Nagaoka, a copper bell, which 
he accordingly offered up (to the Emperor). It was three 
feet in height, and measured one foot across the diameter 
of the mouth. Its style of manufacture differed from 
that ordinarily known, and its sound came under the ritsu 
and riyo tones. Orders were given by the Emperor to 
the officials to lay it up in the storehouse. 

In the and part of Vol. 11 of the ** Nihonkiriyaku," it 
is stated that in the 5th month of the 12th year of the 

* A title of rank. 



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31 

period K6nin,— corresponding to the year 822 A.D. of 
the foreign calendar, — during the reign of the Emperor 
Saga, — as a man in the province was digging in the 
ground he discovered a copper bell. It was 3 ft. 8 in. 
in height, and the* diameter of the aperture was i ft. 2 in. 
The people styled it the Bell of King A-iku*st Pagoda. 

Again, in Vol. 11 of the " Nihong6ki," we read that in 
the 6th month of the gth year of Sh6wa, — corresponding 
to the year 843 A.D. of the foreign calendar, — there was 
presented (to the Emperor), from the Province of Wakasa, 
a copper utensil that in shape very nearly resembled a 
bell, which had been dug up from out of the ground. 

In Vol. 4 of the " Sandai Jitsuroku " it is stated that 
on the 14th day of the 8th month of the 2nd year of 
J6kan, — corresponding to the year 861 A.D. of the foreign 
calendar, — there was presented to the Emperor, from the 
Province of Mikawa, a copper bell. It was 3 ft. 4 in. 
in height, and one foot four inches in diameter, and had 
been discovered in the hill called Muramatsu in the 
Department of Atsumi. It was observed by some one, 
•* This is a precious bell of King A-iku." 

Apart from the above, there must also be other instan- 
ces. The fact of King A-iku having in one single day 
erected 84,000 pagodas is mentioned in Vol. 4 of an old^ 
book called " Konjaku Monogatari," and in Vol. 13 of 
that called the "Jinkaishd &c. &c. The first mention 
of him is made in Vol. 3 of " Shokiyo Yoshiu," but as this 
is a long affair, it is not fully given here. 

(Signed) Yokoyama Yoshikiyo. 



Many years after the above, during the period of 
Tensho (1573-92 A.D.) a copper bell was dug up in the 
Province of Yamato, and was presented to the Taik6, 
Toyotomi. The Taik6 regarded this as an" object of 
great value, but afterwards conferred it, as a reward, 
upon a general who had achieved some great exploit. In 
the times of the Tokugawa family, during the period of 

t Name of an Indian Ruler, who erected many pagodas, v. iaL 



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32 

tranquillity and peace, those bells that were dug up were 
very numerous. Sixty or seventy years ago,, there lived an 
antiquarian called Yashiro Tar6, who held the office of 
historian to the Bakufu. He was a man of profound 
knowledge and a lover of antiquities J and he collected 
together drawings of several tens of these copper bells, 
and made them into a volume, which he offered as a 
basis for speculation (about these bells.) Unfortunately, 
however, these were not engraved on blocks, and so there 
are at present very few persons to whom (copies of) 
this volume have descended. Just now there is no lack ' 
of persons who are in possession of these copper 
bells. They are frequently sold at the old utensil shops 
in the three cities (Yedo, Kioto and Osaka), and their 
price, too, is not excessively dear, which is a proof of the 
numbers that have been dug up. The articles that have 
been handed down from antiquity in my country (i.e. Ja- 
pan) are of three kinds, — stoneware, earthenware and 
copper arms. The stone articles found are: raf/w,Jstone 
swords, flint arrow-heads, &c., — among the earthenware 
sacred jars,§ — and among the copper ones small round 
bells (sudzu)f copper swords, and copper bells (like the 
present). Constant enquiry has from olden times been 
set on foot by Japanese literati with regard to these vari- 
ous articles, but still, down to the present time, there has 
not been found anyone able to give clear explanations ei- 
ther as to their age, their owners, or the purposes for 
which they were used. My own opinion is that the one 
point to be investigated over and above these, is the single 
question as to whether such articles as these do or do not 
exist in countries beyond our own seas, and especially in 
China, Corea, Manchuria, &c. If enquiry be made into my 
reason for this, it is that supposing, in those other countries, 
there should exist similar articles, then this would afford a 
proof of the common origin of the ancestors of those nations 
and of our own. I have not, however, been able as yet to 
effect this search, and this is a matter for which I feel con- 

} Evidently a kind of axe. 

§ Apparently those used at Shintd festivals. 



Digiti 



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33 

stant regret. I have heard that in Yokohama some learned 
foreign gentlemen have established a Society for the pur- 
pose of investigating Asiatic antiquities, and I think that 
some decisive conclusion may be arrived at by that So- 
ciety with respect to the above three kinds of articles. I 
consequently now beg the kind offices of the English 
Minister, Sir Harry S. Parkes, and send to the Society a 
copper bell that has been kept in my possession for a long 
time, with the desire of inviting discussion thereon. 
Should the various gentlemen belonging to the Society 
hold any opinions on the subject, let them be so good as 
to make them known. If, in consequence of their exer- 
tions, it come to pass that we obtain some basis for as- 
certaining the place from which the ancestors of the Ja- 
panese people originally came, no small benefit will be 
conferred upon the land, and it will be a matter of re- 
joicing not to myself alone. 

Written in Hiogo by 

Kanda Takahira. 

May loth, 1875. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 



USEFUL MINERALS & METALLURGY 
OF THE JAPANESE. 

D, — Quicksilver. 

BY 

Dr. GEERTS. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of jfapan on the 
2oth day of October 1875. 



Literature. — Kaempfer's, History of Japan I Book, Chap. VIII. 
Thunhergt Voyage au Japon, traduit par Lan'glesy Paris, 1796, 
Vol. Ill p. 440. Stan, jfulien A Champion, Industries, &c., 
Paris, 1869, p. 58, Tabula III. [This table is an exact copy 
of the figure in the Chinese Technology Ten-ko-kei hutsu], 
Japanese Edition of the Chinese Technology Ten-ko-ksi- 
BUTSU, Vol. VIII, Tab. 11 and 12— ^^cX^^ (Chinese: 
♦*Thien-kong-khai-wu*'). Natural History : Hon-zo-ko moku, 
Vol. IX, Fig. 23 and 24— 4S1^|||3 Chinese: Pun-tsa6u- 
kang-muh) by Li-shi-chin Ono Ranzan. Hon zo-ko moku 
Kel-tno, 4^;^|||gJ^^ Ed. 1847, ^7 Ono-Tsunenori and 
Te ken-shi-yeki. 

The metallurgy of mercury has never reached any great 
degree of importance in Japan, because the chief quick- 
silver-ore — natural cinnabar — does not seem to be found 
in sufficient quantities, to make the separation of the metal 
a profitable industry. Since the opening of Japan to 
foreign trade especially, nearly all mercury used in this 
country has been imported from Europe or America. In 
former times the Chinese of Nagasaki also imported 
Chinese-made mercur}' into Japan, but now, even the 
Chinese, notwithstanding they have large quantities of 



Digiti 



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35 

cinnabar in their own country, buy foreign quicksilver, 
because it is much purer and relatively cheaper than their 
own metal. In former times small quantities of mercury 
were distilled at the island Hirado (province of Hizen), 
in Nagasaki and Osaka, but now these manufactories are 
wholly given up. 

The only quicksilver ore I have met with in Japan is 
the cinnabar or sulphide of mercury, (Japanese Shin- 
sha, ^^ Tan-sha fl-^S'. Syn. Ri-sCf Met-ko-jin, Shu- 
ska). I saw only a few specimens, consisting of amor- 
phous masses of a dark brownish -red colour. According 
to Ranzan it seems to occur sometimes in Japan in a 
sandy small crystalline form, but I have only seen 
Chinese cinnabar in this state. Cinnabar was known in 
China since the earliest times and much esteemed as a 
wonderful, mysterious, celestial substance, which could 
give liquid silver, when heated. The old Egyptians 
with their Hermes Trismegistos — the mysterious found- 
er of chemistry and the school of Stagyrical philosophers, 
in whose mysterious grave the ** Tabula Smaragdina " 
should have been detected by Alexander the Great, bear- 
ing the inscription ** Itaque voc a tus sum Hermes Tris- 
megistos hahens tres partes Philosophice totius mundi '* — 
the old Egyptians, I say, have very probably known 
cinnabar, although Theophrastos (371 B.C.) gives us in 
his work on minerals (Peri lithon) the first informa- 
tion about this substance. It is a remarkable fact that 
the Chinese had even in the second century before our 
era considered the cinnabar as a celestial or fairy sub- 
stance (Sen-tan flll^ Chinese Sien-tan) and have used 
the same in their alchemical pursuits to find " the medi- 
cine of immortality" or elixir vitce of our western 
alchymists. If we may believe Mr. Edkins* it would 
seen certain that Ko-hung, a Chinese writer on alchemy, 
and editor of the book Pau-p'uh-tsi-p'ian, printed in 
the 4th century A.C., gives different minerals and herbs 
which ought more or less to possess the properties of a 

* Transactions of the China branch of the Asiatic Society, (Hong- 
kong) Vol. V. 1855. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36 

celestial medicine. The best of all, however, was con- 
sidered by this Chinese writer to be cinnabar. Mr. Ed- 
kins * translation of a part of this as regards cinnabar runs 
as follows: "When vegetable matter is burnt it is 
** destroyed, but when the tan-sha (cinnabar) is sub- 
** ject to heat it produces mercury. After passing through 
** other changes it returns to its original form. It differs 
** widely, therefore, from vegetable substances, and hence 
** it has the power of making men live for ever, and rais- 
" ing them to the rank of the Genii. He who knows this 
** doctrine is he not far above common men ? In the 
** world there are few that know it, and many that cavil 
**at it. Many do not know that mercury comes out of 
"cinnabar. When told, they still refuse to believe it, 
** saying that cinnabar is red^ and how can it produce a 
** white substance ? They say also that cinnabar is a 
" stone, that stones when heated turn to ashes, and how 
" can anything else be expected of cinnabar ? They can- 
" not even reach this simple truth, much less can it be 
** said of them that they have been instructed in the doc- 
** trine of the Genii." It is in every case a fact that the 
Chinese had some alchemical literature anterior to the 
period when alchemy was studied in Egypt and the 
West; now, if we take this fact in relation with others 
it becomes very probable that the Egyptians, and later 
the Europeans, got the first idea of alchemy from China. 
We find, in fact, the earliest notices of alchemical 
pursuits, that is to say of the art of goldmaking (Kruso 
Poia) in the works of Greek authors after the 4th 
and 5th century. They speak of this art as having 
originated in Egypt. In the Historia Naturalis of Pliny 
the Younger (Born 23, A.C.) Liber 33 Cap 32, mercury 
(argentum vivum S. Hydrargyrum) is referred to as a 
" venenum rerum omnium " and he also mentions cin- 
nabar. Dioskorides (50 A. C.) mentions in his Materia 
Medica (I.^eri Gles latrikes) the preparation of mercury 
from cinnabar, but neither of these two authors have 
related anything of the art of goldmaking or alchemical 
pursuits, so that we may conclude that in their time alche- 



Digiti 



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37 

my was yet unknown in the West. The Arabians of the 
eighth and ninth century occupied themselves ardently 
with alchemy and brought this pseudo-science in 711 to 
Spain. We see, therefore, that the Chinese have decided- 
ly led the way in alchemical pursuits, and may believe 
that the West obtained the idea of goldroaking from 
the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire. There afe 
several grounds for this opinion, the chief of which is that 
the Persians often came to China at the beginning of our 
era. After the invasions of the Mohammedans of Persia, 
the Persians continued their intercourse with China. 
Persian, Arabian and even Greek embassies from Constan- 
tinople visited from time to time the Chinese Court at 
Shensi.j Arabian merchants settled in several Chinese 
ports and had frequent intercourse by sea with the ports 
near the Persian Gulf. It is for this reason verv 
probable that an art so full of interest as the art of gold- 
making was introduced into Persia from China, and from 
that country to Egypt and the countries of Asia Minor. 

In Japanese books we have not found any trace of al- 
^chemy. According to Ranzan cinnabar was, for the first 
time, used in Japan in the year 629 A.C. (the 2nd year of 
Mon-mu Tenno). At this time the Chinese no longer oc- 
cupied themselves much with alchemy, although the later 
Chinese works still speak of cinrvabar as the first substance 
of all minerals, because it can transmute, in equal periods 
of two hundred years, into each of the five principal metals, 
finishing with gold. I have never seen in Japan natural 
mercury (in the metallic state) as it is found in some 
countries as natural minute globules. Neither have I met 
with samples of natural quicksilver amalgam. 

Metallurgy of Mercury. 
Like most of the other metallurgical processes, the Jap- 
anese also learned the use of cinnabar and the distillation 
of mercury from the Chinese. Their method is nearly an 

f Duhalde. Description de V Empire de la Chine Vol. I p.q. 5. La Haye 
1736. 



Digiti 



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38 

exact copy of the process described in the well-known 
Chinese Technology Ten-ko-ket-butsu. 

The cinnabar is first powdered by means of an iron boat- 
shaped mortar with a circular knife (the same as is used by 
Japanese druggists and called Ya-gen |||9F0 ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 
washed to remove the foreign stones and to obtain the 
cinnabar in a finely-powdered state. This is, after 
being dried, mixed with an equal weight of half-burn- 
ed charcoal (half coal and half ashes) and the whole is 
put into an iron pot, which is carefully covered with 
a round iron cover. This cover has in the middle a 
round opening, into which a curved tube of plate-iron is 
fixed and cemented with a mixture of loam, salt and a 
little water, the other extremity of the tube ending in a 
pot filled with cold water. The whole tube is wrapped 
up in old clothing, or some fibrous substance, and kept 
cool by the aid of cold water. The whole is gradually 
heated on a small open charcoal furnace, the quicksilver 
distilling into the pot of water. This process is founded 
on the fact that the sulphur of the sulphide of mercury 
(cinnabar) is retained by the ashes (calcium salts) and 
perhaps also by the iron of the inner-surface of the pot, 
the mercury evaporating by the heat. This quicksilver 
is, however, not pure ; heavy mercurial vapours containing 
always a small quantity of foreign metals (lead, copper 
etc.) which were also present in the ore. 

The chief employment of quicksilver in Japan is in the 
manufacture of bronze mirrors. Another application is 
in the art of gilding in the dry way and in the manu- 
facture of different mercurial preparations used in medi- 
cine. The Japanese are well acquainted with the method 
of testing the purity of mercury, by heating a small quan- 
tity in a small open iron dish and estimating the amount 
of non-volatile matter after all the quicksilver has been 
evaporated. Foreign mercury is justly preferred 1^ the 
Japanese to the Chinese or Japanese product. 

Cinnabar occurs, as far as my own observation extends, 
in: 



Digiti 



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39 

Province Hizen, Place Island of Hirado. 

„ Yamato, „ Yoshino-mura. 

Ono Ranzan gives, besides, the following provinces, 
without, however, indicating the localities. I give these 
with reserve ae to their accuracy : 

Bizen, Is6, Hitachi, lyo, HiQga, Buzen, (at Shimoke- 
gun), Oshiu, (Sendai). 

Cinnabar is imported for medical uses and lacquer-ware 
from China and the Liu-Kiu Islands. 

Appendix. 

On some useful Japanese preparations and applications 
made from Mercury, 

1st. Mirrors. — The manufacture of bronze mirrors 
consists in first casting the bronze in very neatly and ac- 
curately made moulds. The Japanese metal-founder is 
admirably apt in the art of moulding, and must be praised 
for his skill in obtaining such accurately cast objects, 
without the aid of any machinery whatever. For 
preparing the mould, — which consists of two valves, put 
together with their concave surfaces, — ^the workman first 
powders a kind of rough plastic clay and mixes this with 
levigated powder of a blackish " Tuff stone " and a little 
charcoal powder and water till the paste is plastic and 
suitable for being moulded. It is then roughly formed 
by the aid of a wooden frame into square or round cakes ; 
the surface of the latter are covered with a levigated half 
liquid mixture of powdered ^^chamotte" (old crucibles 
which have served for smelting bronze or copper) and 
water. Thus well prepared the blackish paste in the 
frame receives the concave designs by the aid of wood- 
cuts, cut " in relief." The two halves of the mould are 
put together in the frame and dried. Several of these 
flat moulds are then placed in a smelting box, madejof clay 
and chamotte. This box has on the top an opening, into 
which the liquid bronze is poured, after it has been 
smelted in small fireproof clay crucibles. The liquid 
metal naturally fills all openings inside the box and 



I 



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(.■» 



40 

consequently also the cavities of the moulds. For mirrors 
of first quality the, following metal-mixture is used in one 
of the largest mirror-foundries in Ki6to. 

Lead 5 parts. 

Tin 15 „ 

Copper 80 „ 

100 

For mirrors of inferior quality is taken : 

Lead 10 parts. 

Natl, sulphide of lead and antimony 
(Shirome) from Choshiu or lyo 

Copper 80 , , 

100 
Champion and Pellet give in the Industries I.e. p. 64, 
the composition of Chinese bronze-mirrors to be : 

Copper 50.8 

Tin .....16.5 

Zinc 30.5 

Lead 2.2 

lOO.O 

The difference of Chinese and Japanese mirrors is, there- 
fore, very great, and the quality of the Japanese metal 
superior to the Chinese. After being cooled, the melting 
box and moulds are crushed and the mirrors taken away. 
These are then cut, scoured and filed until the mirror 
is roughly finished. They are then polished first with a 
polishing powder, called to-no-ko which consists of the 
levigated powder of a soft kind of whetstone (to-ishi) 
found in Yamato and many other places. Secondly, 
the mirrors are polished with a piece of charcoal and 
water, the charcoal of the wood ho-no-ki (Magnolia 
hypolenca S.Z.) being preferred as the best for this 
purpose. When the surface of the mirror is well 
polished, it is covered with a layer of mercury amalgam, 
consisting of quicksilver, tin and a little lead. This 
amalgam is rubbed vigorously with a piece of soft 
leather, which manipulation must be continued during 



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a long time until the excess of mercury is expelled and 
the mirror has got a fine, bright reflecting surface. 

The great fault of Japanese mirrors is that they are very 
soon attacked by obnoxious gases (sulphuretted hydrogen, 
&c.,) which are always more or less to be found in the 
air. The mirrors require, therefore, to be repolished 
from time to time, which is done at a relatively low price. 
Bronze mirrors which are well made have, however, the 
great advantage of giving very accurate images of objects, 
and are very suitable to be used in physical instruments, 
where great exactness of reflexion is necessary, when the 
mercurial surface can remain unaltered. The parts of 
Japan most celebrated for the manufactory of bronze mirrors 
are Ki6to, Osaka and Nagoya in the province of Owari. 
Small glass mirrors with tin-amalgam are now also manu- 
factured in Japan in imitation of those of foreign make. 

2. Mercurial Ointment. — Mercury with a little lead 
is mixed by the Japanese druggists with fat or vegetable 
wax till they obtain the well known grey ointment, the 
unguentum cinereum or hydrargyri of pharmaceutists. 
In mixing the mercury first with a little lead, the Ja- 
panese druggist easily gets over the difficulty of finely 
subdividing the mercury in the ointment. 

3RD. Medicine for causing abortion. — Mercury in 
the metallic state is sometimes taken by pregnant women 
as an abortivum. It is believed that it can be adminis- 
tered for this purpose with success without danger to the 
mother. Instead of the liquid, mercury pills are sometimes 
used, which are made from a tough mass, obtained by 
boiling quicksilver with hemp-oil. 

4. Vermillion by sublimation. (Sui-gin-ro, HCWiM) 
This substance occurs in crystalline crusts or acicular loose 
crystals of a fine dark red colour, and is mostly imported 
from China or the Liu-kiu islands. It is made by smelt- 
ing and sublimatiori of various qualities of mercury and 
sulphur. There are many prescriptions of manufacture 
varying in the quantity of both ingredients. The 
Hon^zO'korrnoku prescribes the trituration of six parts of 



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4a 

mercury and four parts of sulphur for a longtime together, 
subliming the blackish mixture thus obtained in an iron 
vessel. According to the chemical constitution of ver- 
million one part of sulphur to six parts of mercury would 
be sufficient. This vermillion is extensively used in the 
manufactory of the red lacquer-ware ; it finds also some 
application in medicine. 

5. Vermillion by the wet process or by Leviga- 
TioN. — (Gin-shu ^^. Syn. Shin-ko, Sui-kuwa-gin- 
shu, Shi-fun-so, Seiko,) 

This substance fofms a very fine, soft, red powder, with 
some slight difierences in the shade of the red colour ac- 
cording to the quality. The Japanese believe that the best 
kinds come from China and Liu-kiu. The best Japanese 
kind is manufactured at Sotogahama, in the province of 
Oshiu, district Tsugaru ; but I have seen even finer speci- 
mens prepared by a Japanese in Nagasaki by the wet 
process, which I shall afterwards describe. In China, 
Ma-yang in the province of Kui-tchu and Yu-tchu in the 
province of Tse-tchuen are most famous for the prepara- 
tion of levigated vermillion. In China and most parts of 
Japan it is prepared by powdering and carefully levigating 
the sublimed vermillion, especially that part which is 
attached to the sides of the cover. When this is thorough- 
ly ground and levigated it gives a beautiful red colour. 

In Nagasaki a fine kind of vermillion is prepared by mix- 
ing together, in square, strongly stoppered bottles three parts 
of mercury, one and a quarter of sulphur and six parts of a 
solution of caustic potash. These bottles are lain in lots 
of six or eight on a kind of sledge, each bottle in its own 
compartment ; the sledge is regularly and ingeniously moved 
forwards and backward on a pair of rails, by means of a 
turning wheel and with driving gear. By this continuous 
shaking of the contents of the bottle the vermillion is 
formed within the space of twenty to twenty-four hours. 
It is carefully washed, levigated and dried on porous stones. 

This levigated vermillion is extensively used in China 
an4 Japan for stamping and writing purposes, for colour* 



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43 

ing paper, varnish, candles, &c. After being mixed with 
glue from cow-hide, small square sticks are formed, which 
constitute the well known red (vermillion) ink, ShU'Sumi, 
i^§> used for making corrections of or comments upon 
printed or written matter. The best sticks come from 
Liu-kiu. 

6. Black Sulphuret of Mercury and Sulphur. 
(JRei'sha fi>^. Syn. Niki-tan ; Niki-sha, Ki-sha. 
Koku-sha,) — This is found sometimes in the drug shops 
as a black crystalline, striated mass, together with some 
crystalline powder. It is obtained in the same manner as 
the sublimed vermillion, the difference being the quan- 
tities used in smelting. Five parts of mercury are mixed 
with three parts of sulphur and then heated. It is re- 
commended in medicines for several diseases, but of late 
it is seldom used in Japan. 

7. Crystalline red Oxide op Mercury. (Ko-sho 
yaku |BC^^- Syn. Ko-skO'Shaku. Seki-ko-ko. Ko* 
sho'tan.) As prepared by the old Chinese method this sub- 
stance consists of red, heavy, crystalline fragments, mixed 
with a crystalline powder. We found it to be nearly pure 
oxide of mercury, with very little nitrate of mercury. 
It is prepared by subliming a mixture of mercury, 
nitre, alum and sulphate of iron in small iron bowls, 
covered with round plates of earthenware in the same 
way as is done with vermillion. Besides this method 
there are many other prescriptions, mostly taken from 
Chinese pharmaceutical books. These preparations are 
sometimes distinguished by different names, although 
their chemical constitution is chiefly the same, namely 
oxide of mercuiy. Thus a kind consisting of a crystalline 
powder of red colour is named : kd-fiin |BC^ (Syn. san- 
sen-tan Hflllfl*)* Another kind of a more yellowish 
colour, which contains a considerable amount of nitrate of 
mercury is distinguished by the name of o-sho-yaku. 

At the present time foreign made oxide of mercury re- 
places more and more the old Chinese or Japanese pre- 



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44 

paration. In Nagasaki oxide of mercury is now being 
made after the foreign method by heating quicksilver with 
nitric acid. This is ordinarily called Pureshipitatu after 
the Dutch name ^* precipitaat.'' 

8. Impure protochloride of Mercury. — {Kei-fun 
|gJ^. i.e. " Light powder." Sui-gin-fun ^®i|^. Syn. 
Kiyo-fuTiy Harahe, Haraya^ TsS-oshiro'i^ Ha-shirql 
Sui'gin-sakUf Gin-fun, Sui-fun.) 

This interesting preparation was known since the ear- 
liest ages to the Chinese, long before, we in Europe, 
had any knowledge of calomel or corrosive sublimate. Our 
first knowledge about both the chlorides of mercury date 
from the time of the Arabian chemist Geber J who has 
given a prescription which differs but slightly from the old 
Chinese method of preparing kei-fun. The product obtained 
by Geber's method is a mixture of calomel with a little 
corrosive sublimate, whilst the Chinese knew how to 
prepare calomel (kei-fun) and a kind of corrosive sublimate 
(sho'ko) each separately. Until the i6th century we did 
not make in Europe a careful distinction between these 
two chlorides of mercury. Libavius and Oswald Crall first 
prepared pure calomel (1606- 1608) under the names of 
Draco miiigatus, Manna metallorum or Mercurius dulcis. 
It seems very probable that the old Egyptians learned also 
the preparation of this substance from the Chinese, and 
we believe that there could be found many proofs of the 
influence exercised by old Chinese works on the sciences of 
the West, if the numerous volumes of the old librarj' of 
Alexandria had not been so barbarously burnt. 

According to Ranzan kei-fun was for the first time 
manufactured in Japan in the year 714 in the province of 

J Gebri de invent, veritat. cap. 8, pag. 270, editio 1572, or cap. 8, p. 
173 ed. 1545. 

'* Argentum vivum sic aublima. Sume de eo libram unam, vitrioli 
" rubiiicati libras duas, aluminis rochae calcinate libram unam et salis 
'* communis libram semis, et salis petrae quartern partem et incorpora- 
** turn sublima et collige album, densum, clarum et ponderosum, quod 
" circa vasis sponditia invertum fuerit, et serva, ut tibi de aliis scripsi- 
" mus. Sed si in prima sublimatione inventum fuerit turbidum vel 
" inmundum, quod tibi accidere potuit propter tuam negligentiam, iUud 
** cum etsdem fecibus noveris iterum sublixnare te serva.*' 



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45 

I^. It was then presented to the Empress Grcn-miyo, 
who reigned at that time. Remarkably enough the pre- 
paration of this substance has regularly been effected in 
this province up to the present time and the Ise-oshiroi 
(cosmetic of Is6), as this calomel is sometimes called, 
has even largely contributed to the glory of the celebrated 
temples of Is6. Many of the travellers recovered their 
health or that of their parents, by the use of this import- 
ant medicine, and attributed the excellent medical proper- 
ties of this substance largely to the kami of Is6. 

The Chinese or Japanese calomel occurs according to its 
quality in fine, brilliant, transparent, flat crystal plates, or 
as a crystalline powder. Although pure when it is properly 
made, it is very often — we could say nearly always, adul- 
terated with variable quantities of small crystalline gypsum, 
(selenite) or with mica-powder, or with both these substances. 
I once found even more than one-fourth to consist of sulphate 
of lime, and we have very seldom met with pure kei-fun. It 
is prepared to some extent in Japan (Is6, Osaka) but it is also 
imported in considerable quantity by the Chinese merchants 
of Nagasaki. The mode of preparation is the following. 

Two parts of alum, one part of mercury and one part 
of common salt are mixed in a mortar with a little water 
until a very accurate mixture is obtained, in which no 
globules of mercury can by perceived. After being dried 
this mass is placed in an iron bowi which is closed with a 
mixture of earthenware, carefully plastered with a mixture 
of loam, ashes and salt. The whole is then gradually 
heated on a charcoal fire and the covering plate in the 
meantime cooled with wet cloths. The calomel sub- 
limes within four to five hours on the inner side of the 
cover as a very porous, light, crystalline, powder. The 
more the sublimate has a light, soft and porous appearance, 
the more it is esteemed. There are several other pre- 
scriptions for preparing this salt, which are kept secret by 
the manufacturers. The above prescription is given by 
the large Chinese Materia Medica Pun-tsao-kang-muh 
(Japanese Hon-zo-ko-moku). The sulphate of lime, or 



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46 

selenite and mica-powder are added afterwards purposely 
to make this expensive mercurial preparation heavier and 
cheaper. 

If the calomel thus obtained has undergone a second 
and third sublimation, it is thought to be much better 
and bears then the name of Fun-sd ^^ (Syn. Ushu 
oshirou Isi-oshirot-no-yakukayeshi, Kin-yeki,) This 
substance is really calomel in small, soft, tubular crystals. 

The kei-fun is found in every Japanese drug-shop, pack- 
ed in oblong square wooden boxes or black shining paper. 

It is a medicine which is extensively used and often abused 
by excessive doses, so that the number of sufferers by mer- 
curial poisoning, or the effects of so long protracted use of 

quicksilver preparations, is by no means small in Japan. 

Foreign-made calomel is now more and more becoming 
popular, especially in the open ports and those places 
where the influence of the Dutch medical school has been 
of some importance. The Japanese distinguish this pre- 
paration by the name karomeru or kan-ko ^^. In Osaka 
and Ki6to calomel is also prepared after the foreign 
manner. 

9. Impure bichloride of Mercury. — (Corrosive sub- 
limate) {SkO'ko f^^L* ^y^* Sei'Sel-niu^ Haku-yo-tan^ 
Haku'ko). 

This substance forms crystalline, sublimed masses, 
often bearing on one side the convex form of the 
vessel, in which it is sublimed. Sometimes it is found 
in fine, acicular crystals of the rhomboidal systems, which 
are obtained by crystallisation out of an aqueous solution. 
These rhomboidal prisms bear ordinarily the name of 
sei'Sei-niu, There are many different and very com- 
plicated prescriptions for preparing this highly poisonous 
substance. Some Japanese manufacturers take variable 
quantities of mercury, nitre, borax, sal-ammoniac, yellow 
sulphide of arsenic, cinnabar and oxide of lead. 

In Nagasaki a Japanese manufacturer uses the follow- 
ing, rather ridiculous compound prescription : 



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47 

Arsenious acid (Yo-seki) 3 Monm6 

Powder of Mica (Ummo) 2.5 „ 

Saltpetre (Sho-seki) 16. „ 

Mercury (Sui-gin) 2 „ 6 fun. 

Alumen (Ban-seki) 12 „ 

Blue Iron vitriol (Roku-ban) 18 „ 

Dry salt (Shiwo) 15 „ 

Copper-vitriol ....(Tan-pan) 5 „ 6 fun. 

Salt of wells (Sei-yen) 3 „ 6 „ 

The quicksilver is first mixed intimately with the arsenious 
acid and then the other materials are gradually added. 
The whole mixture is sublimed in the same manner as 
is already described under calomel. It is difficult to trace 
the exact chemical reaction which takes places in this 
quite unnecessary compound mixture, but it is chiefly 
as follows. The saltpetre oxidises the mercury at the 
high temperature, the sulphuric acid of the iron, vitriol 
and alum combine temporarily with the oxide of mercury, 
and the sulphate of mercury is converted by the salt into 
chloride of mercury which sublimes together with some 
arsenic-acid in the inner surface of the covering plate. It 
is believed that the arsenic neutralizes in a certain degree 
the injurious properties of the mercury 1 

When crystallized out from the aqueous solution this 
impure, arsenical chloride of mercury loses a little arsenic, 
80 that the acicular crystals of sel-sei-niu may be regarded 
as a little less poisonous. 

At the present time this old Chinese preparation is 
displaced by foreign-made coirosive sublimkte. Many 
Japanese doctors, more or less accustomed to the foreign 
art of medicine, now use our bichloride of mercury, but 
often, alas, in immoderate quantity. The foreign prepara- 
tion bears the name M6-k6 or ordinary Suptiri ;^^, the 
last name being a corruption of the Dutch word 
** Suhlimaaty In Osaka and Kioto, and perhaps also in 
other parts of Japan, corrosive sublimate is now prepared 
after the foreign method. 



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48 
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 

A General Meeting of the Society was held at the Kaisei- 
Gakko on the 20th instant. The Chair was taken by Sir Harry 
Parkes. 

The Chairman opened the proceedings by drawing attention to a 
supposed ancient bell, presented to the Society by the Kenrei of 
Hiogo. Quite a number of similar bronzes had been found in Japan 
presenting this peculiarity, that they are always found buried, and 
also that Japanese antiquaries, though familiar with their appearance, 
were entirely ignorant of their history. The size of these bronzes varied 
from two inches to five feet. He had seen a very large specimen 
exhibited at Nara. The present bronze was found by a priest in a hole 
in a rock. It had been questioned whether these bronzes were Chinese, 
and therefore the bronze before them was sent for inspection to Mr. 
Meadows, H. B. M. Consul at Shanghai. The bronze was afterwards 
forwarded to Dr. Bushell of Peking who had made bells his special 
study. Neither of these gentlemen however could give any information. 
He believed that it was of very early date and would prove to be of 
Corean origin, but the present disturbed state of Manchuria rendered 
research in that part of the globe impracticable for the present. 

Mr, Syle proposed, ** That the Secretary be requested to address 
"a communication to the German Asiatic Society, inviting the 
•* the attendance of fts members at our General Meetings, whenever 
•* they may find it convenient." 

This proposal was seconded by Professor Grigsby and carried 
unanimously. 

Professor Smith rose to propose that a Physical Sub-section b« 
formed in the Society, to facilitate research and summarise papers 
that in extenso are too technical to be of interest to a majority of 
the membf rs. 

Dr. Antisell thought a body such as proposed should organize 
itself independently of the larger Society, and, when it had achieved 
existence, become affiliated to the Society. 

Prof. W. E. Ayrton proceeded to read Dr. Geerts' paper on Useful 
Metals and Minerals of the Japanese (D. Quicksilver.) 

In reply to a question from the Revd. E. Syle, Dr. Antisell -remarked 
that the geological position of mercury or its ores could not be 
exactly stated ; it was found running through a large range of deposits. 
Thus, at Idria it was found in bituminous . shale of the older transition 
series (Silurian) ; at Almaden in Spain in mica schists broken up, 
and porphyritic granitic intrusions more recent than the coal deposits ; 
in new Almaden and other points in California it is found higher 
up in the Newer Cretaceous or Older Tertiary (Eocene) beds, giving 
thus too great a range to warrant locating it in any exact 



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49 

lo this it resembles petroleum, which is found in the older states as well 
as in the Kainozoic series. 

The meeting terminated with an account given by Prof. Smith 
of the method he had employed for testing the strength of woods, and 
the results thereby attained. 

Owing to the lateness of the hour the Meeting was adjourned 
to a Special Meeting, to be held on Wednesday, October 27th, 
when the paper read on the afternoon of the 20th instant might 
be discussed. 



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50 



ON SOME JAPANESE WOODS. 



BY 



J. A. LINDO, Esq. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of ^apan^ at Yedo, 
on the 2jth October^ 1875. 



-:o: 



The following particulars on Japanese woods have been 
gathered from an article in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Institution of Engineers in Holland, by Mr. Akamats, at 
the present moment a Rear-Admiral in the Japanese 
Navy. Thinking they might be some value to the Society, 
I asked Mr. Akamats ' consent to make an extract from 
his article for the Asiatic Society, which he very willingly 
gave me. 

2. Hibanoki, — Grows in clayey ground, more especially 
where rocks are under the surface ; at 250 to 300 years of 
age, the trees are from 30 to 35 meters in height and 3 m. 
to 3^ m. in circumference. Of these trees timber of very 
large dimension is to be had ; it resists well enough to 
alternate dampness and drought, is almost everlasting 
under water, very elastic and easily worked. In ship- 
building it is used for decks and outside parts ; in house- 
building for uprights and doors. The timber of this 
tree comes principally from the provinces of Suruga and 
Kai. Specific gravity 0.560. 

2. Hinoki. — Grows in red clay; spread all over the 
country, but more particularly to be found in Mino and 



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5' 

Owari ; large quantities and dimensions in trade ; some- 
what resinous ; more elastic than hihanoki ; for the rest 
same qualities as this latter. Specific gravity 0.421. 

3. Suginoki (Cedar wood). — To be found in large 
quantities between degrees 32 and 40 N. L., moist 
ground. At 150 to 200 years of age, furnishes timber of 
tolerable dimensions. Height of full-grown tree 40 to 
45 meters ; circumference 5 to 6 m. Does not stand 
alternate damp and dryness as well as hihanoki ^ being much 
more liable to extending and shrinking by the influence 
of weather. Durability under water next to hibanoki\ 
elastic and difficult to be worked. In shipbuilding used 
for lining purposes ; in house-building for beams, 
ceilings, uprights and lining. Specific gravity 0.416. 

4. Akamats, — Grows in sandy dry clay ; spread through- 
out the country, especially in Hiuga ; this wood is 
renowned for its very fine appearance. If grown in wet 
ground the timber is white and of inferior quality. 
Height 35 to 45 m. ; circumference 4 to 5 m. at 250 to 300 
years of age. Even larger dimensions are to be found, but 
in this case the wood is more liable to wet-rot. Very 
resinous ; resists a long time alternate wet and dry ; 
is elastic and easily worked. Generally used in house- 
building and in shipbuilding for masts, jib-booms, etc. 
Specific gravity 0.489. 

5. Kashinoki. — Grows in clayey ground ; seems not to 
vegetate north of 40° N. L., best qualities in Satsuma 
and Totomi. To be found in large quantities but of in- 
ferior dimensions ; it is very porous, so that if blown at 
one end of a stick of 4 to 5 meters length, the air will be 
seen to escape at the other end ; by which porousness 
very easily split along its length. Resists badly 
alternate dampness and droughts ; very liable to destruc- 
tion by sea worm ; tough, but not elastic ; not easily 
worked. Used in shipbuilding for rudders, pivots, etc. ; also 
used for water-mills, wheelworks, etc.; only of very little 
use in house-building.* Specific gravity 0.779. 

* Generally ueed as firewood. 



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6. Keyaki. — Grows in poor clay ; spread throughout the 
country and of different dimensions ; 35 to 40 m. in height, 
3 to 3im. in circumference at 250 to 300 years of age. 
Its principal feature consists in a great number of small 
pores, I to 1^ of a millimeter in diameter, and regularly 
divided between the annual cycles. Capable of resisting 
alternate wet and dry; very elastic, not much liable tol 
cracking; easily worked. In shipbuilding its principal 
use is for deckbeams, sleepers under engines, etc. ; in 
housebuilding used for doors ; a knotty grown wood, 
which is of a very fine appearance for furniture. Specific 
gravity: 0.609. 

7. Kusunoki, — (Camphorwood). Grows^ in clay and 
never in sandy ground, specially in the provinces of 
Kishu, Idsu, Kai, Oomi, Busen and Chikusen ; best quali- 
ties are grown in moist ground. The biggest trees 
are about 10 m. high aud 10. to 25 metres (?) in cir- 
cumference; very large branches, from 4 to 4J 
m. in circumference, usually cut for timber. The stem 
is generally hollow ; some of them are to be found of 
20 fathoms in circumference, with a hollow of 65 square 
meters and with a luxuriant crown. Does not resist 
alternate wet and dry weather well ; under the ground not 
so much liable to destruction by worms as other kinds of 
wood. Very elastic. Used in shipbuilding for keel joists, 
lining of cabins, etc. No use in housebuilding, but 
generally used for boxes and furniture. Specific gravity : 
0.529. 

It must be remarked that the specific gravities were 
determined upon samples which Mr. Akamats furnished 
to the 'Royal Institution ; but this specific gravity seems 
to vary within very wide limits. At least I myself deter- 
mined the specific gravity of keyaki, hinoki and sugi^ 
which were to be used in constructing the new Etai-bashi 
and I found for : 

Keyaki 0'937« 

Hinoki 0.448. 

Sugi 0.549. 



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53 

the first and last of which numbers differ, as will be seen 
prett}' much from those given by Mr. Akamats, 

Under water of course all these kinds of wood are very 
durable, if not everlasting, provided no seaworms are in 
the neighbourhood ; kashinoki seems to be most liable to 
destruction by this insect. 

Until of late I believe the Japanese used no preven- 
tive against this disease, but in the construction of the 
new Etai and Riogoku bridges they have taken to copper- 
ing, which, copper being comparatively cheap, I suppose 
will promise effective results. 

As to the durability of wooden structures in Japanese 
waterworks, it is very difficult to compare it with that of 
works of a similar nature in Europe, as these latter would 
never be allowed to remain in use in such a bad and often 
dangerous state as is the case here. Much could be done 
by effectually tarring and painting and by maintaining this 
tarring and painting continually in a well-conditioned state. 

But the principal thing to which attention should be 
given, is the use of well seasoned and dry wood. That the 
Japanese know its value I have seen many instances of 
last summer along the Tenriu-gawa, one of the chief 
outlets of timber from the interior, (the yearly export 
amounting to a money value of 400,000 yen). The 
villages along the lower part of this river are inhabited 
for the greatest part by wood -merchants, the sale-rooms 
of whose houses are constructed with the most beautiful 
pieces of timber, serving in this way at once as samples 
for visitors and buyers. One house I may mention in 
which the floor of the tokonoma consisted of one piece of 
sugi of 6 by 3 by 0.4 ft., while all the sliding-doors (of the 
ordinary dimensions) consisted of one single board ; more- 
over the ceilings, linings of walls, etc., were ornamented 
with similar large planks. This house was not new and 
the fact of all its wood being without a single rent and 
looking as sound as if quite new, may well be taken as a 
proof that much care had been taken in drying it, which 
indeed was affirmed to me by the owner. A great 



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54 

difficulty which foreign engineers experience in designing 
wooden structures in Japan, most certainly consists in 
nothing being known about the strength and stiffness of 
the timber or of its limit of elasticity. Experiments on a 
large scale to this purpose have, as far as I know, never 
been made, or at least published ; although they are of 
an elaborate and rather expensive nature, it would certainly 
prove an economy to the Government, if one of its de- 
partments were to undertake them and publish the results. 



At the adjourned meeting of the Society held at the Kaisei Gakko 
in Tdkio, on the 27th October, the Revd, Professor Syle having been 
elected to preside, Professor Ayrton read the minutes of the previous 
meeting which were approved. 

The Chairman laid upon the table two packets of Japancfse quicksilver 
presented to the Society by Mr. Erasmus Gower, one for the museum in 
Tdkio, the other for the museum in Yokohama. He stated also at the 
same time that Mr. Hatakeyama, the Director of the Kaiseigakko, 
had placed a room at the disposition of the Society to be specially 
appropriated to its uses as museum, &c., within the college. 

After a few desultory remarks, the discussion of the paper of 
Dr. Gecrts on Quicksilver in Japan was proceeded with. 

Professor Atkinson remarked that the Society was very much indebted 
to Dr. Geerts for his interesting and valuable communication, and for 
his exertions in bringing into notice the metallurgical processes employed 
in Japan. His work was of the greatest interest, as it permitted a 
comparison to be made between the processes used in this country with 
those in use in other countries. In Europe, where mercury had been 
extracted from the earliest times, improvements had been made from 
time to time, commencing with the simplest of all possible apparatus, 
and gradually introducing more complicated arrangements. None of' 
these processes, however, had given a satisfactory yield of metal ; that 
arrangement which gave the best results was invented by Dr. Ure for 
the purpose of extracting the mercury from the poor ores in Rhenish 
Prussia. It consisted of a series of iron retorts, like those used in gas 
works, terminating at one side in an iron tube, which dipped into water, the 
condensed mercury being carefully collected. The cinnabar, or sulphide 
of mercury, the ore from which the metal is usually obtained, was mixed 
with quicklime, and the mixture heated in these retorts ; mercury distilled 
over into the condenser, while the sulphur remained behind in combination 
with the lime. The resemblance between the Japanese process and Dr. 



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Urc's was sulking. The Japanese used an iron pot, covered with a lid, 
into which was fitted a bent tube, the other end of which dipped under 
water. The ore was mixed with wood ashes, which no doubt played the 
same part as the quicklime. It was exceedingly interesting to observe 
that the Japanese process, or rather the Chinese, as it was introduced 
firom China, resembled so nearly one of the best of the foreign methods. 
It was, however, to be regretted that Dr. Geerts had not mentioned 
what percentage of mercury was obtained from the ore, so that the 
relative efficiency of the condensers might have been ascertained. 

Professor R. Smith called the attention of the members to the 
collection of Japanese plants in a dry state that was about to be sent 
to Europe by the Educational Department of the Government. 

Mrs. Chaplin Ayrton then proceeded to read a portion of a paper upon 
Japanese woods, translated with additional notes by Lieut. Lindo, from 
the Transactions of the Royal Institution of Engineers of Holland from 
a paper by Rear- Admiral Akamatsu. The reading was interspersed with 
remarks from Mrs. Ayrton as to the characteristics of the trees and the 
uses to which the various kinds of woods were applied. 

Mr. Aston said that the notice of this meeting given in the 
newspapers had hardly prepared him for some interesting features 
of it. The advertisement had led him to expect a ** paper" on the 
Woods of Japan from Professor Smith ; but he found that an unwritten 
lecture was given instead, and no notice was given to the Society of 
the interesting observations on Japanese woods with which Mrs. 
Ayrton had agreably surprised the meeting in connexion with Mr. 
Lindo's paper on that subject. Mr. Aston thought it was desirable 
that the Society should, as far as possible, be made acquainted before- 
hand with the business which was to come before it. 

Dr. Antisell remarked upon the great interest of Mr. Lindo^s paper, 
and also that of Mr. Smith's experiments on the strength of timber. 
The remarks of the reader of Mr. Lindo's paper, on the slender 
viability of the young matzu tree, and its inability to bear sunshine, 
reminded him that this was the true reason of the disappearance of 
forests from certain parts of Europe where they had abounded some 
centuries past, as in Denmark the prehistoric beech forests have given 
way to different species. Thirty years ago, when the mineral theory 
of Liebig was in full popularity, the reason assigned was the 
exhaustion of the soil of the elements appropriated by these trees; 
but it is more likely it was owing to some climatic conditions un- 
fovourable to the growth of very young trees, like the peculiari- 
ty mentioned of the matxu. Something of this kind has been observed 
along the coasts of California. Formerly the pine trees grew down to 
the water's edge, giving a peculiar feature to the landscape, but since 
the establishment of saw-mills to convert the large trees into lumber, 
the g^round has been considerably cleared and the young pines do not 
come up as abundantly as before, so that the landscape now looks as 



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56 

if the pine tree had disappeared. With regard to the relative strength of 
Japanese and European timber of like dimensions, it is evident that 
Japanese timber must be weaker, at least that portion of timber which 
grows on this island where there are no heavy winter frosts. To make 
good timber there must be temporary arrests ot growth by which the 
sap is drained out of the tubes and the fibres shrink together from the 
cold, while the new wood of next year, forming a ring round the old, 
prevents its future expansion and thus renders it more dense. The 
strength of timber {ceteris paribus) resolves itself into this formula, — how 
many wood fibres are in a square inch of cross section ? — Those having 
most are of course strongest, and those will have most which are grown 
in countries where the growth is temporarily arrested, that is, in 
countries where winters are well marked. 

Professor Perry then addressed the meeting, stating that Mr. De 
Boinville had placed in his hands a paper relative to the felling and 
seasoning of timber, which he begged to have read to the members 
present. In this it was stated that timber used to be felled only in June 
and July, but that since the greater demands for large timber had arisen 
the period was extended to September. But, as an exception, oak was 
felled in March. The wood is softer in summer, having the sap in full 
flow, and hence the choice of Jime and July to enable the wood-cutters 
to carry on their task with greater ease. The Japanese season their 
wood by immersing the newly felled tree (after being barked) in water 
lor a longer or shorter period, firom 30 to 70 days according to the use 
to which it is to be put. There is, however, an exception to this method 
of seasoning in case oi.maki (a species of pine) which is generally used 
under water. As regards the growth of timber, Mr. De Boinville's paper 
contained some interesting facts obtained by comparing the ages and 
sizes of the same trees in France and Japan. Pines growing in the 
Vosges valleys required eighty years to equal the size of Japanese pines 
of fifty years of age. , And this rapid growth in Japan accounted for the 
comparative weakness of the timber. There was also a difference 
between the same wood grown in the valleys and on the mountain 
sides or on high land, the latter requiring more time to mature, but 
being closer of grain and consequently stronger. 

Referring to Dr. Geertz' paper. Dr. Antisell observed that among 
the localities where cinnabar is found that of Tsushima had been 
omitted : it was there that this ore was first observed, and from there no 
doubt Klaproth obtained the specimens from which the first examination 
of the Japanese variety was made. The ores are not rich in Japan, but 
in a country where labor is so cheap a poor ore might be worked 
economically. Those of Almaden in Spain do not average more than 
15 p)er cent. The various processes used at New Almaden, Cal. to 
obtain metallic mercury of pure quality were then reviewed, and atten- 
tion called to the method of Violette which consisted in the use of 
superheated steam, which so far as known had been used with success. 



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ON THE WINDS AND CURRENTS 
OF JAPAN. 



BY 

Captain SCOTT. 



Read before the Asiatic Society of yapatiy on the 
i^th December, 1875. 



The following remarks on the weather on the coast of 
Japan being noted from memory, an allowance must be 
made for any inaccuracies which may he observed, as it 
is rather difficult to remember such things sufficiently 
well to be altogether positive, but I think they will be 
on the whole pretty correct. 

I may state that my experience extends from i860 to 
1870; in the autumn of which year my vessel was lost 
in Odawara Bay, during a typhoon that passed over here 
October 13th of that year. 

In the Japan Sea, from the Straits of Korea to the 
head of the Gulf of Tartary, the winds prevail, from July 
until April from West to N. E., blowing the hardest 
between West and N.W. and easing always after it veers 
to the Northward. N.E. winds generally bringing fine 
weather, the wind often blows steadily from that quar- 
ter for a week or more on a stretch, after which a change 
is likely to come on, by the wind hauling to the East and 
S. E. with rain, the breeze freshening as it inclines to the 
South, and often blowing very heavily between S.S.E. 
and S.W. although not often lasting more than twenty- 
four hours. The wind after hauling beyond S.W. brings 
clear weather and sets in for a gale from the W.N.W., 



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58 

which may continue for a day or two, then to follow the 
same course as before. I give this as the general run of 
winds for the nine months before noted, although there 
are occasional exceptions — ^when heavy squalls will come 
on (suddenly at times) from East and S.E. to S.W. and 
West — so rapidly as not to give a vessel time to shorten 
sail. It is advisable then to keep away before it, provided 
there is sufficient room to allow of that being done, other- 
wise sails are likely to be blown away, as has often hap- 
pened to short-handed vessels. 

During the months of April, May and June Southerly 
and South-westerly winds prevail, with generally fine 
pleasant weather, the strength of the wind seldom exceeding 
5, and averaging 2 to 3, reckoning 10 a severe gale ; but 
even in those months sudden squalls are met with, causing 
the wind to shift suddenly to the westward, although 
sufficient warning is generally given to prepare for their 
approach from the appearance of the sky during the day ; 
or, if at night, by lightning in the quarter from which the 
wind is likely to come, and by the barometer, if closely 
watched. Southerly winds, as a rule, blow very light during 
the aforesaid three months, whereas in the other nine 
months of the year it often blows with extreme violence, 
and in April, May and June may be considered as a faint 
ending of the S. W. monsoon of the China Sea. 

Local causes, however, sufficiently exist to make a great 
difference in the strength and direction of the wind, and 
in the kind of weather met with on the coast, as for in- 
stance all along from the Gotto Islands to Cape Chichakoff, 
a severe gale from the North will continue to blow for 
several days on a stretch, while it is blowing from W. N. 
W. in the Japan Sea and the Straits of Korea ; and I 
have had rainy weather for two days coming along the 
West Coast, with the wind between N. N. W and N. N. 
E. while it is almost certain that at the same time it 
was blowing from E. S. E. on the Eastern Coast. 

From my own experience, rainy winds are from East 
to S. W., and clear weather sets in with the wind from 



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West to N. E. ; heavy gales often blowing at the same 
time and fine weather with the wind between North and 
East. 

In the vicinity of Yokohama, when a typhoon comes on, 
the heaviest part of it is generally with the wind at 
South, but on the west coast the same will be found 
nearly harmless, probably owing to the mountains which 
intervene having shaken its strength. I have not at any 
time, felt any very severe storm in the Japan Sea, al- 
though I have felt the storm wave inside of the Straits of 
Korea, when a typhoon has been passing along the China 
Sea. 

In the straits of Tsugar, which divide Nipon and Yesso, 
strong winds invariably blow right through in either 
direction, that is to say from W. N. W. or E. S. E., the 
land winds from either North or South, being in general 
light and baffling, and never to be depended on. Through 
these straits the current runs very strongly, sometimes at 
a rate little short of five miles an hour. 

On the Pacific side of the Japan islands the wind takes 
pretty much the same course as it does in the Japan Sea, 
but squalls are more frequent and of greater violence, 
more especially in the vicinity of ports where the currents 
curve or meet ; such as off Cape King, where the current 
striking the land, sets out to the E. S. E. ; on the Nambu 
coast where the cold Arctic current meets the warm stream 
from the South ; and between the Loo-choo islands, and 
Cape Idsu, where the direct flow of the current is inter- 
fered with by a cold stream off the land, and sometimes 
by winds from the S. E. during the summer months. 

The quarter from which the squalls commence is not 
always the same, but I generally found them commencing to 
blow from E. S. E. to South, after a track of fine weather, 
although I have occasionally, met them coming out from 
N. W. on the northern coast, and in the Japan Sea ; but 
warning of their approach is generally given by lightning, in 
that quarter from which the wind may be expected. 

Fogs prevail in the Spring months during the season, 



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6o 

in which the winds are light, say April, May and June, but the 
Japan coast being pretty free of danger no great inconvenience 
is caused, as the fogs never last for any great length of time. 
The rainy season may be said to extend from May 
till the end of July, but is earlier or later in different years. 

CUSLRENTS. 

The ** Kuro Siwo*' or Japan stream, whether having its ori- 
gin in the Gulf of Tonquin or in the Gulf of Siam, keeps on 
its course as far North as the Straits of La P6rouse in the 
Gulf of Tartary, and on the Pacific side of Japan up to 41° 
North latitude in the summer, and to 38° in the depth of 
winter. 

This stream is generally strongest between the Southern 
end of Formosa, and the East coast of Japan as far as the 
islands at the entrance of the Gulf of Yedo, but its strength 
varies according as the S. W. or N. E. monsoon prevails. 

During the S. W. monsoon, extending from May to 
September, the current has been known to run at the rate 
of nearly three miles per hour in the open sea, along the east- 
ern coast of Japan, and sometimes at four miles per hour 
through the Straits of Tsugar, where I believe it runs 
stronger than in any part of its course. 

My experience leads me to think that the current has 
its origin in the Gulf of Siam, because I have felt it run- 
ning strongly to the northward along the coast of Lu- 
zon during the N.E. monsoon, whilst in the open sea a 
strong counter-current was setting to the southward, and 
it is never felt in the Formosa Channel. 

The general run of this current is to the N.E. and pre- 
mising that it commences at the South end of Formosa 
(the main stream) running through the Bashees, to the 
North of the Miacosima group, and thence through the 
the Loo Choo islands towards the entrance of the gulf of 
Yedo, it strikes the coast of Japan about Cape King, where 
it converges to the eastward, that is to say the strength of 
it runs off to the E.S.E. while a portion keeps on along tfie 
coast to the northward as far as the Nambu shore, where it 
is met by a cold current from the North, and is turned 



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off to the Eastward, and finally loses itself in the Pacific. 

This is the main portion of the warm stream ; but after 
leaving the coast of Formosa, a portion of it runs more to 
the northward towards the Straits of Korea, through which 
it flows with considerable rapidity, (and generally stronger 
on the north side of the island of Quelpart than it does on 
its southern side) and keeping on its course to the northward 
through the Japan Sea, one portion of it passes through the 
Straits of Tsugar by Hakodadi, the other through the Strait 
of La Perouse, and is finally lost in the Arctic Current 
which it meets — on entering the Pacific in the one instance, 
and amongst the Kurile islands in the other. 

As regards the individuality of the Japanese stream, I 
think it is as closely defined as the Gulf Stream in the 
Atlantic, and having been in the habit of trying the 
temperature of it whilst at sea, five times during the 
twenty-four hours for several years, I may state that if 
I had not lost my memoranda a good chart of the stream 
could have been made with their assistance. 

I am also of opinion that it is of a higher temperature 
than the Gulf Stream ; having found it as high as 87° in 
the strait of Korea, in July, (the surface water I mean), 
and I think, it is also of a more regular temperature ; the 
above temperature being nearly as high as it is generally 
found in the southern part of the China Sea. 

In the Straits of Tsugar I have noted the temperature 
as high as 72° in the summer months and in La Perouse 
Straits at 56°, and the difference between the cold water 
dose to the shore and the warm is often as much as 12° 

In the Japan Sea on getting to the northward towards the 
Coast of Manchuria, I have known the thermometer to 
drop 12^^ to 14° in less than an hour; and have ex- 
perienced the same thing off" the Coast of Sendai, when 
it meets the Arctic stream from the North ; and it is here 
that sudden squalls may be expected, as I noted in my 
remarks about the winds. 

I am aware that some persons think that the cold 
Arctic Current forces its way into the Japan Sea through 



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62 

the Straits of Tsugar and La P^rouse, but I am inclined 
to differ from them. In the La P6rouse Straits there is a 
. regular tide close to the shore, and I found the tempera- 
ture of the water much the same with both ebb and 
flood. In the Straits of Tsugar the tides are scarcely percep- 
tible unless in still weather, and with strong westerly winds 
the current extends from shore to shore between Cape 
Blount and O-o sima and invariably i:uns to the east- 
ward. 

I am inclined to think, that the Arctic Current on 
approaching the Nambu shore runs off to the eastward 
and is lost by mingling with the warm stream in the 
Pacific. 

I certainly never felt the temperature to fall enough while 
near the Coast of Japan to cause me to think that the Arctic 
current was forcing itself through into the Japan Sea, and, 
as I have before said, being in the habit of testing the 
temperature of the surface water five times during each 
twenty-four hours, am pretty certain I should have detected 
any decrease in the temperature such as would have been 
shown between the warm and the cold stream. 

In the Japan Sea, the influence of the warm stream is 
not so decided as it is on the Pacific side of the island, 
probably owing to its being confined by land on both sides, 
whereas it has the open sea on the Pacific Coast on one 
side. 

It is certain that the weather on the Pacific Coast of 
Japan is much more variable than it is on the other 
side of the Island ; and I am inclined to think that the 
difference is caused by the current alone, it not having 
so much to impede its course on the one side as it has on 
the other. 

Finally, I think the warm stream has a great effect on 
the temperature of Yokohama, as residents can verify by 
noticing the difference between a northerly and a souther- 
ly wind, this being at least 15°; and I am of opinion 
that the climate of the western coast is much more 
regular than that of Yokohama. 



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ON THE TEMPERATURES OF THE 
JAPANESE WATERS. 

BY 

J. H. DUPEN, H. M. S. Ringdove. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of yapan^ on the 
15th December^ 1875. 



I quite agree with the statement and opinions of Cap- 
tain Scott that the whole climate of Japan is regulated by 
the currents of the ocean. The warm stream from the 
South appears to run up the eastern shore. and to turn off 
somewhere about Nambu. On the western side I think 
the southern current is turned off in the direction of 
Shanghai by the northern stream, which appears to flow 
down the West coast, keeping it cooler in summer than 
the eastern side. The Island of Yesso seems to be 
entirely affected • by the cold stream, which doubtless ac- 
counts for the rigour of its winters. I am under the im- 
pression that a line drawn from East to West, across the 
sea of Japan in the latitude of Nagasaki, will show the 
points where the two currents meet, and North of which 
the warm current loses its effect. My opinions are merely 
derived from the tables on the other side and a study of 
daily changes in temperatures as noted in the engine- 
room register. With regard to force and direction of cur- 
rents I can say nothing ; it is not in my province and I 
have no means of ascertaining them. 

The position of the ship daily may be judged approx- 
imately by the dates, and the fact that the average speed 



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64 

is about 6 knots during these cruises, except in the Inland 
Sea where we steamed lo. The temperature of the Inland 
Sea is very uniform throughout. At Nagasaki in winter, 
with deck thermometer at 34°, I have seen clouds of vap- 
our from the water which was 56°, but for this I have no 
doubt that Nagasaki would be nearly as cold as Hakodate. 
September 1874. 



A regular roeeting of the Asiatic Society was held on Wed- 
nesday, the 15th December, 1875, at the Kaisei Gakko, Tokio. 

The Rev. Dr. Veeder was called upon to take the Chair. 

The Rev. Professor Syle moved : ** That the meteorological 
instruments offered to the Society by the Meteorological Department 
in Washington some time ago be accepted." 

Some discussion then arose with regard to the propriety of 
accepting the instuments, before the report of the Committee 
appointed by the Council to consider the matter had been given in. 
This Committee (consisting of His Excellency Sir H. S. Parkes, Dr. 
D. Murray, Rev. Dr. Brown, and His Excellency C. de Struve), 
having made no report, it was moved as an amendment by Dr. 
Antisell and seconded by Professor Grigsby ** That the consideration 
of the subject should be deferred until the next meeting." This 
amendment was carried by the casting vote of the chair. 

Objection was taken to the adjournment of the regular meetings 
as was done lately upon the authority of the Corresponding Secre- 
tary, who stated that, there being no paper to read, he had to 
adjourn the meeting. Dr. Antisell thought it was unsatisfactory to 
make such changes, and that it would be better to meet whether 
there were any paper to read or not. 

The Rev. Professor Syle then entered upon the reading of Captain 
Scott's Paper on ** The Winds and Currents of Japan," in the 
absence of the writer, prefacing the subject with a reference to the 
wrecks of the "Hermann." the "Relief" and the "Nil"— all 
which ships were lost from the effect of Unknown or imperfectly 
understood currents on the coast of Japan. He also instanced the 
case of some Pelew Islanders having been drifted 1,000 miles to the 
coast of Formosa in sixty days by a supposed current. 

Captain Scott's paper was then read, after which Dr. Antisell 
remarked that he thought the observations of Captain Scott and the 
remarks of the naval officer (Mr. Dupen) had considerable value, 
and it was very desirable that the Society should collect observations 
of the winds and currents of the western side of the Pacific 
Ocean. Too little attention had been directed to what is 
already known about the Kuro Siwa, and on that account he 
could not agree in all the statements of the papers. It is now well 



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on 



From. 


To o| 


Shanghai ... 


Nagrasi 


^chored . . . 


Nag^asa 


Nagasaki ... 


Kobe M 


Anchored ... 


Kobe -5 


Kobe 


Nagas^ 

Nagasa^ 

Kobe ., 

Kobe .. 

Yokoha 

I 
&Yoka 


'^''chored ... 
/^^asaki ... 
^^^ftored ... 
^Ob^ 


At Yokohama 


Yokohama ... 


Kobe ., 


Anchored ... 


Kobe .. 


Kobe 


Nagasa 

Nagasa 

1 


Anchored ... 


Nagasaki ... 


1 
Vladivol 


Anchored ... 


Vladivol 


^adivostock 


Hakoda 

1 


^"^hored ... 


! 

Hakoda 


^^kodate ... 


Yokoha: 



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65 

known that this body of warm water, which passes North East of 
Japan, is not lost in the great mass of the Ocean, but keeps a 
distinct course N. E., as far as parallel 50 N. when, sending a very 
thin channel of water through Behring^s Straits, the main body of 
warm water turns easterly, approaching the shores of North America, 
coasting along Sitka, Washington Ty., Oregon and California as far 
south as Cape Mendocino, raising the mean temperature and modifying 
the flora of those lands. He did not agree with the paper in limiting 
the origin of this stream to the coasts of Siam and Cochin China. 
No doubt the Southern China Sea had its share in originating this 
current ; but it was a lesser share ; the main portion of the current 
being derived from the Pacific Ocean around and east of the large 
equatorial islands, and passing North, is split in half by meeting 
Formosa, one portion going west of that island through the Formosa 
channel and thence Northward through the Japan Sea to the Straits 
of Tsugaru and La Perouse, through each of which it sends a small 
sueam Eastward to join the great body of water coming Northwards 
along the Eastern shores of Formosa and Japan. This body of 
water is of, much greater dimensions than it is supposed: it is of 
great depth and several hundred miles wide in summer, oif these 
shores ; and although differing in temperature and rapidity of current, 
it can be scarcely considered inferior to the Atlantic Gulf Stream. 

Dr Veeder said that, having resided for eleven years on the Pacific 
coast, he could bear testimony to the effects produced upon the 
climate of the coast of Oregon, California &c. by currents running 
in a southerly direction. The climate of places only eight or nine 
miles from the coast differed materially from that of the coast itself. 
He attributed this mildness of temperature along the thousand miles 
of coast to the influence of the Kuro Siwa; and as Great Britain 
enjoys a mild climate from the Gulf Stream, so California is similarly 
affected by the great Japan current. 

The Meeting then separated. 



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NOTES TAKEN DURING A VISIT 

TO OKINAWA SHIMA-LOOCHOO 

ISLANDS. 

BY 

R. H. BRUNTON, Esq. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of y apart, on the 
igth January, 1876. 



Among the first papers read before the Asiatic Society 
was one by Mr. E. Satow, of H. B. M. Legation, upon 
the Loochoo Islands. The following notes may be con- 
sidered as affording a little supplementary information, 
which was procured during a couple of day's visit to these 
Islands. 

We left Kagosima in the S.S. Thahor, on the evening 
of the gth December, and proceeded so as to pass to the 
westward of the chain of islands which extends in a 
south-westerly direction from Cape Chichakoff (Satano- 
misaki) to the north end of Formosa — the Loochoo islands 
forming part of the chain. On the evening of the loth 
we passed, at a distance of about thirty miles, Oshima, 
which is one of the Loochooan group, and is inhabited by 
people of similar kindred, but which is under the autho- 
rity of the Kagoshima ken and does not form a part of 
the territory of the King of Loochoo. It was on this 
island that a sugar refinery was erected by the Prince of 
Satsuma with the assistance of the Messrs. Glover of 
Nagasaki, in 1867. This did not prove sucessful finan- 
cially and, I understand, the machinery has since 



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been removed to Ozaka. Oshima possesses an excellent 
harbour which is sheltered in every direction and the 
trade between it and Kagoshima, in certain seasons, is 
very considerable. 

We arrived off Nafa on the afternoon of the nth 
December. During the voyage we experienced N. W. 
winds of no great violence — and this wind continued with 
us more or less until our return. The monsoon whose 
direction is N. E. on the China coast, is therefore changed 
in direction in this locality. 

Nafa is on the western shore of Okinawa Shima ; it is a 
town of probably five or six thousand inhabitants, and is 
supposed to be the port for the capital of the island, which 
is situated about three miles inland. The distance from 
Kagoshima to Nafa by the track we came is about 400 
miles. The harbour at Nafa can hardly be considered fit 
for vessels to make any extensive use of. There is only a 
very slight indentation in the coast line, which there runs 
about N. E. and S.»W., and the only protection to vessels is 
afforded by coral reefs which partially surround a basin. 
Some of these come quite to the surface of the water and 
their position may generally be distinguished by the surf 
breaking on them ; others, however, are at distances of 3 
feet and 6 feet and 12 feet below the surface, and nothing is 
visible which marks the position of these latter. And, as . 
they seem to exist at the entrances to the anchorage as well 
as in the anchorage itself they form a most formidable 
danger. The strong N. W. wind which blew during one day 
that the vessel lay at Nafa cut off all communication between 
the ship and the shore, and a heavy swell came rolling in to 
the anchorage which rendered our position a most uncom- 
fortable and, to some extent, a precarious one. We knew 
that we were surrounded by perfectly precipitous coral 
reefs, some of which were within a few hundred yards 
of us, and had any fracture occurred to the moorings 
which held the ship as she plunged and heaved, we should, 
in a few minutes, in all probability, have been driven 
against one of these. In a creek on the southern side of 



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the town there is a depth of water of from 2 or 3 fathoms. 
Small steamers might find shelter here, and three or four large 
junks were lying in it at the time of our visit. But for vessels 
of over 300 or 400 tons, it is not available, and Nafa cannot 
in any way be considered suitable for a commercial port. 

When we arrived at Nafa, the fact of our being in a 
country in which the people were very different from those 
whom we had just left, became at once apparent. Several 
boats came off to the ship, but instead of being the tidy- 
looking, swift, and picturesque craft which we are ac- 
customed to in Japan, they were canoes, made out of one 
log of wood, and very similar in shape and appearance to 
those at Aden. They were propelled by two men, one in 
the bow and another in the stem, by means of paddles. 
The only other boats which we saw were square clumsy 
looking boyes which were also propelled by paddles. The 
sea-going junks, however, which make voyages to Foochow 
and Kagoshima are strongly constructed, and are of the 
same shape and build as the ordinary Chinese junk. They 
are decorated with an eye on each bow and by a red ball 
on a white ground on the stem. This, we were inform- 
ed, however was merely a decoration, and in no way an 
emblem that the vessels were under Japanese colours. 

The town of Nafa is built on a piece of level ground 
adjoining the sea coast, while the capital, Shinri, is built 
on a series of small hills. The latter is a straggling 
scattered town, and it would be very difficult to form any 
estimate of its population. From the summits of some of 
the hills good views can be obtained of the surrounding 
country, which appeared to be in the highest state of 
cultivation. And from its gentle undulations, with small 
streams winding through the valleys, its rich herbage and 
avenues of trees, it afforded a very close resemblance to 
some phases of English scenery. 

The streets in the towns present a most desolate ap- 
pearance. On each side of these is a blank stone wall of 
about 10 or 12 feet high, with openings in them here and 
there sufficiently wide to admit of access to the houses 



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which are behind. Every house is surrounded by a wall, 
and from the street they convey the impression of being 
prisons rather than ordinary dwellings. 

The streets are also paVed with blocks of stone. These 
have very irregular surfaces which render walking over 
them most uncomfortable. It was observed that in front 
of the dwellings of those of high station, or in front of 
temples and other places of importance, that the roads 
were laid perfectly smooth, with broken stones bound by 
clay in much the same system as is used on macadamised 
roads. The people therefore, are perfectly aware of what 
smooth roads are, and it is to be regretted that they did 
not more largely adopt these. The high road from Nafa 
to Shiuri is 30 or 40 feet wide and is lined with trees 
on each side. It is laid throughout its entire width 
and for the whole length of the road with these blocks 
of stone. This represents an immense amount of labour 
and, while not convenient for pedestrians, it has the 
advantage of being everlasting. 

The houses of the well-to-do classes are situated in a 
yard which is surrounded by a wall ten feet high, as has 
been already mentioned. They are similar to the ordinary 
Japanese houses with raised floors laid with mats, and 
sliding screens of paper. They are built of wood and 
present no peculiar differences from the Japanese style of 
construction. The roofs are laid with tiles, which, however, 
are quite different in shape to the Japanese tiles. Over 
the joint between two concave tiles, a convex one is laid, 
and these are all semi-circular in cross section. The tiles 
are made at Nafa and are red in colour. They appeared of 
good quality. The houses of the poorer classes are of a 
very primitive character. The roof is covered by a thick 
thatch, and is supported by four comer uprights about 
five feet high. The walls consist of sheets of a species 
of netting made of small bamboo, which contain between 
them a thickness of about six inches of straw. This 
encloses the whole sides pf the house, a width of about 
two feet being left in one side as an entrance. There is 
no flooring in the houses of any description, and there is 



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generally laid over the mud inside a mat on which the in- 
mates lie or sit. We found that a pig was generally attached 
to each of these houses and that pork is very largely 
consumed by the inhabitants of the island. In each house 
also there is a weaving loom, and the dresses of the people 
are all woven by themselves in their own houses. 

There are no shops in Loochoo, and when anything is 
required to be purchased it may be brought by the dealer 
to the house of the buyer. There is, however, in each 
town a market place where various commodities are 
exposed for sale. These principally consist of the general 
food of the people, which is sweet potatoes, pork and 
a few fish. There were large quantities of Japanese tea 
which we were told the Loochooans were very fond of, 
and which they drank after the fashion of the Japanese. 
Satsuma tobacco was also observed in some quantity, and 
several bundles of English cotton twist. The market 
stalls are all presided over by women, who are evidently 
entrusted with the commercial operations of the island. 
The only money in use is copper cash, but the natives did 
not refuse the silver of some of our party who purchased 
a few things. Some of the women in the market 
were young, but the great proportion were elderly. The 
practice of tatooing the backs of the hands of the women 
was to be seen here ; the younger ones had a few marks 
only, while the hands of the elderly ones were covered 
down to the nails. That the Loochooan married women 
are kept in such seclusion as is related by Mr. Satow, 
namely, that they are not allowed to have any communica- 
tion whatever with the small portion of the outer world, 
may be true of the higher classes. We had no opportunity 
of testing this, but that it cannot be correct as regards 
the lower classes there can be little doubt. We observed 
numbers of women of all ages engaged in all manner of 
occupations, going about and conversing with as much 
freedom and self-assurance as is customary in any part 
of the world, and it is only reasonable to suppose some of 
these must have been married. 



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Loochoo has been visited by various foreign vessels at 
different periods. H.M. ships Alceste and Lyra, then on 
a cruise in Chinese waters, came to Nafa in the year 1815. 
And Captain Basil Hall has described the Island in his 
narrative of the voyage of these vessels. They remained at 
Nafa for some months and were refitted there, and the 
officers and crews experienced the greatest courtesy and 
civility from the natives. Commodore Perry also called 
here on his way to Japan with the U.S. squadron, but 
his experiences of the Loochooans were not so favourable 
as those of Captain Basil Hall. 

A little distance out of Nafa under some fine old fir 
trees are quite a number of graves of Europeans. Each 
grave has placed over it a block of stone work, about the 
same size as an ordinary grave and three feet high. On 
the top of this there are, on most of the graves, stones let 
into the masonry, which have inscriptions cut on them. 
From these we observed that two or three Catholic priests 
had been buried there, as also four men who had belonged 
to the American squadron. One inscription was over the 
grave of an English sailor of the Alceste, and it bore tes- 
timony to the good feeling existing between the English 
and the inhabitants at that time. It mentioned that the 
memorial had been erected by the ** King and inhabitants 
of this most hospitable island.'* 

The people are of a timid and most inoffensive nature, 
and all our experiences of them shew them to be kindly 
disposed to strangers. Their treatment of two survivors 
from the wreck of an English brig which came ashore on 
the island some years ago, was so considerate and so highly 
appreciated by the home authorities, that a gun vessel 
was despatched to offer the thanks of the English Gov- 
ernment, and to present to the King a gold watch in recog- 
nition of the kindness shewn to them by him and his 
people. 

On the sides of most of the small hills in the neighbour- 
hood of Nafa are the tombs of the inhabitants. They are 
built of stone into the sides of the hills. Their top re- 



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sembles a horse-shoe in shape, and in front there is the 
opening into the interior which is built and cemented up 
so as to be air-tight. The roof is made of plaster and is 
flat, and the appearance of a number of these tombs on 
the sides of the different hills has a very picturesque effect. 
The method of burial is to leave the corpse in the tomb 
for about three years until it is entirely decayed, the tomb 
is then opened, the bones are collected and kept in an um 
as a relic by the family. While walking in the neigh- 
bourhood of the tombs we observed one open. A tempo- 
rary mat shed was erected in front of it and sounds of the 
most violent grief proceeded from the interior. This, we 
understood, was on the occasion of the re-opening of the 
tomb for dis-interment, when the relatives meet to witness 
the last rite performed upon the remains of the deceased. 
Mr. Satow mentions that this ceremony had been dis- 
continued and that the people are buried in the same way 
as Japanese are; but I have reasons for thinking that this 
is only partially true, and that it is still adhered to by 
certain classes of the population. 

There is abundant evidence that the whole island of Oku- 
sawa is of coral formation, and it, in all probability, affords 
an interesting example of a coral island which has been, since 
the formation of the coral, subjected to volcanic upheaval. 
On a hill about two hundred feet above the level of the sea 
the exposed rock was distinctly of coral and, in many places 
further inshore, coral was observed. The stone used in the 
buildings, walls, and also in paving the roads was also un- 
doubtedly coral, but it had, of course, lost to a great extent 
its characteristic appearance by wear and exposure. The 
whole country is low and undulating, no hill being above 400 
or 500 feet high, so that the upheaval to which it has pro- 
bably been subjected has not been of an extremely violent 
nature. Coral reefs rising to about the surface of the water 
surround it on every side. These generally enclose a 
central space of deep water. The passage through these 
r.t Nafa, as is customary in other coral islands, is opposite 
the mouth of a fresh water stream. The island is sub- 



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jected to frequent shocks of earthquake, showing further 
that it is not yet far removed from volcanic action. 

The climate is one which is of a sufficiently genial 
character to allow the vegetation to be green throughout 
the whole year. In the winter months some cold days 
are experienced, but snow or ice is unknown. The 
thermometer, during , our stay in the month of December, 
was as high as 73'^Fah. in the shade, and the sun was 
sufficiently powerful to necessitate our return to thinner 
apparel, sun-helmets and umbrellas. 

The product which we observed as chiefly cultivated 
was the sweet potato. It is the principal food of the 
people, patches of paddy land were seen here and there, 
but they were not of any great extent. The rice is 
grown at various seasons of the year as it suits the con* 
venience of the farmers. We saw some which had just 
been planted and which was expected to be reaped in 
March or April. The climate will admit of two crops 
being produced in the year, but the people, with sensible 
prudence, do not tax the productive properties of the land 
to so g^eat an extent. Many groves of sugar-cane were 
observed. Oranges of a peculiar, aromatic flavour grow 
on the island, but not in large quantities, and fruit of any 
kind appears scarce. The sago palm is cultivated in 
large quantities, and the sides of all the hills which are 
not otherwise occupied are covered with it. The whole 
island is in the highest state of cultivation, and in 
this respect will bear a favorable comparison with any 
part of Japan. The farming implements in use seemed 
to be precisely similar to those used in Japan. 

There are many ponies on the island. They are from 
10 to 10^ hands high and are well-shaped little animals. 
Some of our party who rode on them gave excellent ac- 
counts of their spirit and paces. They resemble the 
Manila breed of pony, or may possibly be a cross between 
it and the China breed. 

A few cocoanut trees were seen but they do not bear fruit. 
Small quantities of tea and tobacco are also grown. 



I 

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The trees on the island are all of small sLre^ and wood 
is not plentiful. A few teak trees were seen, but the natives 
do not consider that they produce a valuable timber and 
consequently pay them no attention. From our own ob- 
servation the wood in them would be small and full of 
knots. A hard timber named Kdmoriy and a soft wood 
named Fuchitsuba^ are grown on the island and were 
observed in the temples and other erections. But a great 
part of the wood in use is the ordinary Japanese wood, 
which is imported from Kagoshima. 

Owing to the scarcity of wood, stone has entered much 
more extensively into the building operations of the people 
than it has in Japan. The execution ^of the mason- work is 
also infinitely superior to anything to be seen in Japan. 
The Loochooans seemed to have grasped the principle of 
giving strength to mason-work by friction between the beds 
of adjacent stones. The joints are therefore made with 
truth, and although the stones are generally of the most 
diverse shapes, they fit into each other with perfect accuracy, 
unlike Japanese masonry, the stones in which are only kept 
in place by a bearing on each other of a few inches wide on 
their outer edge. The walls which surround the dwellings 
and which line the streets are all built in this way. The 
material in them is small, and in a few cases we observed 
that lime-mortar had been used in the joints. 

All the bridges, on the roads, which we observed were 
built of stone. The openings in them are spanned by 
means of arches in the form of an ellipse. So far as the 
eye can judge they are almost perfectly elliptical. This 
form of arch is also to be seen over all gateways and 
other openings. There are also a few arches of the 
form of a segment of a circle, but the elliptical arch is by 
far the most common. Some of these are of exceedingly 
small rise and are ingeniously constructed. They are 
however faulty in so far that the arch stones are placed 
lengthways along the entrados of the arch, instead of the 
joints radiating from the centre. They are therefore but 
ill-calculated to bear the strains which come upon them. 



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The bridges have well-constructed piers and abutments 
and are furnished with stone parapets. The insides of 
these are ornamented with elaborate carvings and designs, 
which are chiefly of Chinese origin. The Loochooans 
admit having received their notions of building from 
China, and those familiar with that country will probably 
see great resemblances to Chinese erections in all that 
exists in Loochoo; but there are also, without doubt, 
evidences of some departure from Chinese methods and 
of original ideas on the part of these islanders. 

The castle which is the residence of the King is situ- 
ated in about the centre of Shinri and on an eminence 
about 500 feet above the level of the sea. The dwellings 
in which the king resides, are placed near the summit 
of the eminence. They are of the ordinary type of 
wooden buildings and are of considerable extent. They 
are built in a square, enclosing a court about seventy yards 
wide. This court is laid out in paths with different 
coloured tiles. Opposite the entrance is the largest build- 
ing, which was shut up at the time of our visit— on the 
left and right being smaller buildings, which are used as 
the residences of the court officials, as reception chambers, 
and for other purposes. Surrounding these buildings, but at 
lower elevations, on the sides of the hill, are very extensive 
revetment walls, some of which are 60 or 80 feet high and 
14 or 15 feet thick. These walls, which must sustain an 
enormous pressure from the earth behind them are built in 
plan, in the form of a series of inverted arches. This 
seems an ingenious and excellent expedient for assisting the 
strength of such walls, and a principle something similar to 
it is adopted in large retaining walls in Europe. The 
pointed part of the wall, from which two arches spring, is 
ornamented by a peculiar and graceful curve. Cactus in 
profusion grows along the tops of the walls and they are 
covered on the outside with various creepers. To enter 
the castle it is necessary to pass through three gateways of 
very heavy mason-work, the openings through which are 
spanned by elliptical arches. The castle cannot be called 



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fortified, though its position dnd the existence, of the high 
walls already mentioned would render it sa£e against 
capture except from an attack furnished with modem 
appliances. The object in cgnstructing it has no doubt 
been to make it a stronghold capable of resisting any 
enemy known to the people. The king seems to take but 
little active part in the Government of the country and 
had not been visible to any stranger for some years. 

The country altogether presents a strange admixture of 
Chinese with Japanese ways and customs. The inscrip- 
tions which are to be seen on the various monumental 
stones placed in the streets are written in Chinese. Many 
are quotations from Confucius and other Chinese classics, 
while others go so far as to represent the country as part 
of China. The principles of building have been partly 
borrowed from China. The tombs and manner of burial 
are to some extent after the Chinese fashion, and the 
general appearance of the towns gives evidence of the 
existence of a close intfmacy with China. But the language 
on the other hand is Japanese. It is not precisely similar 
to the Japanese now spoken, but it is believed to be as 
nearly as possible similar to the language spoken some 
centuries ago, many words of which have become obsolete. 
While a great part of what was said by the Loochooans 
was understood by the Japanese, many words used by 
them were recognized as belonging to the old Japanese 
vernacular but which are now never heard. The more 
frequent intercourse with Japan has led to a familiarity 
with Japanese ways and the use of Japanese produce. 

There were no Chinese on the island, and we heard of 
only one Japanese merchant who was resident there. 
There are three or four Japanese officials living at Nafa, 
who have been probably sent there for the purposes of 
the Government. 

A tax of 8,200 koku of rice is levied by the Japanese 
government from the Loochooans. It is paid in sugar, 
that being the most valuable produce of the island. Certain 
articles are also sent to China each year, but these consist 



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merely of complimentary offerings and small presents. 
Communication is kept up between Loochoo and Foochow 
by means of large junks. 

The island is. between four and five hundred squiare 
miles in area, and it is said to have a population of 
150,000. This is at the rate of three hundred to the 
square mile, a thickness of population so great as to be 
hardly conceivable. 

The people are burdened with the maintenance of a 
large class of idlers who like the Samurai in Japan live 
upon hereditary privileges granted them by the govern- 
ment. These men are called Daimios and may be seen 
lounging about in every street. The lower classes are 
an industrious, docile, timid but extremely civil set of 
people. Their education is confined to Chinese, and only 
one book of Chinese classics is taught in the schools or, 
in fact, is known among them. They have little or no 
communication with the outside world. -They produce 
on the island what is sufficient for their own wants and 
would probably be best satisfied in being left alone. But 
this is not to be their fate. The Japanese Government 
have taken over the active control of the country. It has 
been formed into a Han. A Mitsu Bishi mail steamer now 
visits it once every alternate month, and the Loochooans 
have probably experienced the last of that quiet and 
peaceful retirement which the geographical position of 
their country has heretofore afforded them, and for which 
their natures seem so well adapted. 



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ON THE ARROW POISON IN USE 
AMONG. THE AINOS OF YEZO. 



BY 



STUART ELDRIDGE, Esq. M.D. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of jfapan on the 
igth January J 1876. 



The study of poisons has revealed the somewhat singu- 
lar fact that certain of these deleterious agents produce 
a lethal effect only when introduced directly in the blood, 
being nearly or totally harmless when taken by the stomach. 

Of this class of poisons snake venom may be taken as 
the type, for it has long been indisputably proved that 
while an infinitesimal quantity of serpent venom when 
injected in the blood or in any way placed beneath the 
skin will speedily be fatal, a large quantity may be swal- 
lowed without inconvenience. It is chiefly poisons of this 
class which are at* present used for the preparation of 
poisoned weapons by the various savage tribes employing 
such means of offence. 

Poisoned weapons are generally missiles, such as throw- 
ing spears or arrows, and the wide geographical range of 
their use may be inferred from the following brief men- 
tion of some of the best known instances of their employ- 
ment. 

The natives of Java, Borneo and Celebes make use of 
a poison extracted from the juice of the Upas tree, two 
species of the Upas being employed U. antiar, and U. tiute. 



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The poison consists essentially of the inspissated sap of these 
plants, that obtained from U. tiute being the most active. 
The action of these poisons has been investigated by Rum- 
phius,* Leschenaultjt Magendie, Delille, Brodie, J HorsfieId,l| 
Pelletierand Caventou,§ Mulder,1i Kdlliker * and Hammond, t 

The Bushmen of South Africa employ two kinds of Arrow 
poisons. That which is in common use for the chase is a 
mixture of snake venom with the juice of the root of a poison- 
ous Amaryllis (Haemanthus Toxicaria), while the second, 
which is in especial favor for war, is derived from a larva 
known as the N'gwaa or K*aa, which appears to be closely 
allied in structure and properties to the poisonous potato bug 
of Colorado (Doryphora Decemlineata). For the small a- 
mount of information which we possess on the subject of 
these . African poisons we are chiefly indebted to Doctor 
Livingstone and Mr. Baines. 

The Indians, at least some of the tribes, who range over 
the great plains of North America, make use of an arrow 
poison prepared by exciting the rattlesnake (Crotalus) to 
bestow its venom repeatedly upon a piece of raw liver. 
This liver is then buried until decomposition has taken 
place when it is smeared upon the arrows. The effects of 
this poison, like those of the bite of the reptile from which 
it is derived, appear to be neither uniform nor certainly 
fatal, but the subject still lacks investigation. 

By far the best known and most interesting of the 
arrow poisons in use is the curare or woorari of the 
tribes about the Amazon and Orinoco. Many varieties of 
this poison are known, such as corroval^ vao, and ticunas, 
but all appear to be closely related both in composition 
and effects. Woorari of the Amazon may be taken as the 
type of the class ; the essential elements of this are the 

• Herbarium Amboinense, tome II. lib. Ill p.263. 

t Annales MuseuM d^Historie Naturelle, tome XVI, 1816. p.459. 

I Philosophical Transactions, part I, 181 1. p. 198. 

Ij Thompson's Annals of Philosophy vol. IX p.202. 265. 

§ Annales de Chimie et de Physique, tome XXVI, p.44. 

% Traitc de Chimie de Berzelius, tome III., p. 869. 

• Verhandlungen der Wurtzburger, Phys. Med. Gesellschaft. Band 
VIII.. 1857. 

t Physiological Memoirs, 1863, p. 271. 



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juice of a species of Strychnos, snake venom and the crushed 
bodies of several species of poisonous ants and spiders. 

From the fact that woorari produces certain very in- 
teresting physiological phenomena, its effects have been 
more thoroughly studied than those of either of the 
before mentioned poison. To enumerate all who have 
investigated this subject would be tedious and beyond the 
purpose of this paper. I will instance Boussingault, J 
Pelletier, || Bernard, § Cogswell, % Virchow, * Brainard, t 
Hammond I and Du Cazal.|| 

The Goorkhas and other tribes inhabiting the flanks 
of the Himalayas make use of the root of the Aconitum 
ferox for poisoning their weapons. The prepared poison 
is known as Bikh or Bish, and its action as described apK 
pears to be identical with that of the subject of this paper. 

Pereira, as quoted by Wallich, (Plantae Asiaticse Rariores, 
Vol. I, p. 35, Tab. 41) gives the following experiments upon 
this poison. 

** One grain of the alcoholic extract introduced into the 
peritoneal cavity of a rabbit began to produce its effects 
in two minutes ; death took place in nine minutes and a- 
half. In a second experiment of a similar kind, the effects 
commenced in two minutes and a-half, and death was pro- 
duced in eleven minutes. Two grains introduced into the 
jugular vein of a good-sized, strong dog produced convul- 
sions in one minute, and death in three minutes. One 
grain introduced into the cellular tissue of the back of a 
rabbit began to affect the system at the end of six minutes, 
and produced death in fifteen minutes. A rabbit was 
made to swallow three grains of the extract ; no effect was 
produced except that the animal continued chewing for 
several hours, as if ruminating, and which probably arose 

X Ann. de Chimie et dc Physique, tome XXXIX, 1828, p. 24. 

II lb, tome XL, p. 213. 

§ Comptes Rendus, tome XXXI, 1850, p. 534. 

IF Lancet, March 3rd 1855, 

♦ Reisen in Britisch Guiana, Schomburgk, Band I, 8. 456, note* 

t Comptes Rendus, tome XXXVIII, 1854, p. 411. 

\ Physiological memoirs 1863, p. igo. 

II Archives Gen. Med. 1869 p. 328. 



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from the local action of the poison on the mouth and 
throat.'* The effects were (as detailed) tried in several 
ways, and in every case, except that in which the poison 
was given by the mouth, the effects were very similar, 
" namely, difficulty of breathing, weakness, subsequent pa- 
ralysis, and death, apparently from asphyxia.** 

The root of an allied species, Aconitum Japonicum, is 
said to be used in Northern China as an arrow poison, § 
but I have been unable to find any details in reference to 
its preparation or effects. 

All these poisons produce their effect much more 
quickly and certainly when inoculated than when ingest- 
ed, while some of them are absolutely harmless when 
aken into the stomach. The list of weapon poisonst 
might be much extended, but enough have been noticed 
to serve for purposes of comparison. 

Now the intention of poisoned weapons will be best 
subserved by the use of poisons which act in such a man- 
ner as quickly to incapacitate the wounded man or animal 
ibr resistance or ffight, and it is remarkable that all the 
known weapon poisons, with, perhaps, the exception of 
the N'gwaa of the Bushmen, produce among their earliest 
eflfects a paralysis of voluntary motion. The woorari pos- 
sesses this power in an especial degree. We shall see 
further on that the arrow poison of the Ainos, is no ex- 
ception to this general rule. 

Another important requisite when weapon poisons are 
employed for purposes of the chase is that the poison 
shall not render the flesh of animals slain by it unfit for 
consumption as food. The Aino arrow poison does not 
fully meet this requirement, as we shall see hereafter, and 
in this respect differs from most other agents of its kind. 

I regret that my knowledge of the derivation and mode 
of preparation of the arrow poison of the Ainos is as 
yet incomplete. Savage tribes invariably surround the 
preparation of medicinal or poisonous agents by mystery 
and superstition. The secret methods employed are known 

i Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, November, 1861, p. 263. 



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to but few of the tribe and the knowledge is generally 
hereditary. Although the existence and chief properties 
of the woorari poison have been more or less familiar to 
Europeans since the time of Raleigh, its exact composition 
and mode of preparation is still but uncertainly known. It 
is therefore not strange that definite information in regard 
to the Aino poison should still be wanting. The following 
statements, are however undoubtedly correct. The active 
ingredient of the Aino poison is derived from the roots of 
one or more species of Aconitum. The dried and imperfect 
specimens of the plant which I have seen appear to be A. 
ferox and A. Japonicum, known as among the most 
poisonous species. The root is prepared by maceration and 
pounding till it forms a pulp: this is mixed with other 
ingredients which I have been unable to identify, but which 
are probably inert, and the resulting mass is buried for a 
time in the earth. On removal from the earth, the poison 
appears as a stiff dark reddish-brown paste through which 
fragments of woody fibre are distributed. The poison when 
applied to the arrow, is mixed with a certain proportion of 
animal fat, an addition which would seem likely to render it 
less efficient, as the fatty matter would cause it to be less 
soluble in the blood. The poison is applied to the arrow in 
considerable quantity, such arrows as I have seen being 
charged with about ten grains each. 

The arrows used are constructed in three parts. The 
point, or head, is either of bone or bamboo; when of the 
latter it is so cut that the hard silicious cortex of the cane 
forms the edge and point. The head is flattened upon 
one side and rounded upon the other. This head, of about 
an inch and one-half in length is slightly fastened by a 
lashing of bark to a fusiform piece of bone or deer-horn 
of about four inches in length ; this bone or horn is again 
lashed by strips of bark to a shaft of wood or bamboo of 
about thirteen inches long, the butt of which is fur- 
nished with a triple feather. 

It is on the flattened surface of the arrow-head that the 
poison is applied by moulding it into a smooth, rounded 



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elevation, having its long axis parallel with that of the 
arrow, (see drawing.) The Ainos employ their poisoned 
arrows chiefly for the destruction of the bear, an animal 
abounding in Yezo and attaining there a large size. A 
short and by no means powerful bow, furnished with a 
poisoned arrow, is adjusted in such a way as to command 
one of the usual run-ways of the animal to be taken. By 
a simple mechanism the bow is so arranged that on strik- 
a cord which is stretched across the path, the detent is 
liberated and the arrow inflicts a slight wound. More than 
a slight wound the weakness and rudeness of the appara- 
tus render almost impossible. It is probable, however, that 
the slight lashings of the arrow head frequently give way, 
allowing the poison -charged portion of the weapon to re- 
main in the wound. The Ainos assert that after having 
been wounded the bear is always found dead within a very 
short distance. These set bows are so common in some parts 
of the forest of Yezo as to render travel rather dangerous. 

As I have been able to obtain but a very small quantity 
of the poison, I have made but few experiments as to its 
composition and physiological action. 

The chemical examination was undertaken under the 
justiiiable suspicion that the active principle of the poison, 
is thiat usual in plants of the genus from which it is de- 
rived, namely, aconitine. Fifteen grains of the crude poison 
treated by boiling alcohol, ammonia, ether, and sulphuric 
acid, yielded 8/10 of a grain of a yellowish-white, amor- 
phous material, a portion, of which was dissolved in water 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid*, and tested as follows. 

With solution of caustic potass, a dirty white flocculent 
•precipitate, insoluble in excess of the reagent but soluble 
in acetic acid. 

With solution of chloride of gold, a yellow amorphous 
precipitate, sparingly soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

With double solution of iodine and iodide of potassium, 
a red-brown amorphous precipitate, changed by addition of 
a solution of caustic .potass into a white amorphous mass. 

Now all of these tests are in themselves fallible, as 



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84 

certain other alkaloids behave in exactly the same manner, 
there remained the physiological test as a confirmation. 
When applied to the tongue, aconitine, even in very minute 
quantity, produces an acrid taste, immediately followed 
by a peculiar sense of tingling and numbness. The ex- 
tracted material before-mentioned gave this sensation. I 
feel justified, therefore, in believing that the active princi- 
ple of the poison is aconitine. 

Five experiments were tnade to determine the physiolo- 
gical action of the poison. 

Experiment I. 
A medium-sized dog of the larger Japanese breed received 
beneath the skin of the fore-leg i grains of the poison, rubbed 
up with a small quantity of glycerine. In two minutes the 
animal seemed to experience uneasy sensations in the region 
of the inoculation, while both pulse and respiration dimini- 
shed in frequency one third. In five minutes there was 
unsteadiness of gait and almost total loss of ordinary sensa- 
tion, as shown by the insensibility of the animal to 
pricking or pinching ; pulse and respiration still less frequent 
than before. In seven minutes the animal fell over in a 
slight convulsion, respiration and pulse irregular as well as 
slow. After remaining in the recumbent posture for ten 
minutes, during which time there was slow improvement in 
pulse and respiration with gradual return of sensibility of 
the skin, the dog rose, moving stiffly and awkwardly, but 
gradually recovered, the following day being as well as 
usual, save a slight irritation about the wound by which the 
poison was inserted. 

Experiment II. 
A large dog of Japanese breed received beneath the 
skin of the foreleg one and one-half grain of the poison 
mixed, as before, with glycerine. He was then allowed 
to go, but had run a distance of but about two hundred 
feet when his legs appeared to give way, and he fell over 
convulsed, breathing slowly, laboriously and irregularly, 
motion of heart slow and almost imperceptible ; these 



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S3mnptoms gradually becoming more marked until, in five 
minutes from the reception of the poison, the dog was dead. 

Experiment III. 
A dog similar to that which was the subject of the 
second experiment received beneath the skin of the ab- 
domen two grains of the poison mixed with glycerine. In 
two minutes the dog fell over exhibiting the same pheno- 
mena as to pulse and respiration as did the two preceding 
animals, and in four minutes and a half from the reception 
of the poison the animal was dead. 

Experiment IV. 
A dog similar to those before employed for experiment, 
received by the stomach, together with a small quantity 
of rice, two grains of the poison. In ten minutes he 
seemed uneasy, and the pulse and respiration became for 
a time a trifle slower than normal ; no further incon- 
venience appeared to be experienced by the animal. 

Experiment V. 

To the same dog a few days later, five grains of the 
poison togther with a little rice, were administered by 
the stomach. In six minutes the dog whined and laid 
down, the pulse and respiration remaining unaffected till the 
expiration of fifteen minutes, when they became slightly 
slower than normal. In thirty minutes the dog had a 
convulsion in which he died. 

The effects of the poison as shown by the foregoing ex- 
periments quite agree with those produced by the Hima- 
layan poison examined by Pereira, as well as with those 
known to be produced by the official preparations of 
aconite when similarly employed. And it seems probable 
therefore that the Aino poison is practically identical with 
that used in Northern India and China. 

From the comparatively large quantity of the Aino 
poison which was found necessary to produce fatal effiects, 
I am induced to think that it is much less virulent than 
most other poisons employed for like purposes. Never- 
theless, when used in quantities as large as those employ- 



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« 

ed by the Ainos, it is quite competent to produce the re- 
sults which they claim for it. 

That the Ainos are able to eat the flesh of animals 
poisoned in the manner described is probably simply due 
to the fact, that in any single part of the animal's body the 
amount of poison is insufficient to produce perceptible 
effects upon the individual eating it. Beside which, the 
hunter invariably takes the precaution of cutting away a 
considerable quantity of the flesh about the wound in 
which the poison was received. 

Such of the Ainos as I have questioned upon the sub- 
ject, state that they know of no antidote to the effects of 
the poison, and that, when accidentally or intentionally 
wounded by a poisoned weapon, the only safety is instant 
and thorough excision of the wounded part. 



A General Meeting of the above Society was held in the Grand 
Hotel on Wednesday, the igth January. The chair was taken by 
the President, the Rev. S. R. Brown, D.D. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confinned, and 
the following new members announced : — Messrs. A. Hamao, F, M. 
Jonas, Geo. B. Williams, Gregory, J. Perry, H. S. Munroc, N. 
Wakayama, Rev. W. E. Parsons, and Dr. H. Faulds. 

Mr. Henderson then proceeded to read a paper prepared by R. H. 
Brunton, Esq. entitled ** Notes taken during a visit to the Loochoo 
Islands." 

Dr. Brown congratulated the members of the Society upon the 
opportunity that had been give them to listen to Mr. Brunton*s paper. 
He said they had before been favoured with a paper on the Loochoo 
Islands by Mr. Satow, which deservedly attracted attention on account 
of the limited sources of information within the reach of foreigners 
respecting those islands ajid their inhabitants. The paper just read 
was a valuable supplement to Mr. Satow^s, Mr. Brunton's notes bein^ 
those of an intelligent observer taken on the spot. It was not strange 
that in some points the views of Mr. Brunton should differ from those 
of his predecessor. Navigators of earlier times had given to the world 
but meagre and inaccurate accounts of those islands. Mr. Satow's 
opinion that the language of the Loochooans differs little from Japanese, 
seems to be confirmed by Mr. Brunton, with the remarkable addition 
that the dialect spoken there was spoken in Japan some centuries 
ago. It is an interesting question how this frict is to be accounted 
for, and its further investigation might furnish an important link 



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in the htstoiy of linguistic changes in the language of Japan. If it be 
true that there are no books written in Japanese in the Loochoo islands, 
but only in Chinese, this fact in any other country except Japan and its 
outlying dependencies would be considered an anomalous one, for, 
among the Japanese as well as those islanders, there has been, and 
now is, a predominant disposition to favor a mongrel exotic literature 
rather than to improve the vernacular and make it the language of books. 
Those islands which have been supposed by many to be of volcanic 
origin, are now found to be of a coraline formation, by some force 
lifted out of the sea. And thus we are gradually coming to a more 
accurate knowledge of that hitherto secluded portion of the Pacific 
islands. 

Dr. Eldridge then read his paper on ** The Arrow Poison of 
the Atnok.** 

On its cohclusion Dr. Brown said, he was sure that the Society 
appreciated its obligations to Dr. Eldridge, its author, for it treated of a 
subject which probably no one else had been able to investigate and 
therefore was refreshing by its very novelty, and gave a pleasing variety 
to the Society*s procedings. He regretted that he was not able to offer 
any remarks on the subject, so entirely aside from his own line of study, 
while it was important as a contribution to our information respecting 
an aboriginal race that is fast disappearing before the advances of a 
stronger one. He hoped the professional gentlemen present would 
Cavour the society with remarks on the topic. 

After a few remarks from Dr. Hepburn, Sir Harry Parkes supported the 
President's opinion of the value of Dr. Eidridge's paper, which possessed 
much novelty and interest, and was a most welcome contribution to the 
Society's proceedings. He also commended the industry of Mr. Brunton 
in collecting during a brief visit of only two days so much information 
respecting the Loochoo Islanders. This little country and its people 
presented a most interesting study in many respects. Their language, 
customs and mode of Government were deserving of close research, 
and it would be important to ascertain beyond doubt, whether, as was 
alleged, they had no native literature, but were wholly dependent on 
that of China. While their civilization partook stiongly of a Chinese 
type, the race was doubtless identical with the Japanese people and 
their language was a dialect of that of Japan. On this point he was 
able to give the meeting the opinion of Mr. Aston, which he had kindly 
furnished in the following note : 

The language of Loochoo is plainly nothing more than a dialect of 
Japanese. It is, however, a very strongly marked one, and the 
differences are ceruinly not less than those between Lowland 
Scottish and English. Without some little practice, the services of an 
interpreter are very acceptable even to the Japanese themselves. 

The following specimen of Loochooan will give some idea of the 
extent to which it differs from Japanese. It is copied from an 



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88 

inscription in front of a temple dedicated to the worship of the former 
kings of Loochoo, and was the only example of written Loochooan 
seen during a stay of two days. 

Anji mo gesu mo koma ni te oreru bishi, Anji is the name of an 
office, here put generally for all officials, ; gesu is Japanese, and means 
' vulgar*; koma is Loochooan for kohoy here ; oreru is Loochooan for 
orf>«, to get down. The sentence means * Both officials and common 
people must dismount at this place/ 

Except are^ he or it, the pronouns in ordinary use differ from the 
present Japanese pronouns. The words for 'you* are onjo^ i.c, 
honourable place; ita, a word for you, common in the old Japanese 
poetry but now ob<K>lete for hundreds of years, and ya, * I * is nraw, 
evidently a form of the Japanese ware. 

These are not the only words obsolete in Japan which are still in 
Loochoo. Japan itself is called by them Yamato. 

Both native and Chinese words present many differences with 
Japanese in the vowels with which they are pronounced. Kiseru, sl 
pipe for instance, in Loochooan kishiri ; kiiotsu, one, is fiitechi ; futetsu, 
two, xsfutachi ; nijiu^ twenty, is nijtl, 

A letter change which is not easily reconciled with the laws of let- 
ter change known in European languages is the substitution in 
Loochooan in some words of ch where the Japanese word has k. In 
this way hachi maki has become in Loochooan hachi macki. The 
word Loochoo itself is an instance of this change, Loochoo being the 
native form, Riukiu the Japanese. 



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89 



USEFUL MINERALS AND 

METALLURGY OF THE 

JAPANESE. 

£.— GOLD.* 

BY 

Dr. GEERTS. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of ^apan, on the 
i6th of February, 1876. 



Gold, ^ Kin ; Syn. Ki-gane (yellow metal), O-butsu 
(yellow matter), An-tan, To-nan-yo-nitsu (sunshine in 
the South-east), Kiyo, &c,, was first found in Japan in 
the year 749, during the reign of the 45th Emperor 

• Literature. — Kaempfer^s^ History of Japan, I. Book, Chap. IV. and 
VIII. Thunbergj Voyage au Japon par Langlis^ Paris, 1796, Vol. 
in., p. 439. Stan. Julien et Chanpion^ Industries, &c., p. 38. 
B. S. Lyman, Report of the Geological Survey of Yesso, Tokei, 
Kaitakushi, 1874. p. 36 H, S, Munroe^ the Gold fields of Yesso, 
in the Japan Daily Herald^ Mail Summary, June 23rd. 1875. 
7. H. GubbinSt Notes of a Journey, &c., and a Visit to the Mines 
of Sado, in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, 1875. 
Chinese Technology: — Thiai-kong-khat-wu, 5^ IE ^ /^ 
(Japanese Ed. Ten-ko-kai-butsu), Vol. VII., Tab. 4. Natural 
History, Hon-zo-ko-mohu, :$: ]^ JB g Vol. VIII., Alt. Fig. 
I and 2. Ono-Ranzan^s Hon-zo-ko-moku ke'i-mo, ^ 4^ iM S 
Jgp ^ Ed. 1847, Vol. IV., p. I. yap, Technology, San-kai-mei- 
butsu-dsu-kuwai, lU -^ :jg i^ H -^ Vol. I., Tab. I., IV., 
v., VI., XIV. Japan Encyclopedy : Wa-kan-san-5a:i-dzu-huwai ^ 
^ ^ ;;^ ^ -^ Vol. 59. Jap, Mineralogy: Seki-hln-san-sho-ko, 
"5 J& M /^^ ^ ^ Vol. Jap. Statistics: Ncu-guwai-ichi-ran 
ft ^ - 51 , Vol. 






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Set'tnu (or Sho-mu-tenno), This first gold came from 
the district OdagOri, in the province of Oshiu. The Prince 
of Suruga presented in the following year (750) to the 
Mikado some gold, which was found in his province. 
Since ancient times there have been rumours abroad about 
the enormous wealth of gold-ore in this country. Before 
Kaempfer's time there had already been such an exagger- 
ated belief. Those stories about the richness of Japan and 
especially of the much desired ^^ gold and silver islands** 
(kin-shima and gin-shima) have dazzled the minds of many 
foreigners.! Kaempfer (1692) and even Thunberg (150 
years later) indicate the situation of these islands at 
a distance of 150 miles East, or E. N. E. off the coast of 
Oshiu. The Spaniards had tried in vain in 1620 to find 
them. The Dutch sent two vessels in 1639 the Engel, 
and the Graffs under command of Mattys Quasi and 
Abel Tasmatif in search of these precious islands, but 
they returned to Formosa, after having sailed 600 miles 
at 37i° N. L. East of Japan, without seeing any traces of 
land. In the year 1643 two other vessels, the Castricum 
and the BreskenSy were ordered under Commander Vries 
to explore the Northern Pacific Ocean, the East coast of 
Siberia and the gold and silver islands East of Japan. 
Our eminent Dutch navigator did not, however,' find the 
latter, but he discovered first the Bonin Islands, second 
the Island of Yesso, third the Kunaschiri, fourth the Iturup 
(Staten-land), and fifth the Urup (Compagniesland). 

The accounts of the richness of Japan in gold-ore, 
have been copied from book to book, without having been 
sufficiently weighed and tested. When the Portuguese 
first came into contact with the Japanese — and even still 
many years later — there was a considerable stock of pre- 

t Vincent Romyn and afterwards William Verstegcn, who came back 
from Desima to Batavia, sent in a memorial to the Governor-General 
Hanricus Brouwer (1633), stating the great importance for the East 
Indian Comp. to commence a trade with the Gold and Silver islands, 
situated in the Pacific Ocean at 37^ degrees North Latitude. [Cf. Reis 
naar de Eilanden ten Noorden en Oosten van Japan door Marten 
Gcrritszoon Vries in 1643. Transactions of the Royal Institute of 
Netherlands India. 2nd Series Amsterdam, 1858.—] 



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dous metals, and especially gold in this countxy. This 
relatively large amount of gold does not prove, however, 
the extreme richness of the country, because it was in 
reality the product of gold-washing during many centuries. 
Japan being closed at that time to neariy the whole worid, 
the gold remained in the country and augmented with 
every year. Under such circumstances the quantity of 
gold must have been considerable after many centuries, 
even if the country contained but a very moderate quanti- 
ty of ore. The extreme cheapness of labour in former times 
allowed of gold -washing out of very poor gravel, which 
could not, without a decided loss, be worked either in Eu- 
rope or America. The production of gold being moreover 
larger in relation to silver than in other countries, the relative 
value of the first precious metal became quite different 
from our standard. Whilst in Europe the relation between 
gold and silver varies only a little between 15 to 16: i, 
there has been a time when this relation was in Japan 6 : i. 
The Portuguese and afterwards the Dutch have had the 
advantage of levelling the ground considerably, whilst the 
opening of Japan in latter years has done the rest. The 
quantity of gold metal exported by the Portuguese during 
their stay in Japan, 1550-1639, may be estimated at 
least fifty nine and a half millions sterling, or in average 
at 660,000 yearly. Kaempfer speaks even of some years with 
an export of two and a half millions of gold and adds in his 
peculiar style (Book iv, chap, v) " if this trade had lasted 
" but twenty years in the same degree, the Portuguese 
"would have exported (out of this Ophir to Macao) the 
" same quantity of gold and silver, which the Bible says 
" that there was in Jerusalem, during Solomon*s time. 

The Dutch afterwards exported chiefly copper and silver 
from Japan, bnt also gold, especially from 1 649-1 671. 
The quantity of silver exported by the Dutch alone during 
the seventeenth century may be valued at 112 millions* of 
taels and the quantity of gold exported during the same 
period at 6,192,900 pieces of the old koban. During the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries there were besides ex- 



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ported considerable quantities of gold and copper. The 
whole quantity of Japanese gold and silver exported dur- 
ing the 1 6th and 17th centuries may be estimated as fol- 
lows : 

Portuguese. . . gold and silver £^59>Soo,ooo 

I^utch gold ;f 15,482,250 1 r,.<^2 2KO 

silver ;f 28,000,000 j A43»+»2,25o 



Or nearly 103 millions. 
We have had the opportunity of seeing many gold-ores out 
of different parts of Japan ; the last exhibition in Kiyoto 
(1875) had about twenty samples accurately labelled with 
the localities of occurrence of nearly all those provinces, 
in which gold is more or less worked. By the kindness of 
the local government we obtained and examined these 
specimens, together with the samples in our former collec- 
tion. Most samples consisted of ochry silicious conglom- 
erates and ochry argillaceous gravel, there being very few 
samples of more dense and pure auriferous quartz or 
feldspar. Nearly all rocks had a disintegrated character, 
caused by the long-continued action of air and water. The 
samples of alluvial auriferous gravel proved undoubtedly 
their origin as products of disintegration from primitive 
rocks, under the continued action of torrents. The gold 
in these alluvial deposits was found m very small scales, 
so that the aid of a lens was necessary to discover them, 
and in many instances the gold-dust could only be ascer- 
tained after a process of washing and levigation. Gold in 
dendritic forms we have only seen in some samples of pure 
auriferous quartz from Satsuma and Kai. The general 
aspect of all these ores was poor. J Considering further 
kinds, we cannot but believe that Japanese auriferous 
gravel or quartz is as a rub poor, although these gold- 

J When we speak of •• general aspect " we must leave the question of 
the quantitative amount of gold open, because it is impossible to make an 
exact determination in a single piece oi poor gold quartz. To determine 
practically the value of these ores a certain volume, say one cubic metre, 
of rock or gravel must be taken, crushed, washed etc. The resulting 
gold dust must then after purification and drying, be carefully weighed 
on a chemical balance. 



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bearing minerals occur, often in considerable quantity, in 
many different localities. According to Japanese books 
on the subject " pepitas's " (nuggets) were often found 
in former times but of late the gold-washer gets nothing 
but" gold-dust/* In many places a workman, who washes 
gold-gravel for four or five days cannot obtain more 
gold-metal than is contained in an old nibu. Many gold- 
bearing places are now lying without being worked, be- 
cause it becomes more and more difficult to work the ores 
with profit, on account of the wages of workmen having 
considerabl)' increased during the latter years, since the 
abolition of the daimios. With exception, perhaps, of the 
ore in Satsuma, the gravel of 0-sumi, the quartz of Ko- 
magori in the province of Kc.i and of Esashigori in Riku- 
chiu and of the mine at Aikawa in the island of Sado, we 
cannot believe that gold-metallurgy will enjoy in Japan a 
brilliant future, because most of the ores at other places 
are too poor and cost therefore too much labour in separa- 
ting the gold-dust. 

The manner in which the Japanese work the gold-ores 
nearly resembles our Western methods and deserves much 
credit. They understand perfectly the separation of even 
the smallest quantities of gold dust from other stones and 
gravel, by means of a system of washing and levigation. 
The different ores are ; 

I. — Alluvial Sand and Gravel jf^ ^ Sha-kin or 
Sei-kin or Sui-KiN. The Japanese distinguish according 
to the dimensions of the gold found in this ore : 

a. Mominuka or Kokin or Ku-to-kln JQ @| jfe 

(heads of dogs) ; these are the largest nuggets or 

rounded masses. 
6. Uri-sanB'kin (Melon seed-gold) or Kiiwa-shi-kin 

)S^ J* ^oi the size of melon seeds. 

c. Nassubi-sane-kin (Tomato-seed || gold) or Fu-baku- 
kin, ^ ^ ^ a little smaller than the other. 

d, Sha-kin ^j) ^ gold-dust. 

II Solanum melongana Linn. 



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These are found in the beds of old and existing rivers. 
The Japanese believe, but not always rightly, that the 
gold produced by rivers is not of the same good quality as 
the gold from rocks. They believe also that this gold is 
poisonous (?) and that the flesh of the ** Shako " and of 
snakes is an antidote to it. 

2. — Auriferous Rocks of Quartz ** Feldstone" or 

OTHER SILICIOUS CONGLOMERATES Jj ^ SaN-KIN Or 

Yama-gane. The rock itself bears the name Haku-seki 
or Fun-shi'Seki, According to the dimensions, the Japan- 
ese distinguish oi yama-kin the following varieties : 

^- Ji| Kji ^' Ba-tei-kin (Horse-shoe-gold) the larg- 
est pieces. 

b, ^91^. Kan-ran-kin (Chinese olive § gold) or 
Tai-kuwa-kin ^ ^ ^. 

c, K ^. Oga or koga or Insu gold of auriferous 
rock which forms stalactitic masses. 

3. — Gold, which is disseminated in other compound 
metallic minerals, especially copper, silver, lead-ores and 
iron-pyrites. The Japanese now understand the separa- 
tion of the small amount of gold from these ores by the 
liquation and cupellation-process, which we have already 
described under the head of silver (vol. 3, part i, p. 90). 

Gold Metal, after it has been purified and melted in 
different shapes, bears different names : 

1. ^. — Kiyo or Shima-kin^ large flat oblong pieces, 
very fine gold ; rare. 

2. ]^ ^. — Juku'kin (ripe gold) or Mochi-gane is the 
ordinary button-form of good ordinary gold. 

3. ^'Hc^* — Kin-tetsU'ki or Kana-kuso gold out of 
auriferous iron pyrites not so pure as the former. 

4. ^ ^. — Ogon or KoganS is of much lighter colour, 
more yellow or greenish and considered very common. 

5. J0; ^. — Shakin. Gold in powder. The colour is 
much lighter than that of yuku-kln, but after melting and 
repeated hammering it is believed that it can become jm^m- 

§ Canarium Pimela Roxb. 



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kin (ripe gold). Shakin is generally considered to be of 
low quality. 

6. ^f|§ Kimpaku gold-leaf. 

7. ^5^ Kinshi gold-thread. 

The native writers call gold the " king of the five metals 
(gold, silver, copper, iron and tin). Although buried 
for many years, it never rusts and it loses nothing of its 
weight, even if it be smelted a hundred times. The alloy 
of gold with silver is pretty soft; if this alloy be struck 
on the touchstone (Tsuke ishi) a light, greenish -yellow 
line will be seen. But if the gold be alloyed with copper, 
it becomes very hard and emits a sound, when placed on 
the touchstone. Gold which is perfectly pure has a dark 
reddish -yellow colour and is so soft, that it easily re- 
ceives the impressions of the teeth. Gold is further said 
to have an antipathy to tin and to be afraid of quick- 
silver." 

The Chinese and Japanese judge the quality of gold 
principally according to its colour and hardness. They 
use for this a black touchstone, a variety of a black basal- 
tic siliceous slate (kiezelschiefer) perfectly resembling 
our Lydian-stone and very near to the fine black Japanese 
inkstones (Sudzuri ishi) which consists of ordinary black 
siliceous slate. By the different colored marks the ex- 
perienced Japanese analyst judges the purity of the gold, 
and for comparison he has in stock a collection of golden 
needles of different alloy. The touchstone is rubbed 
at the same time with one or two of the needles and the 
gold in question. The Japanese scale of fineness is much 
better that ours, being decimal. Perfectly pure gold has 
100 touches ; if the gold has 85 touches it contains 15 
per cent of alloy, and 85 per cent pure gold. At 
the same time the hardness of the metal is observed ac- 
curately, and this is quite necessary because a distinction 
according to colour can only be deemed a very rough and 
inexact one. For it is very easy to give different shades 
-—even the so much praised high red -orange colour — to gold 
by mixing with it specific quantities of copper and other 



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96 

metals. Nevertheless the careful Japanese expert but 
seldom misses the aim. We have ourselves had many 
proofs of Japanese assayers giving us a percentage of 
samples of gold and silver, which only differed slightly 
from our chemical analysis. Although we highly respect 
the skill of these experts, their method is far from being 
as accurate as our wonderful results of analysis by the 
wet process, which is in reality a model of precision. 

But besides colour and hardness, the Chinese and Ja- 
panese books give another method of testing. They pre- 
scribe the drawing of a line with the gold on the touch- 
stone, then the comparing of this line with other marks of 
the touch-needles and finally to bring the line into con- 
tact with a very little molten sulphur. If the gold is pure, 
the mark preserves its bright colour unchanged, but if it 
contains silver or copper, &c., the line will become dark 
coloured. The larger the amount of these metals present, 
the darker the colour of the line. It is clear that this 
simple but rough method of testing rests on the principle 
that sulphur does not combine at all directly with gold, 
whilst it forms dark-brown and blackish compounds 
(sulphides) with copper, silver, &c. In addition we must, 
however, say that we have not seen a skilled Japanese as- 
sayer practice this method and we must also state that 
this virtuoso considered the last sulphur-essay perfectly 
superfluous, being already quite sure of his conclusion by 
judging the colour and the hardness. 

The oW gold coinage of Japan was an alloy of gold and 
silver and not like the European and the present Japanese 
gold pieces a mixture of gold and copper. These old 
gold pieces varied ver)'^ much in their absolute weight as 
well as in their alloy, so that the real intrinsic value 
could not be ascertained accurately. The old pieces were : — 

I. — The O'bati :fc^^J large flat oblong pieces, only in use 
with the Shoguns and old daimios. Value variable from 
20-26 koban. 

2. — The koban ^Jn^J ichi-riyo-kin also an oblong flat 
piece (alloy of gold and silver) having a legal value of 60 



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momml silver, but varying in reality from $^^S mammS- 
silver. Since the year 1707 kobans were made smaller 
in si^e. The new koban (Ho-yet-koban-kin) must there- 
fore be carefully distinguished from the old pieces. Ac- 
cording to many assays, formerly made at Batavia, the 
percentage of gold of the koban dififered enormously be- 
tween 542-833 per mille, although they had generally a 
standard of 631 per mille. 

3. — Nibu'kin^ —^^ originally half a koban. No piece 
of money in the whole world has had such a variable and 
arbitrary standard as the nibu. The intrinsic value varied 
between fo.17 — 0.55. The following table which gives 
the composition (per mille) of a number of Satsuma and 
Tokugawa nibus, will closely prove the irregular composi- 
tion of these money-pieces. 



TOKUGAWA-NIBU. 




Satsuma-nibu 






_>^ 






-J^ 




Gold. 


Silver. 


Alloy. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Alloy. 


225 


762 


13 


39 


900 


61 


■ 232i 


753i 


H 


20 


955 


25 


227i 


760* 


12 


41 


934 


25 • 


225 


764 


II 


37 


908 


55 


223 


761 


16 


37 


go6 


57 


225 


763 


12 


37 


923 


40 . 


231 


756 


13 


53 


891 


56 


226i 


76ii 


12 


34i 


922i 


43 


225 


763 


12 


41 


912 


47 



4. — Ichibu-kin — ^J'jfe originally the fourth-part of the 
koban ; seldom met with of late. 

5. — Nisku'kin H^i^ originally the eighth-part of the 
koban y rare. 

6. — Ishu-kin .— ^^ originally the sixteenth-part of 
the koban. 

The new Japanese gold money pieces have all a fineness 
of 900 per mille, alloyed with 100 parts of copper. 

Metallurgy of Gold. 
The Japanese manner of extracting the gold from the 
auriferous minerals is very simple and agrees in the maiix 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



98 

points with our old western method. The whole process 
may be divided into two principal stages. 

I. — If the gold — as is mostly the case — is to be ex- 
tracted from sand or alluvial deposits of rivers and tor- 
rents, then the separation of the small gold scales is ef- 
fected by washing the gold sand, either on an inclined 
plane or levigation apparatus, or directly on mats in a 
washing ditch. This process is called kaniyuri or wash- 
ing of the metal. 

2. — The gold-dust obtained by the washing process is 
melted on a bottom of calcinated salt, until a button or 
half round nugget Mochi-gdne or jfuku-kin is obtained. 
This process is called kin-toku (Gold-melting;) In the 
gold mines where the auriferous mineral consists of hard 
quartzrock, feldspar or feldstone {haku-seki), thp ore 
must be crushed first by means of large iron hammers 
(^kanamS'tsuchi,) It is then roughly powdered in a mor- 
tar, in which the pestle is worked by the foot (karausu), 
and finally ground in a stone mill (tsuki-usu.) Being 
thus minutely divided, the powder is wSished in the same 
way as above. 

When the ores consist of auriferous metallic sulphides, 
(copper or iron pyrites, grey copper-ore, etc), they are 
first crushed and roasted. The roasted mass is powdered 
and melted until a coarse metal is obtained. The latter 
now contains the whole of the gold* The crude metal is 
then fused with some lead, which extracts the gold and 
falls to the bottom, (Di-namari). The alloy of lead and 
gold is then finally treated by a cupellation process. 

The process of extracting gold from the ore by means of 
amalgamation with quicksilver is unknown to the Japanese. 

The Japanese possess no good process •for the separa- 
tion of gold from silver. Hence, all Japanese gold contains 
more or less silver. 

We will now proceed to describe the whole working 
more Jiiinutely and suppose that we are visiting a gold 
mine, where hard auriferous quartzrock, or feldstone, is to 
be worked. According ' then to old Japanese custom, 



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99 

first a feast, the feast of the mountain-gods (Yama-mh 
hami'Sama) must be celebrated at the mountain or place 
(kana-yama)^ where a gold mine is to be opened. The 
best and most propitious day for this feast is the gth day 
of the 7th month. A small temporary shrine is construct- 
ed and wrestling and other kinds of amusements (mise- 
mono) are ordered from Kioto or Osaka to amuse the 
villagers and the miners ("f^ kSsaiJ, who all enjoy the 
festival of the opening of a new mine. The priest, or 
Kannushif takes care to ask the favours of the gods for 
the new enterprise, as can be clearly seen by the first 
of our engravings. 

The gods being thus propitiated, care is taken to provide 
for the daily wants of the miners, who are often obliged 
to work at a great distance from' other habitable places. 
A kind of store-house and mining-office, called "^pjf 
dai'dokoro (great kitchen) is therefore built near to the 
entrance of the new mine. In the provinces of the west 
of Japan this store-house is called kamba (office for pay- 
ment). This dai'dokoro or 

^^ Kamba is also the office, where the miners get 
their payment, either in money, or such articles as charcoal 
wood, fagots, salt, oil, Shoyu, rice and all other necessaries 
of daily life. Peasants and merchants repair to this place 
to sell their products or merchandise to the officer in 
charge of the office by whom all accounts of income and 
expense are settled and kept. The artist has depicted 
the dai'dokoro in the second engraving. 

The second necessity consists in the {fcljc Toko-ya or a 
house where a forge is first constructed for making and 
repairing the necessary tools and mining utensils ; se- 
condly several foundries are erected for melting the metal 
in bars or cakes. The officer in charge of this place is 
called Toko-yakunin and ranks second to the chief officer 
of the mine. The third design gives a representation of 
the Toko-ya. 

After all these preparations are made, the miners com- 
mence to open the mine. The chief gallery shiki-guchi, 



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100 

V! ^^ ^ ^ tJ yotsU'domS'guchif is first constructed 
according to the directions given by the Shiki-yakunin or 
chief officer of the mine. The upper floor (kesho-ki) and 
the sides (ya) of the galleries are supported by wooden 
beams, called @ >i 7(C tomiki. It is usual to give the 
gallery a precisely sijuare form of sixteen beams in every 
direction, and generally this chief gallery has a moderate 
incline, as already described under the head of copper. If 
the main entrance be of considerable length, air-shafts, 
kaze-mawashi-guchi ^f^ V 13 are constructed in a 
similar manner, and finally several gangs and reservoirs 
are cut out in the main gallery for the removal of the 
mine-waste (0 kiri-guchi 3^: -91 P or midzu-nuki). Very 
much labour is spent on the removal of the water, the only 
machinery consisting of two kinds of pumps (to-yujy namely 
a round one made of bamboo, called taki-midzu to-yu and a 
square one, made of wood, ki-midzu-to-yu. The water is 
pumped from one reservoir to the other, until it has reached 
the outside of the mine. It is obvious that the difficulty in 
removing the water increases enormously with the depth of 
the mine. Very often mines are wholly abandoned on ac- 
count of the water requiring too much cash and labour to be 
kept under. The drawings on figures 4, 5 and 6 give some 
idea of the manner in which the galleries are constructed. 

We must now turn to the miners, those laborious men, 
artificers who are compared by the author of the Chinese 
Poem Ra-in with the bees, in the saying "with toilsome 
** labour the bee collects honey out of thousand flowers; 
** but for whom is the sweetness ? " But we will first 
describe shortly the different tools of the mirier, as they 
are represented on Table VII. There are : — 

I. — The TsurU'bashi or iron pick, for loosening the 
gravel and rocks. 

2. — The Takani J or long iron chisel or wedge, for break- 
ing the rocks. 

3. — ^The MagO'hachi, or short steel wedge for crushing 
very hard rocks. • - .' ' ^^.--^i 



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lOI 

4. — The Yama dzuchiy ordinary (small sized) mining 
hammer, worked with the takani. 

5. — The GennOf or heavy large iron hammer for driv- 
ing the wedge or mago-hachi, 

6. — The Sazai'hitO'boshi or mine-lamp, consisting of a 
shell Riled with oil and a wick made of the pith of a kind 
of rush. 

7.— Three kinds of Kuwa, or hoes (mattocks) to remove 
stones, earth and gravel. 

8. — The yoren, or hoe-shaped bamboo baskets for re- 
moving gravel and earth. 

9. — The YebUf or long baskets for removing d6bris 
from the mine. 

10. — The Datsu, or cylindrical baskets for receiving the 
ore. The filled baskets are carried on the back of women 
or miners, each basket containing from 40—50 kilo- 
grammes of ore. 

II. — ^The Yenza or Tebu, or round thick mat, which 
the miner wears on his girdle and which serves him as 
a chair, to sit upon. 

12 — ^The MasUy or measuring box, for measuring the 
quantity of ore to be washed. 

13. — The KanamS-tsuchiy or long hammer, for cleaning 
the ore from the adhering stones, which work is mostly 
done by women and children. (Fig. 8). 

14. — ^The Kara-usUj or mortar for powdering the ore 
by means of a pestle, worked by the foot. 

15. — The UsUy or stone mill for pulverising the ore 
roughly. 

16. — The Take-midzu-toyUf or round bamboo pump. 

17. — The KimidzU'toyu, or square wooden pump. 

18. — The NekotUf or washing apparatus, so called ** Long 
Tom," consisting of a water-reservoir and wooden inclined 
plane (Fig. 7 and 9). 

19. — The MidzU'Sagashij or cotton sweeper, to stir the 
gold sand in the water on the inclined plane. 

20. — The Nadekiy or wooden broom, being two piebes 
of wood fixed cross- wise, for the same use as the former tool. 



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102 

21. — The Nekoxa, or straw mat, for collecting the gold- 
sand, when the washing of gravel is carried on in a wash- 
ing ditch and not on an inclined wooden plane. 

22. — ^The Yuri'bachif or goldwasher's pan, consisting 
of a wooden dish. This tool is used for separating the 
gold from the concentrated sand. 

23. — The KanS-yuri-ita, or a slightly warped and 
dishshaped board for the same use. 

24. — The Namban-buki-ya, or furnace for melting metal 
mixtures which contain gold, with lead in order to extract 
the gold by the melted lead. (Only used when other 
metallic ores are worked for gold). 

25. — The Geshi^ Kara-mikaki and Portuga^ flat iron 
scrapers for collecting the gold- or silver-containing lead, 
which has run out the above furnace (Fig. 11.). 

26. — ^The Kawa-kokif or long charcoal-scoop for regu- 
lation and feeding of the charcoal fire. 

When the miners have brought their ore out of the 
mine, the women commence by crushing it roughly with 
long hammers ; subsequently it is powdered in the mortar 
and stone mill. The powder is now given into the 
Nekota (Fig. 9), the water of a bamboo aquaduct running 
into this reservoir and flowing off, through the opening 
below, on the wooden plane. The gold sand runs off with 
the water, but being much heavier than the samll particles 
of sand and gravel, the gold-dust remains in the greater part 
on the wooden plane, where it is collected and still further 
washed by the cotton sweeper. The water runs finally into 
a large hole where the heavier gold-dust which might have 
escaped from the plane, sinks to the bottom and can be 
collected afterwards. This process of washing on the 
inclined plane is called Neko-tana ga-shi. The gold-sand 
being thus concentrated, it is transferred to the shallow 
wooden washing-board, or the so called " pan. " This is 
done with great care in a large wooden tub {Han-kiri-oke) 
filled with water. The board is first floated on the water and 
the sand slightly shaken by a slight oscillating motion. 
From time to time the board is raised from the water and 



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103 

the less heavy sand washed away from the gold by some 
quickly effected longitudinal jerks. Thus alternately and 
skillfully moving the board, the bright yellow gold grains 
become more and more visible and separated from the 
sand or quartz. Finally the gold dust is dried and further 
separated, by blowing, from some heavy iron sand, which 
is generally still present. This process of washing on the 
board, which requires great skill and dexterity is called 
Ita-yuri, Our Japanese author of the San-kai-mei-buisU' 
dzu-kuwai states that the gold washers receive no money, 
because they can sell the gold-dust which remains in their 
clothes 1 (TodjiganS,) He adds that in former times the gold 
washer found often some small golden nuggets in his dress 
but of late this is no longer the case. It would seem 
therefore that the gold washer in the latter times receives 
payment for his labour. 

The gold thus obtained is now fused and hammered in 
the Tokoyay in order to obtain a metal button or bar. A 
round cavity is made of lo parts of calcinated salt and buck- 
ashes and one part of gold-dust put on it. By means of a 
strong charcoal-fire the gold becomes fused and is then 
strongly hammered until the piece of metal has the desired 
shape. In this state it is called Mochi-gane (metal-cake) 
or jfukU'kin (ripe gold.) 

The Japanese use, besides the process now described and 
actually followed at the gold mines (mountains), still another 
method of washing, when the gold is to be extracted from the 
the gravel or sand of rivers or other alluvial deposits. This 
process is more simple than the working of the harder rocks, 
and has already been described with much accuracy by Mr. 
H. S. Munroe in his report of the gold fields of Yesso. We will 
therefore only take the main points of Mr. Munroe's account. 
Table X. gives a slight idea of this washing process. Mr. 
Munroe has compared this Japanese method practically with 
those in use in Europe and America, namely, the washing 
with the " Cradle " and with the so called " Long Tom," and, 
he has arrived at the interesting conclusion that the Ja- 
panese process gives far better results than any of these 



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104 

western methods. The working with the sluice " is ge* 
nerally considered to be by far" the best of the foreign 
washing-methods, but Mr. Munroe had no opportunity to 
use this method in Yesso ; nevertheless his experiments 
leave no shade of doubt, that the Japanese process is 
better than those with the '' Cradle !' or " Long Tom." 

It is much to be regretted that the numerous experi- 
ments, made by order of the Kaitakushi in the so-called 
gold^elds of Yesso, which had — until lately — such an 
enormous reputation for their richness, have not given 
better prospects of a profitable gold production in this 
country. The chief result of all the researches in Yesso 
is that in none of the gold fields the. amount of gold was 
large enough to give much encouragement to working. 

This second Japanese method then consists in washing in 
a " ditch '* made from the bed of a river by putting walls or 
banks at such a distance that the washing ditch has a width of 
two or three feet and a length of fifteen or twenty. The afflux 
of water from the stream must be thus regelated in order that 
the water in the ditch should have a velocity of i^ to 2 feet per 
second and that about 60 to 80 cubic feet of water per minute 
are obtained. Care must be taken thatt he walls of the ditch 
do not permit the water flowing outwards to the stream. The 
gravel is then shovelled from the measuring box (one-half 
cubic metre) into the head of the washing ditch, and the 
box refilled with gravel. The gold-washers then stir the 
gravel, throwing away the large stones by hand and se- 
parating the smaller stones from the. sand by means of a 
bamboo basket (joren) and a hoe (kuwaj. The fine sand, 
clay, &c., are thus washed out by the rapid current. 
When some four to six boxes (2 to 3 cubic metres) of 
gravel have been shovelled into the ditch and broken 
in the same way, the gold washer commences to wash on 
mats (Nekoza,) These mats are placed side by side 
across the stream, at a little distance below the place 
where the gravel lies. The workmen now remove the 
latter to the head of the mats, by which action the heavy 
gold and iron sand sink on the mats, whilst the lighter 



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I05 

sand and gravel pass down stream. When all the gravel 
has thus been held over the mats^ the latter are removed 
about two feet down stream, in order that a new quantity 
of fresh gravel may be worked. 

The mats are finally removed, folded in both directions and 
jigged up and down in the water, to separate the lighter sand 
from the heavier gold-dust. The other mats are broken in a 
similar way and all the gold sand of the different mats is 
subsequently transferred carefully into one mat. From this 
mat the concentrated sand is finally transferred on the wooden 
washing board (Kane-yuri-ita) and further washed in the 
same manner as already described by the former process. 
This washing method, simple as it is, requires, however, 
great care and skill on the part of the gold washers, but with 
good workmen it seems to give surprising results. To prove 
the usefulness of this method, we will only give the results, 
which Mr. Munroe obtained from the same gravel, by 
washing with the ** Long Tom " and the Japanese process : 

One Cubic Metre of Gravel. 

Long Tom: Japantse Method: 

2.6 Milligram. 30.8 Milligram. 

18.0 „ 68.0 ,, 

For further particularities we must refer to Mr. Munroe's 
Report. 

Places of occurrence : — 

Province: District: Localities: Remarks: 

Yamato , Kinposan Omin^ya- Worked in 

ma former times. 

Iwami Kinsan ^ , , .... 

Ikishima 

lyo.... ........ .. Furunogawa 



Sado-shitna Hamo-chigOri. 



Nishimikawa Not worked 

at present. 

Aikawa Govenment mine. 

\ Gubbins. 

Musashi ChichibugOri* . . Nakatsugawa 

TdtOmi Tenriugawa .... 

(Kegurano and 
three other ■ Very Few. 

places. j 

Shimotsuk^ jKochigOri Shinoi. 

( KomagOri Yasumwa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Rikuzen 
(Mizawaken) 



Rikuchiu . 



io6 

IYamagGri. . . . Kuromori Few. 
(Tak^fukayama ....] 
A'A . ^ ' Ishic^amori Auriferous 
Aidzugori . . . . ^ ushlguwat- f siliceous con- 
( sukamura j glomerate. 

{KawanumagOri. One place 1 
AsakagOri .... do [ Not worked 
Shirakawagori .. do j at present. 

KisengOri . . . . Takekomura Giyoku 

san. 

KuriharagOri [ Kozo-shimmachi .... .... 

JNino-seki .... 

(Nagasaki-mura .... 

Tom^gOri .... Okam^gawara, .... 
Inamurayama. 

''Hei-gori ......Eight different Not worked 

places. at present. 

KesengOri .... Takegoma-mura .... .... 

Iwa-gOri . . I . . . One place Not worked 

Esashi-gori ....Jinshumura, Yoshi- at present, 
mayama. .... 

' Akumi-gdri .... Two places 6} catty gold 

dust per year. 

Akita-gOri ....Okudzu and Ani....25 catty per 

year 

Murayama-gOri.Yoshikawa Good gold 

sand. 
. Iwatanizawamura 

.Gobo 

. Takarazawa .... 

. Tashiro 

. Kawaharago-mura .. 

. I-sozawa } catty. 



Dewa, Ugo . 



Dewa, Uzen 
(Yamagata-ken) 



Not worked 
at present. 



Yechigo 



KambaragOri 
KubikigOri ., 



. Itoigawa Not worked 

at present* 



Yetchu Niikawa^Ori . . Matsukura 

Kaea. NomigOri .... Kanahira i^ catty. 

Hida Yoshiki-gOri . . Morib4 



Kai KomagOri. 



/Homura ..... 

Kurokawa 

Yasumura , 

Hogowa-machi 
Kawasame . . . 
^Hatagawa ... , 



Suruga 
Osumi . 



f Ab^-gOri ...... Hikagezawa. 



t 



Satsuma KawabegOri . 



Chikuzen . 
Chikugo . 



.Tashiro . 
Yokogawa 

(Kagomd . . 
Yamagano 
Rokuro . . . . 

Serigano . , 



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107 



Shiribeshi and Toshibetsu (River) .... 

/ Iburi. 

Shiribeshi .... Kudo Moshibetsu Very poor, 
and Usubetsu. 

/Esashi \ 

limikishigawa . . 

Yc8so ^ Meniu-gawa 

^ Todo-gawa .... 

Oshima-shu..^ Gokatte-gawa ....V Very poor 
I Asab^-gawa ...... gold sand. 

I Otobe-gawa 

I Matsumai Exhausted. 

vMusa / Poor. 

Tokachi .... Tobui-gawa E'mely poor. 

The best gold-field in Yesso, tried by Mr. Munroe, was 
that of Toshibetsu. The gold-sand here contains, however, 
but one-half of the amount of gold which the poorest gold- 
fields of California contain. The numbers obtained by Mr. 
Munroe may speak for themselves. 

Toshibetsu Gold Field in the province of Iburi. 



Grammes of Gold 
Gravel. per cubic mHre, 

Upper Toshi 0.1360 

Akabuchi 0.1143 

Kusub6 0.0782 

Highest Terrace 0.0500 

Okajisawa 0.0680 

Ponkajisawa 0.0308 

Chinkob6 0.0304 

Nis^-umbetsu o.oooi 



Average 0.0835 



Value of cubic 

metre in cents, 

8.II 

6.81 
4.66 
3.00 
4.06 
1.84 
0.20 

O.I I 

5.00 



Kudo Gold Field in the province of Shiribeshi. 

Grammes of Gold Value of cubic 
Gravel, per cubic metre, mitre in cents, 

Moshibetsu 0.0070 

Usubetsu o.ooii 



0.42 
0.07 



Value of cubic 

mitre in cents, 

0.12 



Esashi Gold Field in the province of Oshima 

Grammes of Gold 
. Gravel, per cubic mitre, 

Otob6 0.0020 

Jimikishi 0.0290 0.73 

Jimikishi 0.0044 ^^^^ 

Gogatt6 0.0002 

Todo O.OOI2 

Mena 0.0008 



0.0 1 
0.05 
0.05 



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io8 

Musa Gold Field in the province of Oshima. 

Grammes of Gold Value of cubic 

Sample.. per cubic metre, mitre in cents* 

Sanjinrono M 1369 q. 0.0319 1.89 

do M 1360 p. 0.0220 1.31 

Shikubeno M 1389 c. 0.0170 i,oo 

Yunoshiri M 1376 s. o.oiii 0.60 

do M 1377 1. 0.0094 0.56 

Minagoya M 1381 u. 0.0084 0.50 

Average 0.0164 0,94 

These numbers show enough that the so-called richness 
of the Yesso. gold-field is a fiction, and that perhaps the 
Toshibetsu gravel only might be worked with a small 
profit. I must leave it to the future to determine the 
practical value of the ore or gold-sand at the other local- 
ities mentioned in the above list, but I believe that the 
metallurgy of gold will never become in Japan a very 
profitable industry, as is possible in the case of copper 
and iron. 



A regular meeting of the Asiatic Society was held at the [Kaisei- 
Gakko, on the i6th instant. Dr. Antisell occupied the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting having been read and approved, 
the names of new members, Messrs. J. Troup (Kobe), T. R. H. 
McClatchie (Tokio), Professor E. Mondy (Tokio), J. L. Bowes, G. 
Ashdown Audsley (Liverpool), J. E. Day (Yokohama) were announced. 

It was then stated that the whole of the property belonging to the 
Society — including the Library and furniture — had been removed from 
Yokohama and was deposited in the room No. 4 assigned to the Society's 
use in the Kaisei-Gakko. Professors Syle and Summers had been 
appointed at a Council meeting on the gth instant a Library Committee 
pro tern. On the motion of Dr. Veeder, seconded by Professor Smith, 
they were requested to continue their services and to select a curator. 
Professor Syle stated that it was their intention to keep the. Library 
open for members' use daily between 3 o'clock and 5. 

The Secretary laid upon the table the various transactions of the 
learned Societies which had been sent from Europe in exchange for this 
Society's Journal. A discussion then ensued as to the kind of papers 
most desirable. Professor Grigsby objected to the number of scientific 
papers which were read, and he wished to know why Mr. Russell Robert- 



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I09 

ion*6 paper upon the Bonin Islands had not been presented to be read 
at this meeting. Professor Syle remarked that it was not respectful 
to the Council to criticize their method of dealing with papers. They 
did always the best they could under the circumstances. 

Professor Ayrton said that several letters had passed between himself 
and Mr. Robertson, and that that gentleman expressed his willingness 
to come to Yedo and read the paper, but that some members of the 
Council in Yokohama had decided that it should be read there, and that 
Dr. Geerts' paper should be read in Tokio. 

The Chairman thought it was quite competent to the meeting to 
express its opinion, and to ask why certain papers were kept back and 
others brought forward- The Rev. W. B. Wright suggested that 
interesting papers should be read in both places. This was sub- 
sequently put as a motion and seconded by Dr. Veeder. Another 
motion, that the Council be respectfully requested to present papers 
to the Society in' the order in which they were received, was proposed 
by Professor Grigsby and seconded by Professor Atkinson, but was not 
carried. Professor Marshall suggested that in the case of papers being 
not forthcoming, a lecture should be "substituted, but as no one seconded 
this, it was withdrawn. Professor Smith moved that the Council be 
respectfully requested to furnish a larger proportion of interesting 
papers upon literary topics. Professor Grigsby heartily seconded the 
motion, and it was carried. 

Dr. Gcert*s paper upon Gold was then read by Professor Ayrton, and 
a discussion, followed in which the Chairman observed that Dr. Geert's 
paper was much more a literary than a scientific one, and that he had 
not given any information upon gold mining in Japan. He had 
spoken of gold washing which was a different process from extracting 
gold from quartz, which he believed might become a very profitable 
industry. He visited four gold mines in Satsuma in 1873, and there, 
although neither gunpowder, pumping nor tunnelling were employed, 
the operations had been successful and profitable. The methods the 
Japanese had lately adopted were as good as those in use in Nevada 
and California. The gold found in the quartz was, like the Nevada 
gold, mixed with silver, in the proportion of nine parts silver to one 
of gold. They had recently imported machinery, but they had been 
able to accomplish much by imperfect imitations. The stamps they 
had made of wood shod with sheet iron, so light that the crushing 
was imperfect. Although the paper was not without interest, it was 
incomplete, and, as regarded gold mining, insufficient. 

Professor Atkinson made some remarks upon the question of Japan 
being a gold country, referring to Mr. Plunkett's late report which 
showed that in 1874, although the value of the outcome of the gold 
mines had been 250,000 yen, about 200,000 had to be expended in 
getting the ore, carrying it to the refiners, and that left a balance of 
only 50,000 ^^. It could not therefore be rich in gold. 



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no 

Professor Summers remarked that Mr. Atkinson had omitted the con- 
sideration of what the country might produce when machinery camel 
to be used. ' 

Dr. Veeder added that even the gold washings were sometimes 
more productive in better hands as was proved by the Chinese working 
in California. He observed that the mines in California lay in a line 
parallel to the Pacific Coast, in the lines of volcanoes. 

The Chairman said 'with regard to lines of fracture the rocks in 
which gold was found in Satsuma were feldspar, and that the veins of 
quartz ran from E. to W., six to eight inches in width, in mountains 
lying N. to 12 E. 

Professor Syle referred to the model of the Sado mines (presented by 
Mr. Erasmus Gower some time ago) now in the room. Another mode 
was in the possession of the Hakubuts kan. They supplemented each 
other ; in some respects this was superior, in others inferior. He asked 
Mr. Ayrton why there had been some years ago so great a disparity in 
the value of gold and silver in Japan. 

Mr. Ayrton thought that gold had been found in larger quantities. 

The Chairman suggested that as only silver coinage had been in use 
gold had depreciated accordingly. 

Mr.- Wakayama believed that a much greater difference had been 
found 200 years ago. 

Professor Syle said a Kobang^ worth $3 here in 1858, had been sold 
at 95 in Belgium. 

Professor Smith asked the Chairman if he could favour the meeting 
with any information on the gold produce of Yezo from his experience. 

The Chairman considered that Mr. Munroe's account was trust- 
worthy, and the only account of that kind of working which was 
superficial. There were in some places 40 feet of gravel and they 
ought to go down. Then he expected it would be more satisfactory. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 



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Ill 



THE BONIN ISLANDS. 



BY 



RUSSELL ROBERTSON, Esq. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of ^apartj on the 
i^th Marchy 1876. 



The Bonin Islands which lie between the parallels of 
26.30 and 27.45 North are situated almost due South of 
Yokohama at a distance of about 500 miles, Port Lloyd 
situated in Lat. 27.5.35 N. and 142. 11.30 East Longitude 
being distant 516 miles — the longitude of Port Lloyd has 
been fixed by a later authority at 142.16.30. 

The Islands consist of three groups, the Northernmost 
and Southernmost of which are known respectively as 
the Parry and Bailey or Coffin groups. The centre group 
is made up of three Islands : Stapleton to the North, Peel 
Island to the South and Buckland Island in the centre. 
This middle group is gj miles in length, 4J of which are 
taken up by Peel Island. 

Hillsboro' the largest of the Bailey or Coffin group is 
7 J miles long and 1} miles broad. 

From Japanese records it would appear that these 
Islands were known to Japan in the year 1593, if not be- 
fore that, when they were held as a fief by the Daimio 
Ogasawara Sadayori and communication was maintained 
with them up to 1624. In Kaempfer's work the following 
mention is made of the Islands, " About the year 1675 
" the Japanese accidentally discovered a very large island, 



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112 

** one of their barks having been forced there in a storm 
** from the Island Hachijo, from which they computed it to 
" be 300 miles distant towards the East. They met with no 
" inhabitants, but found it to be a very pleasant and fruitful 
** country, well supplied with fresh water and furnished with 
" plenty of plants and trees, particularly the arrack tree, 
"which however might give room to conjecture that the 
" Island lay rather to the South of Japan than to the East, 
" these trees growing only in hot countries. They called 
" it Bune sima or the Island Bune and because they found 
" no inhabitants upon it they marked it with the character 
** of an uninhabited Island. On the shores they found an 
" incredible quantity of fish and crabs, some of which were 
<* from four to six feet long." 

The turtle that abound at the Bonins were probably 
taken by the Japanese for enormous crabs. 

A blank in the history of the Bonin Islands then fol- 
lows until 1728, when communication was again estab- 
lished by a descendant of Sadayori's, Miyanouchi Sada- 
yori by name, of short duration however, for after a long 
inten^al we find no further mention of the Islands in 
Japanese records until the close of 1861, when Japanese 
Commissioners were sent to Port Lloyd, the visit resulting 
in the establishment of a small colony under the governor- 
ship of Mr. Obana Sakusuke. The attempt was however a 
failure. Several of the colonists returned to Japan after a 
brief stay and the remnant was withdrawn early in i863. 

The Islands known to most of us by name have during 
the past few years excited not a little curiosity from the 
reports that have reached us from time to time as to the 
condition of the settlers there, and from surmises as to 
what steps might eventually be taken to establish them 
as the territory of one or other of the countries which it 
was supposed had claimed them. 

In November |of last year, 1875, the Japanese steamer 
Meiji MarUf having on board four Japanese officers as 
Commissioners, proceeded to Port Lloyd, and in the same 
month and simultaneously with the Meiji Maru the 



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"3 

Islands were visited by H. M. S. CurleWy Commander 
Church, R. N. on board of which vessel I was a passenger. 
The Bonins figure on some charts as the Arzobispo Islands, 
but again on others the Arzobispo appear as a distinct 
group. It is contended that the word Bunin is a corruptidn 
of the Japanese words Munin " uninhabited,'' and this 
appellation would tend to confirm their first discovery by 
Japanese. Any way they are known generally as the 
Bonins, the slip from Bunin to Bonin being easily account- 
ed for, though to Japanese they are more familiar as the 
Ogasawara-shima, or Ogasawara Islands. 

From the name Arzobispo it is not improbable that the 
Islands were known to the Spaniards long since, the more 
so that they are not so very far from the Marianas or 
Ladrones group now settled by the Spaniards and known 
to navigators early in the i6th century. The object of 
this paper is not however to settle disputed points about 
prior occupancy, and I therefore pass on to the time when 
the Islands became more generally known to the outer world. 

In the year 1823 they were visited by an American 
whale ship the Transit, Captain Coffin ; whence we arrive 
at the name Coffin applied equally with Bailey to the 
Southern group. It is not clear however that the Transit 
visited either the centre or the Northern group. In 
1825 ^c Supply, an English whaler, touched at Port 
Lloyd and left a record of her visit by nailing a board to 
a tree, afterwards found there by Captain Beechey R. N. 
of H. M.'s S. Blossom which vessel anchored in Port 
Lloyd on the gth June 1827. It is to Captain Beechey 
that we are indebted for the admirable chart of the 
harbour of Port Lloyd now in use, and for much of the 
published information about the Bonins. H. M. S. 
Blossom a sloop carrying 16 guns and a complement of 
122 all told had been dispatched from England on the 
iQtb May 1825 with instructions to cooperate with 
Franklin's and Parry's Arctic Expeditions. Captain Bee- 
chey's instructions were that he should be at Behring's 
Straits in the autumn of 1826, and if he failed to meet 



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"4 

cither Franklin or Parry he was to leave Behring Straits 
in October of the same year, repairing there again in the 
autumn of the ensuing year 1827 — the intervals to be 
employed in cruising in the Pacific Ocean ; at the close 
of 1827 the Blossom was to leave on her return voyage to 
England. 

Captain Beechey, having sailed as above narrated on 
the 19th May 1825, rounded Cape Horn, and touching at 
Tahiti and the Sandwich Islands reached Behring's 
Straits in July 1826. In October the Blossom, failing to 
meet Franklin, left Behring's Straits and proceeded to 
San Francisco where she anchored on or about the 6th 
November. On the 28th December 1826 Captain Bee- 
chey sailed from San Francisco and again visited the 
Sandwich Islands, proceeding from there to Canton and 
Macao at which latter place he arrived on or about April 
30th 1827. After a brief stay the Blossom again set sail, 
making for Loochoo, and in due course, some time in May 
1827 she anchored off the town of Napha, the capital of 
those Islands. 

From here Captain Beechey took his departure on the 
25th May, and shaping his course to the Eastward, he 
reached on the evening of the 7th June the situation of 
the Bonin Islands as marked in Arrowsmith*s chart, in use 
at that time. The following day, the 8th, no land was in 
sight, and Captain Beechey was on the point of giving up 
the Islands as having no actual existence, when, after a 
few hours sail to the Eastward, several islands were seen 
extending in a North and South direction as far as 
the eye could discern. These were the Bonins. A full 
account of the Blossom's visit is formed in Captain 
Beechey's narative, published in two volumes. 

It will suffice if I narrate here that the Blossom 
anchored in Port Lloyd on the 9th June 1827, having first 
attempted to fetch the southernmost group, but finding 
wind and current against the ship and discovering in the 
nearest land an opening which appeared to give promise 
of a good harbour. Captain Beechey made for this and 



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115 

anchored in Port Lloyd to which he gave this name, out 
of regard to a late Bishop of Oxford. 

Captain Beechey was much surprised to find here two 
Europeans who turned out to have been two of the crew 
of the English whaler William, which vessel had been 
wrecked in Port Lloyd some eight months previous to the 
Blossoyyis arrival. The name of one of the men was 
Wittrein ; that of the other is not given. 

According to the statement of these men, it appears 
that after the wreck of the vessel the crew set to work 
to build a small schooner in order to find their way to 
Manilla, as the chances of their being picked ofT from 
Port Lloyd were somewhat remote ; to their surprise, how- 
. ever, a whale-ship, the Timor , appeared, and took off the 
crew of the wrecked vessel with the exception of these 
two men, Wittrein and his companion. 

The Blossom remained at Port Lloyd for six days, and 
the time was fully taken up with surveying the harbour, 
making excursions in the immediate neighbourhood, and in 
circumnavigating the Island. To the Island in which Port 
Lloyd is situated Captain Beechey gave the name of Peel 
Island, in compliment to Sir Robert Peel, then the Secre- 
tary of State for the Home Department ; and to the other 
two of the cluster he gave the names Stapleton and 
Buckland, the last mentioned after the then Professor of 
Geology at Oxford. A large bay at the South East 
angle of Peel Island is named Fitton Bay, after a late 
President of the Geological Society, whilst a bay to the 
Southwest angle of Buckland Island is called Walker 
Bay, after Mr Walker at that time one of the officers of 
the Hydrographical Department. 

To the Southern cluster of Islands Captain Beechey 
gave the name of Bailey, after a former President of the 
Astronomical Society, but they are equally known as 
Coffin Islands from the name of the master of the 
American whaler Transit, who it was believed was the 
first to visit them, excepting visits said to have been 
made by Japanese. 



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m6 

To the Northern group Capt. Beechey gave the nam« 
of Parry, after the former Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Capt. Beechey has pronounced Peel and surrounding 
Islands to be volcanic in their nature, which is borne out 
by Commodore Perry of the United States Navy, who 
when visiting the Islands later in 1853, writes of Port 
Lloyd as follows ! ** It would appear that Port Lloyd was 
** at one time the Crater of an active volcano, from which 
**the surrounding hills had been thrown up, while the 
** present entrance to the harbour was formed by a deep 
" fissure in the side of the cone through which a torrent 
"of lava had poured into the sea, leaving after its 
"subsidence a space into which the waters subsequently 
"were emptied, bringing with them their usual deposits, 
" which together with the coral formation now forms the 
" bottom and sides of the harbour." 

After leaving Port Lloyd on the 15th June, Captain 
Beechey made another attempt to reach the southern 
group, the Bailey or Coffin Islands, but, finding the wind 
adverse, he bore away to the north and fixed the position 
of the Parry Group. 

This officer's remarics about the Bonins, which appear in 
full in the work to which I have previously alluded, fur- 
nished the only comparatively full information about them 
up to 1853, when they were visited by Commodore Perry. 
The narrative of the Blossom's cruise is a book seldom met 
with out here, and I am indebted to Captain St. John of H. 
M. S. Sylvia, for the loan of the work which has thus 
enabled me to give certain particulars about the Bonins 
without which this paper would have been incomplete. 
The sailing directions and notes with regard to the Bonins 
appearing in that valuable work the "China Pilot" are 
taken from the narratives of Beechay and Perry. 

Before leaving, Captain Beechey affixed to a tree a 
sheet of copper nailed to a board, and on the sheet of 
copper the following words were punctured : — 

" H. M. S. Blossom, Captain Beechey, R.N., took pos- 
" session of this group of Islands in the name and on 



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117 

"behalf of His Majesty King George, the 14th June, 1827." 

On the occasion of our visit in the Curlew^ Cap- 
tain Church and I came across this board in the house 
of one of the settlers, who parted with it for a trifling 
consideration. It was in a fair state of preservation, and 
the inscription as given above could be deciphered after a 
little trouble ; the date appeared to us to be June 17th, 
but as the Blossom left on the 15th, the proper date is 
probably the 14th. 

According to Captain Beechey, in the Japanese accounts 
of the Bonin Islands as appearing at that time in Mr. 
Klaproth's ** M^moire sur la Chine," and by Mr. Abel 
Remusat in the "Journal des Savans" for ^September, 
1817, it is said that the Islands of Bonin sima or Munin 
sima consist of eighty-nine Islands, of which two are 
large, four of middling size, four small and the remainder 
of the group consists of rocks. The two large Islands are 
said to be inhabited, and temples and villages appear in 
the Japanese chart published in the ** Journal des Savans.** 
Further, it is stated that these Japanese accounts, or I 
should more correctly say the translations of them, depict 
the Islands as extremely fertile, producing vegetable and 
all kinds of grain, sugar, cocoanuts, lofty palm trees*, 
sandal-wood, camphor and other trees. 

From this description, Captain Beechey throws doubts 
upon the Islands visited by him as being identical with 
the Bonin sima of the Japanese, and to use his own words, 
says " it may be doubted whether Bonin sima is not an 
imaginary Island.'* 

In Captain Beechey's opinion the Islands correspond 
with a group named Yslas del Arzobispo in a work pub- 
lished many years ago in Manila, ** Navigacion Especula- 
tiva y Pratica, '* and so much indeed that he has retained 
on the chart the name Arzobispo which was mentioned 
at the commencement of this paper, equally with that of 
the Bonins. It must be remembered, however, that 
neither the Noithem nor Southern cluster, the Parry and 
Bailey or Coffin groups, were visited by Captain Beechey 



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(by visiting I mean landed upon), and Japanese have 
informed me that it was on the Southernmost group Bailey 
or Coffin, that the early Japanese settlers took up their 
abode, and where it is believed the remains of a few shrines 
are still to be found. Making allowance for exaggeration 
in the description appearing in the early native records, and 
considering, too, that vegetables, sugar cane, cocoa nuts, 
pine apples, &c., are now grown on Peel Island, also that 
among the trees there are palm and sandal wood, it is not 
unlikely that the Islands visited by the Blossom are the 
veritable Bonins or Munin sima of the Japanese. 

We are now to witness the influence of the Blossom* s 
visit to these Islands. Before taking leave of this little 
vessel, with whose name and that of her Commander the 
Bonins cannot but always be associated, I should record 
that after leaving these Islands, Captain Beechey, in 
pursuance of his original instructions to be at Behring's 
Straits in the autumn of 1827, again made for the Polar 
Seas, where he arrived in due course ; but finding no trace 
of Franklin at the different rendezvous agreed upon, he 
reluctantly left for England by way of St*n Francisco and 
Cape Horn and anchored at Spithead early in October 
1828, after an absence of three years and a half during 
which the ship had sailed over 73,000 miles. 

The Bonins now seem to have attracted attention at the 
Sandwich Islands, where the news of the Blossom's visit 
was not long in reaching, and from whence a party of 
colonists sailed for Port Lloyd in 1830, Captain Charlton, 
then British Consul at the Sandwich Islands, taking a 
lively interest in the expedition. 

The party as far as I can ascertain consisted of the 
following : Mateo Mazarro said to have been a native of 
Genoa, but I am inclined to think recognized as a British 
subject, John Millichamp an Englishman, Nathaniel 
Savory, born in Massachusetts, United States, Alden 
B. Chapin, also an American, and Charles Johnson, a Dane. 
They had with them some Sandwich Island natives as 
labourers, some live stock and seeds, and, landing at Port 



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Lloyd, hoisted an English flag which had been given 
them by Captain Charlton. 

Little is now heard of the Bonins until 1842, though 
doubtless in this long interval of 12 years Port Lloyd was 
frequently visited by whalers and communication of some 
kind was thus kept up. In 1842 Mazarro returned to 
the Sandwich Islands. He described the settlement at 
Port Lloyd as flourishing, stated that he had hogs and 
goats m abundance and a few cattle, that he grew Indian 
com and many vegetables and had all kinds of tropical 
fruits. Mazarro returned to Peel Island and eventually 
died there. His widow, to whom I shall hereafter refer, 
is still living at Port Lloyd. 

I now pass over another interval of seven years until 
the year 1849 or 1850, when I find that Port Lloyd was 
visited by the U. S. Surveying Brig Dolphin^ but she 
only made a brief stay of four or five days. The next 
man-of-war to come was H. M. S. Enterprise, Captain 
Collinson, in 1851, which vessel also made but a short stay 
of about a week. The Enterprise was a companion ship 
with the Investigator both vessels being in search of Sir 
John Franklin's ill-fated expedition. The former had 
parted company from the Investigator, and had probably 
taken the Bonins on her way up to Kamschatka and the 
Arctic. 

Thomas H. Webb, a British subject who had arrived 
at Port Lloyd in the American Barque j^apan of Nantucket 
in 1849, and where he is still a resident, has a lively 
recollection of Captain CoUinson's visit, and it is to Webb, 
that I am indebted for much of the information I am able to 
give in respect to the visits of ships to Port Lloyd from the 
year 1847 up to the time of the Curlew's visit in 1875, 
excepting of course the visit of Commodore Perry in 1853 
of which a full account has been published elsewhere. 

In 1852 H. M.'s surveying brig Serpent touched at 
Port Lloyd and remained there some eight days. 

We now come to Commodere Perry's visit in 1853, an 
important one to the settlers on Peel Island. 



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On the 14th June, 1853, the U. S. men-of-war Snsque- 
hannah and Saratoga dropped anchor in Port Lloyd, having 
left the port of Napha in the Loochoos on the 9th of the 
same month. At this time, of the original settlers who 
came in 1830, and whose names are mentioned at the com- 
mencement of this paper, only one, Nathaniel Savory was 
left, but there were now on Peel Island in all 31 inhabit- 
ants, made up as follows ; four English, four American, one 
Portuguese, the rest being natives from either the Sand- 
wich, the Ladrones, the Caroline or Kingsmill Islands, to- 
gether with children actually bom on the Bonins. 

The stay of the Susquehanna and Saratoga was limited 
to four days, the ships leaving on the i8th June, and re- 
turning to the Loochoos which they reached on the 23rd 
of the same month, but the time was fully taken up in ex- 
ploring both Peel and Stapleton Islands. 

To the exploration of the first mentioned two parties were 
told off from the Susquehanna, one headed by Mr. Bayard 
Taylor which took the South, while Dr. Fahs, Assistant- 
Surgeon of the ship, with his party, went overt he North of the 
Island. They started early on the morning of the 15th June 
and did not return to the ship till 10 p.m. of the same night. 
A full account of this day's proceedings, and indeed a very full 
account generally of the Bonins is given in chapter X, volume 
I,ofthe narrative of Commodore Perry's expedition to China & 
Japan, published by order of the United States Government. 

I do not quote at length from the account therein con- 
tained because the work is one of modem date, and is 
within reach of any one who cares to procure it. 

It will be sufficient if I note that not only are the Bon in 
Islands prominently mentioned in the work above alluded to, 
but on his return to the States the Commodore placed in the 
hands of the compiler some further notes on the subject of 
these Islands and submitted a scheme for their colonization. 
He appears to have thought that their situation was most 
advantageous as forming a point on a proposed mail 
line, which, starting from San Francisco would touch 
at Honolulu and the Bonins for coal and supplies 



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X2I 

And then on to Shanghai as its terminus. The importance 
that Yokohama was to attain to as a place of call for mail 
steamers could not then of course be foreseen, considering 
too that the scheme of a mail line across the Pacific to 
China, although attracting attention, had not then been 
developed. 

It was during the visit of the Susquehanna and Sara- 
toga at Port Lloyd that Commodore Perry recommended 
the settlers to draw up a code or rules of governance for 
themselves, rather than that they should live under what he 
described to one of the settlers as Club Law. No mention is 
made of this in his book, but an organization scheme was 
drawn up. It consisted of three articles and thirteen sections, 
and was called ** organization of the settlers of Peel Island." 
It provided for the election of a Chief Magistrate and Council 
of two persons to be elected by and from amongst the 
settlers, the chief Magistrate and Council to have Power to 
enact rules and make Regulations for the Government of 
the Island, such rules and regulations to be binding on the 
residents provided the concurrence and approval of two- 
thirds of the whole number of residents had been obtained. 

A copy of the organization scheme has been placed at 
my disposal, and the manner in which it came about was 
narrated to me on the Island. 

Under these rules Nathaniel Savory was elected as 
Chief Magistrate and James Motley and Thomas H. 
Webb as Councilmen. The document was signed by 
Nathaniel Savory, Thomas H. Webb, James Motley, 
William Gilley, John Brava, Joseph Cullen, George Brava 
and George Horton. 

The rules, however, were never enforced, and the exist- 
ence of the scheme is now scarcely remembered on Peel 
Island. 

It is of importance that I should follow up the fate of 
those whose names appear appended to the documents. 

Nathaniel Savory died in 1874. 

Thomas H. Webb is now living at Port Lloyd. 

J^naes Motley died on the Bailey Islands in 1870. 



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122 

William Gilley was killed at Port Lloyd thirteen years 
ago, by a man named^Jack Spania said to be an Englishman. 

John Brava and George Brava are still living on the 
Bonins. 

Joseph Cullen died in Port Lloyd two years ago. 

George Horton was removed to Japan in 1862 by the 
Japanese, and handed over to the U. S. Consul at Kana- 
gawa. Horton died, I believe, shortly after arrival in 
Japan. 

To some of the above names I shall have again occasion 
to refer. 

Before taking leave of Commodore Perry I should state 
that he left on Peel Island four head of cattle, and on one 
of the other Islands five Shanghai sheep and six goats. 

I enquired at Port Lloyd what had become of this stock, 
and was told that the cattle had disappeared, having pro- 
bably been lifted by the crews of the whalers that were 
in "harbour either at that time or that came shortly after 
Perry's visit. The sheep died, but the goats have multi- 
plied to such an extent that the islands now swarm with 
them. 

Not long after the Susquehanna and Saratoga's visit 
the U. S. man-of-war Plymouth came to Port Lloyd. 
Her stay was marked by a most unfortunate accident. One 
of her cutters with fourteen men had gone outside the 
harbour in the face of a somewhat rough sea and was 
never more heard of, there being no doubt that she cap- 
sized with all hands, not one of whom ever reached shore- 

The place is a very dangerous one for boat work, which 
should be avoided as much as possible outside the harbour- 
Much anxiety was felt while I was at Port Lloyd on ac- 
count of a party of Japanese that had put off one morning 
from the steamer Meiji Maru, and rounding the southern 
headland of the harbour was lost to sight from the ship. 
At 6 o'clock p.m. of the same day, and night setting in, 
there were no signs of the boat ; a gun was fired and a 
rocket sent up from the Meiji Maru ; but it was not until 
10 p.m. of the same evening that some of the missing ones 



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123 

returned vnih the report that the boat had been beached 

the other side of the headland close to the Frenchman 

Leseur*s holding. The boat was eventually recovered, 
but Leseur said it was a marvel she had ever escaped 
for she was lifted in on the top of a raging surf right over 
the rocks and landed close to his own dwelling. 

The next visit of men of war after the Plymouth was 
that of four Russian ships which came to Port Lloyd in 
1854. This squadron consisted of a frigate, a corvette, a 
store ship and a small steamer. Their visit was followed 
by that of the U. S. Frigate Macedonian^ Captain Abbott, 
on her way to Manilla. The Macedonian had left the 
U. S. Flag ship Powhattan in Yedo Bay. Commodore 
Perry entrusted to Captain Abbott's care implements of 
husbandry and seeds to be distributed amongst the 
settlers, in a letter to one of whom the Commodore 
writes ** it must be understood that the sovereignty of 
** the Bonin Islands has not yet been settled, and the 
" interest taken by me in the welfare and prosperity of the 
** settlement has solely in view the advantages of commerce 
" generally." 

In the ensuing year 1855 the U. S. Man-of-war Vin- 
cennes visited Port Lloyd and remained 10 days. 

In 1861 an attempt to colonize Peel Island was made 
from Japan, and in November or December of that year a 
Japanese steamer was despatched to Port Lloyd from 
Yedo, having on board a Commissioner, subordinate 
officers and about 100 colonists. 

Rules and Regulations for the governance of the settlers, 
inclusive of foreigners, and harbour Regulations so called 
were drawn up in English by the Commissioner and his 
assistants. They appear never to have been enforced, and 
the present settlers seem for the most part ignorant of their 
existence. I have however a copy by ine from which I 
extract the following somewhat unintelligible rules. 

"Article 3. — It shall be unlawful for any vessel or vessels 
that may be come into this port to discharge any of the 
cannon that will hurtful for the fishing. 



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Article 4. — Any vessel or vessels may come into this 
port or harbour said the vessel shall to pay to the pilot 
amount of the established pilotage. 

Article 5. — If any person or persons come on shore from 
any vessel that may be come into this port who shall have 
pleasure hunting and waste upon the land of any inhabitants 
and also committed any of such he or they shall be seized 
and transported to the Captain of their vessel." 

Communication would appear to have been kept up with 
Port Lloyd from Japan from time to time during 1862, for it 
is recorded that the colonists soon wearying of the enterprise, 
left Port Lloyd in batches, until early in 1863 the Com- 
missioner himself withdrew, taking with him the few 
Japanese that had for some fifteen months cast their lot 
upon the Islands. 

The Japanese settlement was situated on the South side 
of the harbour and one of the houses erected by them still 
remains. Close to this house a large stone has been erected 
which records that the Bonins were first visited in the time 
of lyeyasu by Ogasawara Sadayori and that in 1593 they 
received the name of Ogasawara -jima, that they were again 
visited in 1828, that they are Japanese territory, that they 
were re-visited in 186 1 and that this tablet was erected as a 
perpetual memorial. 

From time to time whalers arriving at Yokohama have 
been reported as from the Bonins, and in 1872, 1873, and 
for some time in 1874, a small schooner, the Tort, under 
American colours made trips between Yokohama and Port 
Lloyd, taking stores and cheap piece-goods from this, and 
returning with turtle shell, turtle oil, lemons and other 
Island produce. 

In 1874 the U.S. man-of-war Tuscarora while engaged on 
her line of soundings visited Port Lloyd and made a brief 
stay, and in November 1875, we have the visits of the Japa- 
nese steamer Meiji Maru and H.M.S. Curlew. 

Later on, and since my return, the Bonins have, I believe, 
been visited by the Russian man-of-war Hydamack and the 
German frigate Hertha, 



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I have given prominence to the visits of men-of-war, but 
it is not to be concluded that the settlers were dependent 
on these alone for their glimpses of the outer world. 
Port Lloyd has been the frequent resort of whalers, mostly 
under American colours, in some instances flying the 
French or Hawaiian Flags. In one year the arrivals at 
Port Lloyd have bean as many as 15 vessels, but lately the 
sight of a whaler has been somewhat rare, as may be 
judged from the fact that last year 1875, but one vessel, 
a whaler, had touched there prior to the arrival of the 
Meiji Maru and Curlew, 

In 1849, the year of the rush to California, several 
vessels, so I was informed by one of the residents, touched 
at Port Lloyd on their way from China to San Francisco ; 
these ships varied in size from 300 to 1,000 tons, and so 
far as I can learn must have been coolie passenger ships. 
That same year, 1849, is also a memorable one in the 
annals of the settlers, for in the autumn a lorcha and 
schooner under Danish colours and a cutter with the British 
flag came to Port Lloyd and made a stay of some two 
months, during which the vessels were hove down and 
repaired. They then left in company, but after a few days 
the lorcha and cutter returned and their crews made a 
raid on the place, offering no personal violence but carry- 
ing off every thing they could lay hands on. The two 
vessels then quitted Peel Island and were seen no more. 

I have thus briefly sketched the history of the Islands 
down to the time of my visit, but I shall probably in the 
course of this paper have to refer to past d^tes in order 
to complete, as well as can be done in the limits of a paper 
of this nature, the history of Peel Island and its settlers 
up to the present time. 

H. M. S. Curlew anchored in Port Lloyd on the morn- 
^^Z of the 26th November, having left Yokohama at 10 
a.m., of the 22nd, the voyage being principally made 
under canvass. 

The Japanese steamer Meiji Maru with the Japanese 
Commissioners on board, left Yokohama on Sunday the 



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126 

2 1 St November at noon, and arrived at Port Lloyd early 
on Wednesday the 24th. 

As we made slowly, in the early morning, for the entrance 
of the harbour, the approach to which is clearly marked 
by two conspicuous crags known as "the Paps," the 
Islands presented a fertile appearance, and the palm trees 
twisted this way and that by the action of the winds were 
a conspicuous feature in the vegetation. 

The approach to the harbour is marked by bold rocks, 
and a sheer wall of dark rock rising up at the South side of 
the harbour dwarfed almost to miniature the Meiji Maru, 
which vessel we descried at anchor well up the harbour. 
A canoe propelled by three men was noticed about a mile 
astern of the Curlew, but as no signal was made to us Cap- 
tain Church did not think it advisable to stop, but proceeding 
on to the anchorage let go close to the Japanese steamer in 
about 22 fathoms of water. It turned out that the canoe 
had on board a Frenchman, Leseur by name, the self-consti- 
tuted pilot of Port Lloyd, whom Captain Peters of the Meiji 
Maru had thoughtfully sent out with a letter to the Curlew^ 
in order that Leseur's services might be availed of if required. 

The harbour of Port Lloyd open to the south-west is 
about a mile and half in length, and has a breadth varying 
from half a mile to a mile. 

At the upper end of the harbour, and on its northern 
shore, a coral reef extends for some distance, terminating 
in a pinnacle rock. Westward of this, and but a short 
distance from the beach, there is a depth of ten fathoms, 
the spot styled by Captain Beechey of the Blossom as 
** ten fathom hole " ; from this the water deepens rapidly 
towards the mouth of the harbour. 

The general character of the scenery as observable 
from the harbour is hilly, with here and there bold crags ; 
the cliff line rising straight from the water's edge, notably 
so on the Eastern side of the anchorage, while the west- 
em and north-western shore is marked by a line of yel- 
low sandy beach to the rear of which the ground is flat 
for a short distance, backed by hilly slopes and steep 



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127 

ascents. A fringe of trees hides the level ground and 
forms a natural boundary between the plots of cultivated 
*^nd and the sea shore. 

^he hills are covered with verdure, but the luxuriant 
^^d almost tropical nature of the vegetation is not fully 
^^Hzed until after landing. 

^he ordinary palm and cabbage-palm trees abound on 

"^ rising ground which surrounds the anchorage. 

7 Solitary hut at the head of the harbour, in front of 

^^^ the American flag was hoisted shortly after our 

^^h a few canoes drawn up on the beach, and ^ canoe 

rc\ ^^^^ small white sail flitting across the anchorage, 

'^tltuted the only outward signs of life visible from the 

It is not within the scope of this paper to give in detail 
a narrative of what occurred on each day of my stay, 
which occupied exactly a week, my time, moreover, was 
for the most part taken up with matters which would 
have but little general interest; but I will endeavour to 
give a faithful picture of the condition of the present 
settlers and to note such matters of interest as will con- 
vey to those who are desirous of knowledge on the subject 
as much information as I myself possess derived from 
actual observation. 

It must be remembered that in 1830 the little colony 

^hich in that year first settled at Port Lloyd consisted of 

Mazarro, Millichamp, Savory, Chapin and Johnson ; that of 

fnese Millichamp is now living at Guam in the Marianas 

°r Ladrones group, and the rest are deadi Savory having 

died as recently as the loth April, 1874, at the age of 79, 

saving a widow and six children, now residing on Peel 

^^'^^. Mrs. Savory was the widow of Mazarro above 

'^^^oned, and was married to Savory after Mazarro's death, 

^^g also buried another husband in the interval. 

^ 1853, the time of Commodore Perry's visit, there 

J. ^ residing at Port Lloyd in addition to Sandwich 

Q ^ders.and natives of other groups, eight foreigners — 

^^, Webb, Motley, Gilley, the two Bravas, Cullen 



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128 

and Horton. What befell the majority of these has before 
been stated. These with the other Islanders made up in 
1853 a resident population of thirty-one. 

The settlers now number sixty-nine, of whom sixty-six 
reside on Peel Island, and three on the Bailey or Coffin 
group, of these thirty-seven are males and thirty-two 
females, and out of the whole number about twenty are 
children whose ages vary from one to fifteen. Amongst the 
present settlers there can only be said to be five whites, 
namely, Thomas H. Webb, an Englishman born in Wal- 
lington, Surrey ; Leseur a Frenchman who hails from 
Brittany ; Allen a German who comes from Bremen ; Rose, 
about whose nationality I am uncertain, some calling him 
a German others a Dutchman ; and John Brava whose real 
name is Gonsalves, a Portuguese, bom in the Island of 
Brava, one of the Azores. 

Of these John Brava, born in 181 1, and consequently 
now 65 years of age, was the first to come to Port Lloyd 
where he arrived in 183 1 in the British whaler Partridge, 

He remembers Millichamp, Savory and Mazarro being 
there when he came, as also another foreigner, probably 
either Chapin or Johnson, whose name, however, he has 
forgotten. He married at Port Lloyd a Sandwich Island 
woman, since dead, by whom he had two sons George and 
Andrew Brava, the latter of whom is dead, as is also his 
wife; two of his children, however, Francis and Lucy 
Brava are still living. The other son, George Brava, a 
man now close on 40 years of age, lives close by his father ; 
he married a daughter of Savory's, who died leaving three 
children, Jose, Rosa, and Andrew Brava now living with 
their father. 

Thomas H. Webb came, as I think I have before 
mentioned, to Port Lloyd in the American Barque JapaUy of 
Nantucket, some time in 1847, and has thus been nearly 
thirty years a resident on Peel Island. He married the daugh- 
ter of an Englishman — Robinson by name — she is living 
with him now and they have a family of eight children. 

George Robinson, about whose ultimate fate there is 



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much uncertaint}', arrived at Port Lloyd in the whaler 
Howard some time in 1849 and took up his residence with 
Webb, whose home was at that time shared by a man named 
Gilley (afterwards murdered). Robinson did not remain long 
at Port Lloyd but removed to Hillsboro* Island, the most 
important of the Bailey Group, where he cleared and planted 
out a considerable portion of ground. After a residence of a 
few years he left with his family for Guam and Seypan and in 
his absence Motley, of whom mention has before been made, 
went and occupied his clearing on Hillsboro' Island. 

Robinson eventually returned and appears to have 
arranged amicably with Motley for a joint occupation of the 
clearing. Robinson on his return had brought with him 
some natives from the Kingsmill Group and discontent 
soon manifested itself amongst them, fomented, so it is 
said, by a woman named Kitty in the employ of Motley. 
This appears to have engendered a quarrel between 
Robinson and Motley, for they separated, the Islanders 
above mentioned leaving Robinson and taking service 
with Motley. An Englishman, known as Bob, who had 
ran away from a whaler and found shelter with Motley, 
left the latter and went over to Robinson. At this time 
Robinson's family consisted of his sons John, Henry and 
Charles, and his daughters Eliza, Caroline and Susan. 
There was living with him as nurse to the children a 
woman, Zipher by name, a native of Raven Island. 

Notwithstanding the separation of Robinson and Motley, 
matters appear to have gone from bad to worse, and scenes 
of bloodshed ensued, over which I will not linger. It is 
sufficient to say that one morning, (the event occurred 
some time in 1861) an attack is said to have been made 
by the Kingsmill Islanders on the elder Robinson, who 
with his children John, Henry and Eliza fled in one 
direction, his daughter Caroline, then a girl of 19, taking 
with her the younger sister Susan and her brother Charles, 
flying in another. In the fight that ensued the man 
Bob was killed, whether by or at the instigation of 
Motley is not accurately known. Motley has since died 



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and is buried on Hillsboro' Island. His name will be 
remembered as one of those appended to the organization 
scheme. 

It is said that George Robinson and the children with 
him were picked oif by a passing whaler, the Montreal^ 
Captain Sole ; the rest of his family fled to the opposite 
side of the Island, and making their way to the sea-shore, 
subsisted there for a period of eleven months living on 
shell-fish and berries, until attracted by the smoke of a 
fire, the captain of a passing whaler the E. L, B. yenny, 
hove to off the land, and, going ashore in a boat, found the 
two girls Caroline and Susan Robinson with their brother 
Charles and the nurse Zipher in a most pitiable condition, 
as may well be imagined. Taking them on board, he 
proceeded to Port Lloyd, close by, where the family were 
sheltered by Webb, who subsequently married the girl 
Caroline, Susan later on becoming the wife of a man 
named Pease, said to have been an American, and whose 
disappearance at Port Lloyd in the autumn of 1874 is 
generally well known. Mrs. Pease, Charles Robinson 
and the woman Zipher are now living on Peel Island. 

John Robinson is reported to be living at the Sandwich 
Islands, which would go to confirm the supposition that 
with his father they had made good their escape from 
Hillsboro'. The woman Kitty is still living at the Bailey 
group, with the man Rose and a Kanaka boy, making up 
the three residents on those Islands. 

The next to arrive at Port Lloyd is the Frenchman 
Leseur, better known on the Islands as Louis. He came 
in the Hawaiian whaler Wyola in 1862 or 1863, but he 
had made several visits to the Islands before that in 
different whalers. In one of the years, however, above- 
mentioned he took up his residence at Port Lloyd 
where he has since, with the e^fception of a visit to 
Guam, continued to dwell. He is a stout hearty-looking 
Frenchman of about 55 years of age, speaking English 
remarkably well — his present wife, Pidear by name, is a 
native of Grigan, one of the Ladrones group, and is the 



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widow of a man known as John Mafquese, flf native of the 
Marquesas. 

By a former wife, who is buried at Port Lloyd, Leseur 
has three children, Albert, Lousia, and Phillis, who are 
still living. I may here mention that it was at Leseur*s 
house we found the copper plate and board put up by 
Captain Beechey in 1827. Leseur said he had found it 
in an outhouse on the clearing he now occupies. 

,We next come to the German Allen who arrived with 
Leseur in 1862 or 1863. He appears to be a man of fifty 
and upwards and has taken to wife a Sandwich Island 
woman, Poconoi by name. They live on Peel Island about 
a couple of miles from Port Lloyd and midway between 
the dwellings of Leseur and Webb. 

As regards the man Rose, now Irving on the Bailey 
Islands, it is uncertain when he actually came to reside 
there. All that is known of him at Port Lloyd is that he 
made his first appearance there in the French whaler 
Gustav in 1852. He was left there sick, but shipped again, 
and made his appearance a,t Port Lloyd from time to 
time in successive whalers. He was eventually found 
residing on Hillsboro* Island, but the precise date of his 
arrival there, or indeed how he got there at all, is not 
known. 

The settlers other than those of whom I have made 
particular mention consist of men and women from 
the Sandwich Islands; from Grigan, or Agrigan, as it 
is sometimes called ; from the Caroline Islands ; and 
from the Gilbert or Kingsmill groups, — there is also 
one man from Bermuda, Robert Myers by name, claiming 
to be a British subject; a Manilla man named Sino, 
and two Japanese women, the wives respectively of Sino 
and Myers. Of the 66 settlers now on the Bonins 35 
have been bom on the Islands. The nomenclature is 
curious, for I found in the list of residents that I 
procured when at Port Lloyd the following names, 
Thomas Tewcrab, and his wife Bosan, Charley Papa, 
Priday, Bill Boles, Samuel Tinpot, Zipher, Hannah 



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132 

Poconoi, Samuel Tinpot, Pidear, Mra. Tinaree, and Mrs. 
Fanny and Mrs. Betty. 

Miscegenation has brought about rather curious results, 
in the male children the white parentage is very 
distinct: light olive complexion, dark eyes and clear cut 
features, in the females the Micronesian blood is unmis- 
takeable, and * I found in many cases the Hat face and 
coarse features of the Pacific Islanders — on the other 
hand, in some cases the women are in appearance very 
closely akin to the Hindostanee. 

The men dress for the most part simply in shirt and 
trousers with broad brimmed Panama hat, a cotton shirt 
being replaced by a flannel one in the winter months. 
The women in print gowns with a bright colored kerchief 
on the head. 

The two Japanese women above referred to were taken 
from Yokohama in the schooner Tori some time during 
1873 ; four or five others also were passengers, but they 
elected to return to Yokohama. 

Having thus conveyed a general idea of how the resi- 
dent population is made up, I proceed to describe their 
dwellings, their occupation and mode of life. 

Each family has its holding or clearing of cultivated jand 
close to which the dwelling and outhouses are erected, 
these are situated for the most part round the harbour, 
but screened from view by a fringing of hummock trees. 

Webb, Allen and Leseur have their clearings away 
from Port Lloyd to the south and west of the harbour in 
each case close to the sea. 

To the holdings are given distinct appellations. Thus, 
commencing from the left hand, or north western side of 
the harbour, there is Yellow Beach on which the Bravas, 
father and son, the Tewcrabs, a family numbering some 
15 members, and Charles Robinson have their clearings ; 
continuing along the shore a site known as the Cove 
opposite ten fathom hole is reached ; then a spot known as 
jfacksoHy unoccupied. From this it is but a step to the 
Head of tlie harbour ^ as the location of the Savory s 19 



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133 

called, and continuing along the eastern and southern shore, 
we come to Bull Beach, the dwelling of the Manilla man 
Sino and his Japanese wife, and but a short distance beyond 
this the site known as Aki, the present residence of the 
widow Pease and former site of the Japanese colony estab- 
lished at the close of 1861 and broken up early in 1863. 

Leaving the harbour and coasting round the sea shore, 

but bearing to the south, Leseur's place of residence 

tnown as Blossom or Clarkson's village is reached ; further 

on is Poconoi the dwelling of William Allen, and beyond 

this Little Liver where Webb and his family reside; to 

each of these a land track leads, starting from Aki, but the 

road is a rough one, and they are more easily reached by 

canoe, provided the weather suits. 

The dwelling houses resemble one another closely and 
to describe one is to describe all. They consist of two 
rooms, constructed with wooden uprights, and each has a 
solid wood flooring ; the sides and roof are thatched with 
the leaf of the cabbage palm neatly secured to the rafters 
with thin wooden slips. Kitchens and outhouses are all 
separate from the dwelling. Of furniture there is of 
course not a very large display ; a rough deal table, a few 
chairs and a seaman's chest go to make up the furniture 
of one room, while the bedroom opening out from it is 
supplied with a plain wooden bedstead. 

^ach cabin, for so it may be called, is supplied with a 

clock-— a few cheap and highly colored prints adorn the 

^Alls and from the ceiling hang rifle and fowling piece. 

^ ^^W shelves with plates and crockery-ware neatly 

^'^anged complete all that is seen in the interior or these 

^^Hit^gs. Everything is scrupulously clean, from floor 

'Woodwork to linen and crockery. 

, * hooks, with the exception of a few, I saw in Webb's 

> ^^^, there are none, and, Webb excepted, no one on the 

^'^lis can either read or write. 
J. ^ the cultivated ground which surrounds each dwel- 
^ ^re seen patches of garden vegetables, sweet potatoes, 
^^l)kins, and wherever there is a little running water, 



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134 

tarOy from which the article of diet so well known in the 
Sandwich Islands under the name of poi is made. 

The dwellings are all with but one exception, that of 
the widow Pease at Aki^ situated on low ground and to 
the back of the cabins the sloping ground is in some cases 
laid out with Sugar cane, Maize, and a few Cocoa-nut 
plantations. Plaintains thrive and are grown close to the 
homesteads, and lemons of excellent quality abound 
throughout the Island. 

PigSj geese, ducks, and fowls are kept by the settlers, 
and appear to thrive well. What with wild goats, >vild 
and tame pigs, poultry, fruit and vegetable produce afford- 
ed by the shore and excellent fish and turtle from the 
harbour, the settlers are not so badly off for food. It 
happens, however, at times that violent hurricances play 
sad havoc with the vegetation and now and then there is 
actual distress for food, one family that I x:ame across 
being reduced to Indian-corn meal alone for diet. 

The occupation of the setttfers can very easily be 
imagined. Rising at dawn, work is done either in the gar- 
den or about the house until breakfast, which is taken 
about eight a.m. The meal varies according to season, 
and consists of whatever the family may have at hand 
either fresh or salted turtle, fish, corn meal, taro or vege- 
tables. After breakfast work is resumed ; one will go 
after turtle, which, when in season in April, May and June 
are turned over in great numbers — one man securing 
perhaps 50 a day. Another will go fishing, or perhaps, 
taking his gun, look after a wild goat or pig ; firewood has, 
to be cut or a neighbour wants a helping hand to repair 
his house or erect a new one. 

The evening meal is taken shortly before dusk, it is 
probably the same in materials as the breakfast, perhaps 
with the addition of goat's flesh or pork. And after 
supper to bed — and so on from day to day, an existence 
varied only by the occasional visit of a whaler, now 
apparently very rare. In addition to the products of the 
Island already noted, I should mention that arrowroot of 



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very good quality is grown, and that the soil seems em* 
inentJy adapted both for this and for tapioca. 
Of running water there seems no lack. 
The settlers have of course an eye to trade, though they 
seem more inclined to barter than to accept money ; and 
naturally so, for money is of little or no use amongst them- 
selves and they can only hope to pass it off with the next 
in-coming whaler unless perhaps it is hoarded. 

Their wants are notably piece-goods of any description, 
provided they are of light texture and suitable for cloth- 
ing, stores, salt (much used in salting down turtle for 
winter consumption) soap, tobacco, hardware, nails, knives, 
tools of different kinds and ammunition. Against these 
they are ready to barter turtle, turtle-shell, turtle -oil, 
bananas, lemons, poultry and garden produce. If, however, 
the purchaser prefers to pay in cash the following are the 
•island rates: Turtle, each $2; turtle oil $10, $15 and 
$20 a barrel ; turtle shell, 50 cents per pound ; lemons, 
I2 a hundred. 

It can be understood, however, that the wants of the 

settlers, which are in themselves comparatively few, are 

easily supplied to so limited a population. The Meiji 

^aru took down presents in the shape of blankets, piece- 

5'oods, tea, spirits, cigars and a few miscellaneous articles, 

^^^ Captain Church of the Curlew^ not unmindful of the 

Settlers' wants, made up for each of those who required 

^^ a packet containing shirts, flannel, shoes, knives^ 

*P -a.nd other useful ships' stores. 

■^^ I personally visited the dwelling of each settler, and 

*^ so doing I had to cross the southern portion of the 

^^<i in order to visit Leseur, Allen and Webb at their 

*^^c:tive holdings, I was enabled to get a very good idea 

^^^e character of the scenery, the vegetation and the 

^^x-al resources of the Island. It is not until landing 

^ the more tropical nature of the vegetation is appar- 

Palms, what appeared to be a species of wild pine- 

. *^*^, and luxuriant ferns grow in rich profusion : the hill 

^^ are clothed with verdure and the valleys are filled 



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with a description of wild bean, with here and there patches 
of taro. 

The following are the principal trees and plants. I give 
their names as known among the settlers, — in some cases 
probably Hawaiian appellations have been adopted. 

Tremana ; a beautiful wood and largely used by the 
settlers. Whalers are in the habit of taking away quan- 
tities of this wood, which is sold to them at twenty-five 
cents a foot, and on one occasion a schooner took away 
from the island a full cargo of it. 

Mulberry ; used on the Bonins for the uprights of houses 
and generally for building purposes. 

Cedar, so called, furnishes a beautiful wood of which 
the floorings of the dwellings are nearly all made. 

Tea tree and poison wood tree ; used for making the 
hulls of canoes. 

Spruce ; used only for fuel. 

Rose wood tree ; in use for binding down the thatch of 
the dwellings. 

Shaddock ; the wood of which is used for roofing pur- 
poses. 

Yellow wood ; no particular use. 

Hake wood and white oak ; both employed in dwellings. 

Lohala tree. Mats are made of the leaves and fibre of 
this tree — the fruit makes a good food for pigs. 

Milk wood, red iron wood and white iron wood ; in use 
for building purposes. 

Black iron wood ; used only for fuel. 

Soft Hao wood ; of which the hulls and canoes are made. 

Swamp hao wood and mountain hao wood ; used for 
making the arms of canoes with which the outrigger is 
attached to the hull. 

Narrow leaf hao tree ; the wood of this is used for the 
handles of hatchets and for garden implements. 

Kehop tree or shrub; a beautiful plant resembling an 
aloe and bearing a sweetly scented flower ; the leaves of 
this are much in request by the settlers as they are sup- 
posed to contain certain healing qualities ; they are 



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137 

^dt 80ft by heating before a fire and are then applied to 

^ises and sores. 

^^ addition to the above mentioned and those already 

^^^d there are on the Islands, wild plum and cherry, 

t^^^^y laurel, juniper and box wood tree, sandal wood, 

V* ^ottao, wild cactus, curry plant, wild sage and celery. 

^^^^, lichens and various kinds of parasitic plants abound. 

Of minerals upon the Islands none are known to the 

settlers, unless I except iron pyrites, specimens of which 

are found on Peel Island. 

The shores are covered with coral, and these, together 
with the reefs, are strewn with shells, some of which are 
very beautiful. 

Earthquake shocks and tidal waves are frequent, the 
peculiarity of the latter being that no bore rushes up the 
barbour, but the water suddenly rises just in the manner, 
w described to me by a settler, as water is raised in a 
bowl by inserting an inverted tumbler, when the water 
^^8 attained a certain height, it as suddenly recedes. 
*be climate is more tropical than temperate. At the time 
^^ our visit, during the latter end of November, the ther- 
mometer at noon stood at 70® and 75°, and after Yokohama 
®^med oppressively warm. Sickness is almost unknown 
*niong8t the settlers, the only thing they complain of is 
^^ On the changes of season from heat to cold, and from 
^^ to heat, they are liable to chills resulting in violent 



*^oticed no signs of intemperance, nor did I see in any 

/^^ houses either beer, wine or spirits, 

. ^ those who visited us on board the Curlew beer 

^^^d to recommend itself most, but only to the older 

. '^^ the younger refusing to take anything but water 

^j^^ their meals when entertained on board the ship. 

Vise of tobacco is general. 

V have before remarked that on our arrival at Port 

\ \oyd the American flag was run up close to a cabin at 

^e top of the harbour. This turned out to be on the 

iiolding owned by the widow Savory and her family 



The 



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I though the dwelling itself is obscured from the anchorage 

j by trees. 

! I had a long chat with this old lady, who received Capt. 

J Church and myself surrounded by her family, one or two 

I of the other settlers also being present. 

. She explained that the hoisting of the flag was out of 
' compliment to us, and that one of her husband's dying 

wishes had been that the flag should be so displayed 
j whenever a vessel arrived or on any exceptional occasion. 

I asked Mrs. Savory if she had any ideas on the subject of 
j protection by any particular Power, but the family all gravely 

i shook their heads at this, and said they wanted to be 

i regarded as Bonin Islanders, by which I understood them to 

^ mean that they wished to be left alone in undisturbed 

(possession of their holdings, and the less that was said about 
nationality or protection of any kind the better. Close to the 
( house is Savory's grave, and indeed iti most of the enclosures 

j the resting places of the dead are conspicuous features 

I surrounded with neat palisades and in some cases a headstone 

I recording in English the name and date of death of the 

deceased. While on this subject I should not omit to record 
that one of the settlers told me he had, when digging near the 
shore a few years back, come across the skeleton of a child 
apparently about ten years of age; the bones fell to pieces at 
the touch and on exposure to the air, from which it is con- 
ceived that they had been there many years. 

I have not before noted that English is spoken by all 
the settlers, unless I except some half dozen from the 
Kingsmill group, who speak their own language. 
There is however no attempt at education on the 
f Islands, nor is there indeed any one there who could 

improve this state of things, Webb being the only one 
who reads or writes, and this indifferently well. Religion 
has with perhaps the exception of Webb, no name amongst 
them ; the marriage and burial services are, however, 
always read by Webb when occasion requires. 

When speaking to Mrs. Savory about her husband*^s 
death, I asked if his end had been peaceful. She replied 



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9uite so ; that he had given certain directions with great 

l^'^rness." But when following up my question by asking 

"C had expressed himself in any way about a future 

^^^> the question did not seem to be understood and was 

^^ived with blank looks. Mrs. Savory rather amused 

\ ^ ^hen in reply to a question I put as to what possible 

^^ there could be in such an existence as she and her 

I 'v were leading she replied, " Well, I guess we pay 

I ^ ^^ Mrs. Savory, her son Horace, a young fellow of 

^^ three and twenty, from Webb, Leseur, Charles 
^Oblnson and the Bravas, Captain Church and I received 
I much kindness and attention. 

It now only remains for me to make some concluding 
j remarks. Popular rumour had ascribed to the Bonins a 

colony of semi-savages, murdering one another and alto- 
gether leading a barbarous existence. I found a small colony 
of settlers, living to all outward appearances in decency 
and order, cleanly in their attire, civil in their address 
and comfortable in their homes. Such is the bright side. 
The dark picture is the utter apathy of the settlers ; 
i their indifference to anything outside of what goes to 

satisfy their immediate wants ; their suspicion in some 
cases of one another. No religion, no education, old men 
and women hastening to their graves without the one, chil- 
dren growing up without the other — and there is a darker 
picture than this. This paper records the fact of two 
™^n Gilley and Bob (so called) having fallen by the hand 
°' their neighbours. On the gth October, 1874, Benjamin 
'^Pase, a resident at Port Lloyd, disappeared, and it is 
oe/ieved met with a violent death, while on the nth 
yune xgy^ a negro, Spenser by name, strongly suspected 
^^ving been Pease's assassin also disappeared, receiving 
death blow it is said at the hands of one of the 
'd^nts. I was informed by a settler that during his 
X ^ on the Bonins, now extending over 25 years, no less 
^^^ 11^ men had met with violent deaths. I would not 
>^^Ve it assumed, however, that these tragedies are to be 



] 



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I40 

ascribed altogether to the bona fide resident population, 
if indeed, the word population can be ascribed to such a 
little band. 

It must be remembered that the component parts of 
the population are a few old residents, a few compara- 
tively new, some bom on the Islands and now getting on 
in years, runaways from whalers and men perhaps pur- 
posely left behind, and these latter we may be sure not 
the most orderly of the crew. 

I trust that if communication comes to be established 
with these islands with anything like regularity that the 
claims of the settlers on the sympathies of the foreign 
communities of Yokohama and Yedo will not be over- 
looked, and that an attempt at ameliorating their condi- 
tion will be made from one or both these settlements if 
not indeed generally from the open ports in Japan. I 
can vouch for it that kindly sympathy expressed either in 
word or deed will not be inappreciated there, and that in 
spite of many drawbacks, there are as warm hearts on the 
Bonins as any that beat amongst ourselves. 



A General Meeting of the above Society was held in the Grand Hotel 
on Wednesday, the 15th instant, the President, Dr. S. R. Brown, in the 
Chair. The attendance of members and friends was unusually large. 
The minutes of last meeting were read and approved. 

Mr. Russell Robertson then proceeded to read his interesting paper 
on ** The Bonin Islands." 

On its conclusion Dr. Brown remarked that he was sure it would not 
be regarded as a mere formality, when he said that the Asiatic Society 
was much indebted to Mr. Robertson for the elaborate and interesting 
account he had given of the Bonin Islands. That group so near to usi 
and yet out of the usual track of vessels that traverse the Pacific has 
long been known to navigators and others, but the reports respecting the 
islands have been so fragmentary and scattered, that it was difficult, if not 
impossible, to form a correct conception of their physical characteristics* 
or of the condition of their inhabitants. Mr. Robertson has given us, 
what must have cost him much painstaking, an almost exhaustive 
description of those islands, as the result of his research among books of 
voyages and his own careful personal observations, gathering op into a con- 



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neeted whole all that is known of their past history and present sute. 
The variety of nationalities among the 69 residents there shows that 
whalers have most frequently visited those islands. That little 
commnnity is composed of persons from the United States, Great 
firitain, France, Germany, Portugal, the Sandwich Islands, the 
Ladrones, the Kingsmill and other groups in the Pacific, as well as 
Japanese and natives of the Bonin Islands. 

The Japanese Government not long ago made an abortive attempt 
to colonize those islands, and perhaps still claims sovereignty over 
them, but the people on the Islands, it appears, prefer to be left to 
themselves. 

Mr. Robertson^s concluding remar|cs respecting the social, intellectual 
and moral condition of those people deserve consideration. Webb, 
the only man among them who can read and write, must soon pass 
SLway, and there is none to fill his place in burying their dead or 
reading the marriage service at their weddings. It is pitiful to think 
of the deeper ignorance and degradation into which those people 
must of necessity relapse, unless some outside influence intervenes 
to prevent it. Mr. Robertson's suggestion that the foreigners in Japan 
might do something to improve their condition and prospects, com- 
"lends itself to all hearts that have a fellow-feeling for their kind. 

I^r. Brown referred to George Horton whose name is mentioned 

*8 one of the men living there a few years ago. He said he knew 

him, that Horton's history served to show through what checquered 

w'rtunes obscure individuals often pass. He was left in the Bonin 

'wands as an invalid, at his own request, by Commodore Perry in 

'^53 Or 1854. In 1862 he was brought to Yokohama under arrest, 

^ Japanese whaling vessel, charged with having made a piratical 

^empt upon that vessel. Horton was about 80 years old at the 

T'®' Being brought before the United States Minister for trial, 

p ^^ts elicited were these. While the Japanese vessel lay at 

. ^ ^loyd, Horton one day was out shooting at a mark with an old 

^U "when a man of the island who had been out on a cruise in the 

^^*^r, asked him to go on board with him and help him to bring 

, ^^ chest, as he vnshed to leave the ship. Horton consented and 

jj^ the boat drew up along side the ship, threw his rusty old weapon 

^^ in the stern sheets of the boat, and went up on deck. Here some 

^ V altercation about the removal of the chest, between its owner and 

^ ^ptain, resulted in Horton's being accused of piratical designs against 

^^ip, and he was tied up with ropes, and made fast to a spar. In this 

e. ^^on he was brought to Yokohama and handed over to the United 

^^ authorities for trial. A mere look at the shaky decrepit old man was 

j^J*^li to disprove the charge and he was accordingly acquitted. The 

• ^^^on of the Court was that Horton should either be replaced in posses- 

^^ ^f his clearing and house on the islands, or that ^looo should be de- 

^^^d with the American Consul for his support here. The latter altern- 



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142 

ative was preferred by the Captain of the ship. Horton was a native 
of Boston in England, had at first owned and commanded a vessel, had 
been a seaman in the British navy for twenty-five years, was in the 
battle of Copenhagen, served under Nelson in the battle of the Nile, and 
finally had served in the U. S. Navy eighteen years when left on the 
Bonin Islands. He survived his removal to Yokohama by about two 
years, and his remains lie interred in the cemetery here. 






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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



A General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held in Tokio on 
Wednesday, the igth instant, Dr. Faulds in the chair. Notes fi>r a 
paper " On the Musical Notation of the Chinese with its cotinterpart in 
Japan " were read and enlarged on by the Revd E. W. Syle. 

At the conclusion, Professor Ayrton brought to the notice of the 

Society various experiments that had been made in his Laboratory by 

Mr. Takamine, one of the senior students of the Kogakuriyo on the 

method of tuning employed with the Samisen, Koto and G urking. At 

the commencement of the exjllriments, Mr. Takamine's attention was not 

drawn to the exhaustive paper of Dr. MuUer on Japanese music, in order 

to obtain independent results. The Samisen was tuned successively in 

accordance with each of the six standard methods, the first string, 

instead of being stretched by a peg as usual being, however, passed 

over a small pulley let into the neck of the Samisen and strained by 

means of a weight to ascertain the relative number of vibrations in any 

one of the six modes of tuning ; additional weights were added to No. i 

string to make it sound first in unison with No. 2 string, and afterwards 

with No. 3 string. Then, since the number of vibrations of a stretched 

string is proportional to the square root of the tension, the relative 

number of vibrations in any of the six methods of tuning could be 

ascertained. The Honchioshiy Niagari and San-san-gari gave the same 

results as those obtained by Dr. Muller. The San-sagariy however, 

instead of giving the 2nd, 5th and octave as stated by Dr. Muller gave 

the 1st, 4th and flat 7th. Now this is what might be expected, since San- 

*«-^an, which means lowering the third string, ought tobe obtainable from 

^e fundamental, or Honchoshiy by flattening the third. It is true that the 

second, fifth and octave bear nearly the same relation to each other tha* 

^e 1st, 4th and flat 7th do, nevertheless, the second mode of tuning is 

considered by Japanese the better. Similar remarks apply to the Ichi- 

'^an (printed by mistake in the Japan Mail Itoisagari,) and which 

'neans lowering the first. This method gives flat 1st, 4th and octave 

not as Dr. Muller states prime 5th and gth. One other method, the 

''^^g:arij which gives octave, 4th and prime, the reverse of the 

^'^^ioshi, and which method of tuning is invariably employed by the 

vJvtvVR^Vta at the theatre when actors are playing on the Koto in con. 

^I^iittice of the Samisen so tuned having a resemblance to the KotOj is 

^ot mentioned by Dr. Muller. All the results above mentioned were 

afkcnvards verified by employing tuning forks and by subdividing the 

string of a sonometer. 

The Guekingy which he had brought for the inspection of the Society, 

resembled the Biwa in having few strings and about the same size, but 

I differed from the Biwa in the mode of tuning, in its body being circular 

^" ^ot pear-shaped, and in the hatchi with which the strings were struck. 



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144 

The i8t and 2nd string of the Gueking were both tuned to unison with 
the second string of a Samisen, tuned according to the Honckoshi 
method. The 3rd and 4th strings of the Gueking were both tuned to 
unison with the 3rd string of a similarly tuned Samisen. The instrument 
practically, therefore, had only two notes when using the fiill length of 
the strings. It was considered, however, that two strings tuned to 
unison produced a sweeter note than a single string. The batchi was 
a small piece of tortoiseshell, about two inches long. The Gueking 
which was originally brought to this country from China was a favourite 
instrument of the Japanese fifteen years ago. The San-no-Koto^ when 
tuned according to Hirachoshi, reproduced the results given by Dr. 
Muller, with the exception that the four sharps mentioned by him turned 
out to be flats. There were also two other methods of tuning the Koto, 
the Kumoinochoshi (*' high up in the clouds ") and the Han-kumoino- 
choshi ('* half up in the clouds"), which Mr. Takamine is at present 
experimentally investigating. These two latter methods of tuning were 
not nearly as common as the Honchoshi, and could only be employed af^er 
payment of a sum of money to the Keggio or company of blind men. 

The speaker disagreed with Dr Muller in regard to the unimportance 
of the Koto which had a small number of strings, remarking that the two- 
stringed KotOy being taught at music schools in Tokio, could not be 
regarded as a plaything. In this instrument the length of the strings 
was determined by an ivory or bone thimble, worn on the left hand, the 
strings being plucked by a similar thimble worn on the right hand. 
Besides the simple notes thus produced, gliding sounds were obtained by 
sliding the left-hand thimble along the string at the moment of removal. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to the Revd. Mr. Syle for his interesting 
remarks and the Meeting separated. 



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ON COTTON IN JAPAN. 



BY 



T. B. POATE, Esq. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of y apart ^ on tlie 

14/A jfune, 1876. 



f 



Rich as Japan is in plants, there is perhaps not one to 
which she owes more than to that which produces cotton- 
wool, or to use the native name, Wata. The seeds yield 
an excellent oil; the cake left after expression forms a 
manure for the rice fields ; the raw wool is used to line 
the winter clothes and bedding of all classes, and fabrics 
woven from it are worn by far the larger part of the 
nation. Greatly as it is now esteemed, widely as it is 
cultivated, the cotton plant is not a native of Japan, it 
is a stranger, introduced, it is true, in early times, but 
not successfully acclimatised till a comparatively recent 
P^od. A native of India, its growth long remained 
confined to that peninsula. Even the rapid spread of 
Buddhism, together with the flow of pilgrims from China 
^0 the holy places of India failed to make its value 
*"own ; and no devout worshipper, no zealous priest 
*?P^rs to have carried with him the seeds of the textile 
Tlant. Cotton was destined to owe its conquest, its posi- 
^on in Higher Asia to persecution, the fruitful source 
of 80 many evils. After centuries of prosperity the 
Buddhist faith gradually decayed throughout India, 
and its votaries suffered terrible persecution. Some fled 



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to the mountains, others sought in foreign lands the free 
exercise of their faith denied to them in their own. The 
exiles brought with them the seeds which they were 
accustomed to sow on the plains of the Ganges. They 
were received kindly by their co-religionists both in 
China and Japan, and both the countries were amply 
repaid. Singularly enough cotton reached Japan first. 
China did not receive it till nearly a century and a half 
later. ^ The following account is taken from an old and 
scarce book called Wajishi. 

'* In the i8th year of Yenriyaku, in the reign of 
" Kuwanmu Tenno, the 50th ruler of Japan, a dark-com- 
*' plexioned foreigner landed on the shore of Mikawa, a 
** province in this island. He came alone in a small boat 
** which contained a few packages. He was rather tali, had 
" slightly reddish hair and enormous ears. The stranger 
** was received kindly by the natives, but as he spoke 
** some foreign language wholly unlike either the Japanese 
•* or Chinese tongues, conversation had to be carried on by 
•* means of signs. He hired a temple at Kawara, and 
** lived there for several months. 

*' He at length began to speak Japanese and told the 
•* people whence he came. Unfortunately his tale has not 
•* been preserved ; but he told them that he came from India 
** and that the packages he had brought with him contained 
** the seeds of a plant which would yield a material nearly 
*' equal to silk, and, to a devout Buddhist, much more estim- 
** able, as having been used by Shakya himself. He paid his 
** rent with seed, and not long afterwards got a house built, 
** the cost of which was defrayed in the same manner. In the 
** loth year of Yenriyaku (800 A. D.) the seed was sown ; it 
** took kindly to its new country, and throve apace. Before 
** many years had elapsed it was widely cultivated. The 
** Hindoo lived to a good old age, and is recorded as having 
** been very kind to the poor and a man of great piety.** 

Cotton had now apparently taken possession of a 
new land, but after a time the civil commotions 
and constant strife of the contending parties, caused 



tkuL 



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its cultivation to be neglected and, at the close of the lath- 
^tury, the cultivation appears to have been finally aban- 
doned. Centuries were yet to elapse before the second and 
*^ccessful introduction was to be made. On this occasion, too, 
't came as the reward of hospitality. The account I give is 
^ taken from the Wajishi. " In the epoch (?) Bunroku 
"fat the close of the i6th century) a large foreign ship, sup- 
Posed to have been bound to the Philippines, driven a 
'hng way out of her course and much damaged by a 
^tonn, anchored off the coast of Boshiu near Yokohama, 
^° refit. The Daimio of the district treated them with 
^^ utmost kindness and caused every assistance to be 
S^^en them. After a stay of several months they pre- 
Pa^red to set sail, but before doing so the captain presented 
the daimio with a number of curious and valuable things ; 
among them was a bag of cotton seed. Sowings were made; 
^^ orop was good, and the fabrics woven from the wool 
^^^Tne the fashion. Fabulous prices were paid, ilb of 
^^ ysLtn sold for loo yen ; and as a matter of course 
^^ culture of such a profitable plant spread with the 
?rea.t:est rapidity." With increased production the price 
* ^rid the use of cotton fabrics spread to the middle and 
^^^ orders : among the upper silk asserted its old su- 
'/'^^cy, but King Cotton reigned, and still reigns, over 

^^ species cultivated in Japan is that known as Gossy- 

*** Herbtueum, It is a dwarfish plant rarely exceeding 

^cet in height. Though in point of fact a perennial, 

^^3^ sowings are made. The seed-time varies from March 

J^^ne, according to the locaHty. The usual time in this 

^''ince is May. Cotton is here what may be called a 

^^^dary crop. It is very generally planted between the 

^^^^^ of barley. The seeds are .soaked for a night in 

^Mer, and then dropped into holes an inch deep, at a 

^hort distance from each other. When the plant reaches 

a certain height it is pollarded to obtain better yield. 

The flower, which appears in July, is deciduous, has 

yellow petals and a purple centre. The small pod left 



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148 

when the flower falls, gradually increases in sire and bursts 
in September. The pods are somewhat smaller than those 
yielded by the plant in China, but to make up for this the 
cotton is of a better quality. The average yield is about 40 
lbs av. per tan or 120 lbs per acre, rather less than half the 
crop given by the American plant. As soon as the pods burst 
they are plucked, and, if the weather be fine, exposed to the 
sun to dry ; if not, they are dried by artificial heat. • The wool 
is separated from the seeds by means of the primitive roller 
(Japanese rokuro) used in India. It consists of two small 
wooden rollers which revolve in opposite directions, and 
easily throw off the hard smooth seeds. Cotton gins are now^ 
being introduced and the rokuro will soon become a raritj'. 
In the cotton producing districts of Japan, the seed not 
required for the next year is sent to the oil factories. One 
bushel is said to yield a gallon of oil, the cake left is, as I 
have already stated, used as a manure. The raw cotton is 
packed in bales and sent to the merchants ; it is, however, 
full of knobs and impurities and requires to be carded 
before it can used, even as a lining. Except in a few 
factories possessing European machiner>% this opera- 
tion is performed by hand. In certain quarters of the 
town the twanging of bows may be heard from morn- 
ing to night ; the sound proceeds from a room at the 
back or above a store, full of cotton bales. The 
process is carried on in a room with a smooth wooden 
floor. In each comer is a long flexible bamboo, 
not unlike a fishing-rod. Attached to the top 'is a piece 
of cord which supports the bow. The bow consists of a 
i^ straight piece of wood, about 3^ feet long, with two 

transverse pieces at the end ; to these the bow string is 
fastened. The operator places a handful of raw cotton 
on the floor, grasps the bow with his left hand and pulls 
the string sharply with an instmment called the wata- 
uchif resembling two inverted cones; the upper perfectly 
smooth but furnished at the end with a projecting ring, 
the other roughly turned to make it more easily held. 
The vibration of the string scatters the wool and effect- 



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Qftlly. frees it from ktiobe land impurities. The carded ti^ot 
Is placed on a piece of oiled paper, rolled to obtain a uniform 
sheet and then weighed out into parcels of lo mom'me each. 
A good workman will card from 20 to 40 lbs. a day. 

By far the greater part of the cloth used in Japan is 
still woven in the old-fashioned looms, but factories, with 
all the modem improvements, are gradually being estab- 
lished in various parts of the country, and bid fair in the 
course of a few years to entirely supplant them. The 
largest factory in Japan is that at Kagoshima, established 
in i866. It is worked by water-power and affords con- 
stant employment to three hundred hands. The only one 
rivalling this in size is that at Sakai, but there are a great 
many smaller ones. There is one at Oji near T6ki6. It 
is the property of Mr. Kajima, but only turns out yam. 

The culture of cotton, though on the increase, does not 
by any means keep pace with the requirements of the 
country, and many thousand bales are annually imported. 
Japan, at one time, produced enough for her own u^e, and 
had a surplus for exportation : but with the exception of 
the last year of the cotton famine when it attained 
10,000,000 lbs., the export has never been large, and has 
for several years entirely ceased. 

Why has the special production fallen off? And will 
Japan, or can she, ever become a large exporter of cotton ? 
The first query is easily answered ; the second will de* 
mand careful thought. When the Southern States were 
put down, the supply of long stapled cotton, always th«l 
favourite, was resumed ; the price and the demand 
for the short stapled greatly diminished ; and the culture 
ceased to pay as well as it had done. Again, the improved 
system of railroads in Hindostan has enabled the peasant 
to bring his cotton to the market at a much less cost than 
heretofore. Can Japan ever become, to any extent, an 
exporter of cotton ? 

I approach this subject with diffidence, but I think 
^at, granting certain things, it is not only probable, but 
*«U-nigh cer^iin. The first thing to be done is to ira^ 



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prove the roads, for cotton is too bulky an article to be 
profitably conveyed any great distance. The second, is to 
introduce the American species, G. Barbadense, This has 
been done both in India and Eg}'pt, in both cases with 
complete success ; and though the improvident fellahs have 
neglected the plant and no longer produce any quantity worth 
mentioning of the better, class, India sends yearly larger 
quantities to Great Britain and the other-European countries, 
and will, in all probability, become the chief source of the 
cotton supply of the future. The United States yearly con- 
sume more cotton, and have in consequence less to export. 
At present, if I mistake not, one half the crop is required for 
home use, and in the near future, improbable as it has seemed, 
and may still seem to some, the export will be comparatively 
small. Japan is a long way from Europe, and it will be long 
before she can hope to compete in European markets with 
Indian and Egyptian cotton, but she has a market at her 
door — China ; a market whose requirements are large — one 
which ought to be her own, but is now supplied from India. 
I know it may be urged that the American cotton has al- 
ready been introduced and that the results have not been 
at all satisfactory. Granted, but I would refer to the history 
of its introduction to India. A number of men were 
brought over from the •* States,'* sowings were made in 
the American way, in a variety of localities, and the results 
were almost all unsatisfactory. The experiment was re- 
newed in a different manner ; parcels of the seed were 
entrusted to the natives, planted by them, and the 
results are known to the whole world. Let the same 
experiment be made in Japan, and I feel confident that 
we may look for a similar result. The cost of the 
essay which I advocate need be but trifling, and its 
results, if successful, would repay the outlay a thou- 
sand fold. Granting that in some of the more northern 
districts, in which the hardy G. H, flourishes, the more 
delicate G. B. might fail ; stijl a hybrid could be obtained 
uniting the good qualities of both. I may mention in 
conclusion, that the oil-cake, now used for manure, forms 



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excellent cattle food, and that the oil itself when refined 
is neariy equal to olive oil. It is in fact so much like 
it that it is largely used to adulterate salad oil, and it is a 
well-known fact, in commercial circles, that few parcels of 
•akd oil are free from its presence. 

Since completing my essay I have been favoured by 
Mr. Nishimura of the Y. G. Gakko, with an extract from 
a poem on ** Cotton,'* written by Kinugasa lyeyoshi, the 
Nat Daijin. It is taken from an old book called the 
Shin-sen Rokugiyo, 

** Shiki-shima'no-yamato-ni'aranU'kara'bUo'nO'Uye-tfshi-wata'no^tang' 

wataye-nikiJ'^ 
The cotton seed that was planted by the foreigner and not by the 

natives has died away. 

* See article in Japan Weekly Mail, May 20, 1876, p. 444 ft>r more 
facts. 



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»5* 



NOTES OF A TRIP FROM YEDO TO 

KIOTO VIA ASAMA-YAMA, THE 

HOKUROKUDO, AND UKE 

BIWA. 



BY 



Professor D. H. MARSHALL. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of Japatiy 
on the 14//1 yunCy 1876. 



r 



i 



ITINERARY. 

Yedo 

Takasaki 

Usui gawa (r) 

Annaka 

Matsuyeda 

Miogi san, &c. (m) 

Sakamoto 

Usui toge (m. p.) 

Karuisawa 

Kutsukake (here left the Nakasendo) 

Asama yama (volcano) 

Ozasa 

Wagatsuma gawa (r.), Omai (v.) 



m. = mountain. 
m.p* = mountain pass. 

r, = river. 

V, = village, 
n. = 2^ miles nearly. 

cho = Yl ^' '5 ^^= I n^ilc nearly. 



Ri, 


Cho. 








26 





2 


24 





30 


2 


18 


2 


31 


I 


5 



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Kusatsu 

Kusatsu or Shibu toge (m 

Shibu 

Nakano 

Obuse 

Chikuma gawa (r.) 
Zenkoji or Nagano (here 
rokudo) 

Aramachi 

Mure 

Torii gawa (r.) 

Ofuruma 

Kashiwabara 

Nojiri 

Seki gawa (v. and r.) 

Futamata 

Sekiyama 

Matsuzaka 

Yashiro gawa (r.) . . . 

Aral 

Takata 

Gochi 

Nagahama 

Arima gawa (v. and r.) 

Nadachi 

Nosho 

Kajijashiki 

Itoi gawa (v- and r.) 
Himegawa(r.) ... 
TauTtii 

Auumi 

J^U^nii gawa (r.) ... 

tJt^ 

QysL shiradzu (hocks) 

Ichiburi ... 

Sakaimura 

Sakaigawa 

Tomari 



153 



p.) 



entered the 



Hoku 



Ru 


Cho 


5 





7 





I 


20 


2 





3 


18 


I 


9 


2 


30 


I 


30 





6 


I 





I 





I 


18 


I 


18 


1 


12 


I 


25 


2 


I 


2 





I 


18 


I 





I 


32 


3 


H 


2 


24 


I 


6 


I 


18 





18 



2 19 

2 29 

I O 

I 29 



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154 



Niusen 

Kurobe gawa (r.) 

Mikaichi 

Uwotsu 

Namerikawa (v. and r.) ... 
Joganji or Iwase gawa (r.) 

Machifukuro 

Arakawa (r.) 

Toyama 

Jin^u gawa (r.) 

Kosugi 

Sho gawa (r.) 

Takaoka 

Sembo gawa (r.) 

Fukuoka 

Oyabi gawa (r.) 

Isurugi 

Kurikara toge (m.p) 

Takenohashi 

Morimoto ... 
Kanazawa ... 
Asano gawa, Sai gawa (r.) 

Nonoichi 

Matto 

Midzushima 

Mikawa (not on main road) 
Awo or Tetori gawa (r.) ... 

Terai 

Komatsu 

Emai (v), Kushi (v) 

Tsukedzu 

Eburihashi 

Sakuma (v.) 

Daishoji 

Kitanata (lake) 

Hosorogi 

Kanadzu 

Gohon 



Ri. 

I 


Cho 

21 


2 
2 


22 
6 


2 


O 



2 

4 

2 



2 
O 



I? 
25 

8 



29 
18 



34 

12 

o 

o 

18 
25 

2 

33 



18 

25 
18 



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155 

Morita 

Kuriyo gawa (r.) 

Fukui 

Asuwo gawa (r.) 

Asozu 

Sabaye 

Hino gawa (r.) 

Takebu 

Wakimoto 

Yuno 

Yuno toge (m.p.) 

Imajo 

Futatsuya 

Kinome toge (m.p.) 

Shimbo 

Osaga toge (m.p.) 

Tsuniga (here left the Hokurokudo) 

Hikida 

Fukazaka (m.p.) 

Shiwotsu 

LakeBiwa 

Otsu 

Kiyoto 



Ri. Cko 
2 l8 



2 
2 

I 
2 

2 

O 

2 



I 
2 



21 
3 



O 

o 

o 
o 
o 

26 

o 
i8 

i8 
o 



o 
o 



199 13 



The following notes I have been induced to write out 
as much from a feeling of indebtedness to those who have 
done the same before me for other routes, as from the 
hope that they might be of some use to those who should 
happen to travel the same road after me. The trip was 
taken last year during the latter half of July and beginning 
of August in company with a professor and student of 
the Kai Sei Gakko. The time when a journey is taken, in 
Japan perhaps more than elsewhere, it is very necessary 
I think to mention, as the impression formed in one's 
n^ind of the scenery at any particular place depends very 
inucb on circumstances as e.g. the season of the year, or thd 



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] 



•56 

State of thje weather. In early summer the hills at one place 
may be loaded with pink azaleas and purple fuji (wisteria 
Chinensis) later on they are green. At one time a valley is 
nothing but offensive mud, at another it is clothed with 
the rich verdure of young rice, or, it may be, spotted with 
the white blossoms of buckwheat. All these differences 
depending on time necessarily make those who have tra- 
versed the same route bring home varying accounts of the 
scenery they have passed through. 

There are two main roads from Yedo to Kiyoto, the 
Tokaido which passes along the Southern coast of the island, 
and the Tosando or Nakasendo, the mountain road which 
goes through the centre of the island. These meet at 
Kusatsu a town i6 miles (6 ri 24 chd) from the ancient 
capital and after which they cease to be distinct. The 
Hoku-rokudo, or Hokkokukaido, branches from the 
Nakasendo at Oyuwake in the province of Shinshu, 
and after passing through the provinces Echigo, Echu, 
Kaga and Echizen along the Northern Coast (as its name 
implies) again meets the Nakasendo at Toriimoto in Omi, 
where it stops. The first part of this trip was taken by 
the Nakasendo, nearly all the rest by the Hoku-rokudo, a 
road as yet very little known to foreigners. 

Takasaki, a great centre of the silk trade and chief town 
of Joshu, 63 miles (26 ri) from Yedo v\k Nakasendo, it is 
well known can now be reached in one day by coach. 
This method of getting over the plain of Yedo is not 
comfortable, but certainly better if the weather be warm and 
is twice as fast as by jin-riki-sha. This part of the trip 
I pass over without further remark because it is already 
fully described in the transactions of the Society. From 
Takasaki the road ascends gradually until it crbsses 
Usui toge (mountain pass) a distance of about 22 miles 
(9 ri) to the summit. The river Usui which follows from 
the toge is crossed by a bridge of boats at an interesting 
part of its bed before reaching Annaka, a long straggling 
town which was formerly a joka or castle town. Be- 
tween Annaka and Matsuyeda the road part of the way 



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consists of an avenue of cryptomerias which reminds one o£^ 
although it is much inferior to, that leading to the tomb of 
lyeyasu at Nikk6, and in the middle of it there is a very 
fine pear garden where the horizontal training of pear trees 
is well seen. After the avenue we passed through a muU 
berry plantation and soon after found ourselves quite 
surrounded by mountains. From one part of the road 
near Matsuyeda a fine view of part of the valley of the river 
Usui and of Miogi-san is obtained. Miogi-san is the name 
of one peak of a fantastic range of mountains, but as there 
is no name to the range I refer to it by that name. Matsu- 
yeda is the best place to start from to explore a most inter- 
esting part of this curious range of mountains and I 
recommend every lover of Nature's wonders, who has 
sufficient time, to spend two days off the highways, amongst 
them. The first day he might visit the temple called Miogi- 
san which is situated near the bottom of the rock of the 
same name and which is well worth visiting. The noble 
cedars and well-built walls, the long mossy flight of steps, 
the handsome bronze toriiy and the sacred aspect of the 
spot remind the traveller as yesterday of the renowned 
Nikko. Looking towards the summit of the mountain he 
will see an enormous letter *Dai* (dai no ji), which from 
below seems to be painted pure white. This letter is 
reached after a stiff climb of 25 cho. It is situated on the 
summit of one of those oddly jutting up peaks which 
characterise this group and from it there is good view of 
the plain stretching to Yedo. The climber is astonished 
to find when he reaches the *dai ' that it is a large frame- 
work of thin bamboos tied together and on it are suspended 
hundreds of votive papers of pilgrims, which from their 
white colour give the structure from below that striking 
appearance of being painted white. Its dimensions are 30 
ft. by 20. Three cho higher up is a small temple called 
Okunoin, and above this the hill is nearly perpendicular 
and seemed so dangerous to climb that I didn't attempt it. 
Retracing his steps, the traveller will do well to put up for 
the night at Matsuyeda, or better still at one of the tea-houses 



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158 

a little below the temple he has just visited, and next 
morning let his guide take him to Kurakake-zan and 
Daikoku-zan. The object which we had in view on 
starting to these places was to investigate the nature of a 
hole which is seen in the mountains from the highway 
between Matsuyeda, which we had just left, and Sakamoto 
the next town on the road and which I shall therefore refer 
to again. To reach these places we went to the bottom of 
the temple steps, then turned off to the left, when we found 
ourselves in a well-beaten pilgrim path which continued all 
the way. The walk amongst the rocky hills was interesting. 
We soon found, contrary to all expectation, that there is a 
valley between the hill nearest the highway where the hole 
is seen and the hill which contains the hole. After climbing 
for some time we saw on our left a rocky hill with a great 
hole piercing it near its summit, which at first we thought 
wa,s the hole we were seeking. Next we came to a pilgrim 
rest where there is a handsome stone lantern. Higher up to 
another of the same even handsomer than the first. At last 
we reached Kurakake-zan where the rocks are particularly 
interesting and very curious. Most striking is an enor- 
mous natural arch in the shape of a Japanese saddle 
(whence probably the name). On the right are two lofty 
cylindrical rocks standing upright called the * Candle 
Rocks,* and all about are other rocks in curious positions. 
Climbing through^ the arch to a small shrine, one gets a 
finer view of the arch and mountains below, while 
above is seen the hole we came in search of. This like the 
first we saw is just a great hole in the summit of the 
rocky hill and has no great depth, which it appears to 
have from the highway. I climbed and looked over 
the ridge a short distance from it, and nearly on a level 
with the bottom of it, and then found that it could only be 
the upper part which is seen from the road because the 
opposite hill between the road and the hole was above my 
level. Leaving Kurakake-zan, we wended our way to 
Paikoku-zan, where to our great surprise we came in this 
©ui-of-the-way region to a large house and two temples, 



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159 

the lofwer one called Daikoku-zan, the other reachdd by a long 
flight of well-made steps, called Bosongongensan. Above 
the latter is another of these strangely jutting up rocks 
(called Higesuri-iwa) which from below look quite inacces- 
sible. It can, however, with care be climbed to within loft. 
of the summit, but to do this last stage requires a ladder. I 
could not see a trace of earth near the summit but a pine tree 
is growing there with the pilgrim's flagstaff tied to it. 

This whole region is evidently of volcanic origin. We 
saw great quantities of pumice and trachyte, and the con- 
figuration of the region is doubtless produced by the wash- 
ing away of soft matter, the hard rock being left behind. 

At Matsuyeda there is good accomodation in the Honjin, 
a house covering a great area, and which is the same as 
the Tsuwunkaisha, the office where ninsoku and horses are 
hired. Those who don't walk should engage pack-horses 
or kagos here to the next station Sakamoto, as jin-riki'sha 
are very unsuitable. The road is very picturesque, up 
and down hill, Miogi-san and, unless it be covered with 
clouds, Asama-yama seen all the way. Half way the hole 
in Kurakake-zan becomes visible and from there looks like 
a deep tunnel piercing the mountains. It is best seen from 
the village Yokokawa, where the people call the mountain 
Nakagiri-yama or Iruwaki Daijin Inuki-yama, the former 
name meaning * the mountain cut in the middle,' the latter 
derived from the name of the hero who made the hole. 
The story in connection with it is that the Mikado's 
archer many hundred years ago, named Iruwaki Daijin, 
standing at a stone on the road (yet pointed out) in this 
village shot an arrow through the mountain. The place 
where the arrow fell on the other side is called Yaochi or 
Arrow-fall. 

Leaving Sakamoto, Usui toge is crossed, a long mountain 
pass of 7 miles {p. ri 31 chd) to the first village on the 
other side called Karuisawa. It leads from Joshu to 
Shinshu and is one of the most beautiful mountain passes 
in Japan. The views from horseback are very beautiful 
and varied. The hills and valleys ane all loaded with fine 



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trees of all kinds and shades of colour. On the right, in 
ascending some pretty rocks called Kiri2umi-no*iwa, will 
be noticed, also a hill remarkably like a miniature Fuji 
called Haruna-san. If the season be too dry for the crops 
the fanners ascend this mountain and bring water from 
the top to sprinkle on the fields, after which the rain is 
said to pour down from heaven. On the summit of the 
toge there are several dwelling houses and a very old 
temple dedicated to Izanagi Izanami no Mikoto, the 
ancestor of all the Japanese, which is worth visiting. In 
descending one is much struck with the great change in 
the nature of the scenery, which on the Shinshu side is 
hardly equal to that on the other. One of the most 
striking objects in the scenery on this side is a curi- 
ously situated hill, quite isolated, called Atago-yama. 
It is close to Karuisawa. At this village it was 
that we made arrangements to ascend Asama-yama the 
largest active volcano in Japan. Our plan was to 
engage horses to await us early in the morning at Kutsu- 
kake, a village 2^ miles further on, whither we travelled 
by jin-riki-sha^ a pleasant smooth drive with magnificent 
views of the volcano. At Kutsukake we hired a guide 
and mounted our horses which took us as far as a place 
called Hanada, a distance of about 5 miles. The views 
of the high mountains of Shinshu and neighbouring pro- 
vinces during our ascent were grand. The most striking 
peaks were Miogi-san, Nakano-san, Komaga-take, and 
Yatsuga-take, while enveloped in clouds was On -take in 
the distance. To enhance the pleasure of our ride we 
were accompanied all the way by the pleasant and rare 
cry of the cuckoo. Leaving our horses to await our des- 
cent, we next passed through some thick forest. From 
below Asama looks bare a long way down but we found 
vegetable life to a height of about 7,000 ft., the last being 
a kind of coarse grass. Above this was only lava of small 
specific gravity and of a grayish colour and considerable 
quantities of volcanic dust especially near the top. About 
500 ft. from the highest point we reached the old crater 



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which 95 years ago was the source of destruction to 4S 
villages, which have never since been rebuilt. Here we 
found plenty of insect life. The new and active crater is an 
enormous hole (roughly guessing, not less than 600 ft. diam.) 
entirely filled with steam and vapour of sulphur and roaring 
very loudly. All round the edge are large fissures wherein 
rocks hang in a very unstable condition, ready as it were to 
fall into the molten mass beneath. From these fissures, as 
well as from many holes some distance from the crater, steam 
and sulphur fumes are emitted. We took the temperature of 
this vapour at different places and the highest we found was 
73° C. It is of course this steam and sulphur vapour which 
form the perpetual white cloud on the summit of Asa- 
ma, and as one nears the top it is necessary to notice in 
which direction the wind is blowing in order to finish 
the ascent on that side from which it blows. We did not 
consider the mountain a difficult one to climb and thought 
ourselves well repaid for the trouble. The height our 
aneroids indicated was 8,500 ft. 

Our descent was neither so pleasant nor successful as 
the ascent. After descending about 1,000 ft, it began to 
rain and soon after a severe storm followed, accompanied 
by thunder and lightning. To add to this misfortune, a 
thick cloud covered us, and our guide lost the track, in 
consequence of which, in addition to being put in very 
great danger, we had a full hour's extra fatigue, and were 
so wet when we reached our horses that we thought it 
prudent to walk a mile and a half to the nearest tea-house 
called Wakasari no chaya, and there change our clothes. 
This house was far too poor to lodge us all night, so we 
had to make up our minds to go on to Kariyado Shinden 
whither we had intended to go in the morning. This 
town is seven miles from the tea-house and we started at 6 
p.m. However our troubles, although it was a fine night 
to travel, were not yet to cease. The men who led the 
horses lost their way twice, and after being taken through 
a vast wood for 3^ hours in which we passed only two 
woodmen*8 huts, we were landed at a village 5 miles from 



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1 62 

the one we had intended to lodge in. Indeed when wc 
reached the second of these huts our trust in our leaders 
was so utterly exhausted that we engaged the male inmate 
to guide us to the nearest village which was then still 2^ 
miles distant. To do the men justice, however, I should 
mention that they were warned at the tea-house above 
referred to against the direct road, on account of a rotten 
bridge which it wasn't safe for the horses to cross, and besides 
they came to our hotel next morning and humbly apologized 
for their mistake. Further the extra ride was not uninter- 
esting as we passed through the sites of many of the villages 
destroyed at the last great eruption. For a long way after 
reaching the bottom of the mountain the ground was covered 
with lava, then we passed through a forest of fir, oak, birch, 
and chestnut trees, the ground being covered with grass. 
After this the wood became thicker and richer, and there were 
in it some enormous rocks which in the dark looked like 
houses. The village we landed in is called Ozasa, and is 
twelve miles from Kutsukake from which we began the ascent 
of the mountain and where we left the Nakasendo. Should 
any one chance to pass this village, he might find pleasure 
in visiting a chasm seventy-two feet deep at one end of it. 
It is a very picturesque spot and close by is a slope, from 
the top of which there is a fine view of Asama on its N.W. 
side, where the bed of the great flow of lava which came 
down at the eruption of 1781 is situated. This view of 
the mountain is much more interesting and very different 
from that on the other side. The 8th of April is the day 
for women to ascend Asama, that being the first day of 
the great Buddha festival. Our landlord at Ozasa told 
us that only five years ago the roaring of the crater was 
heard distinctly in this village, that the vapour ascended 
to an enormous height and that the wind carried with it 
considerable quantities of volcanic dust. (Since writing 
this I have noticed that the same eruption is referred to 
by Captain Descharmes, anii I have therefore more con- 
fidence in noting it.) 

To the west of Ozasa is another high and^vcry sacred 



. 5v*i 



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mountain called Haku-san. There is a temple on the top 
of it and there our landlord told us the cherry trees were 
in blossom. This was July i6th, three months at least 
after they are in blossom in Yedo. 
The ride from Ozasa to Kusatsu, the next place of importance 
in our journey, was very pleasant and interesting. We first 
travelled through a most magnificent valley watered by the 
Wagatsuma-gaWa (my wife river), a river which flows into 
the Tone-gawa at Mayebashi. The bed of this river is very 
singular. Nearly all the way we travelled along it, it flowed 
in a deep ravine, one side of which is an agglomerate, while 
the other is a sand formation. We were fortunate also in our 
views of Asama. The air was perfectly clear after yesterday's 
storm, and not a cloud was near it except that snow white 
mass emitted from itself* Unlike Fuji-san, it has along flat 
summit, and so far as mere shape is concerned is unin- 
teresting. The villages we passed through were poor. 

Kusatsu has already been so fully described in the 
transactions of the Society by Capt. Descharmes that I 
have very few additional notes to make. It is not a large 
village and every house seems to be an hotel. These are 
conducted in a different way from those of other towns, 
inasmuch as guests engage servants for themselves, and 
get their food ready cooked from shops. The res^son of 
this is to enable very poor people to visit the baths, who 
can then bring their food with them, food being very ex- 
pensive in such an out-of-the-way place. The houses, as 
in many other mountain villages, are all covered with 
large stones, presenting a strange appearance, and this is 
not because strong winds prevail here, but from the scarcity 
of bamboo to keep the houses tight. The four principal 
baths (of which there are altogether about 20) are in the 
centre of the village and are frequented chiefly by 
syphilitic patients. In these we saw a regular process 
gone through of first stirring the waters by means of 
planks of wood, then washing the head and pouring water 
over the body, then sitting steaming and putting cloths or 
tabi on the feet, and lastly entering the baths of which 



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164 

before the stirring we found the temperature to be 52^° C. 
The faces of the bathers indicated that they felt the heat 
intensely but perhaps this arose from the sores on them, as 
the Japanese have been long accustomed to parboil them- 
selves. All the lepers that we saw had their faces entirely 
covered with burns of the mogusa^ which is just tinder 
made from chopping up a mountain grass, and when ap- 
plied is set on fire with a view to blistering the skin. Like 
other sulphurous waters, the water supplying these baths 
bubbles out of the ground. The highest temperature we 
found in a bath was 61^ C. and the temperature of the stream 
bubbling up which supplied this was 63°. The baths at Ichii- 
ya, where we lodged, on the outskirts of the village are said 
to be the coolest of all, having a temperature of 43° to 45°, 
and these have also a great advantage in having a stream of 
cold water falling near them. Here the healthy portion of the 
inhabitants came for their evening bath, and presented to the 
European traveller a scene which hitherto he had only dreamt 
of. About a mile from Ichii-ya is the source of the stream 
which principally supplies these and many others. It is near 
Sainokawara where the remarkable rocking stone mentioned 
by Capt. Descharmes is situated. This stone and many 
other large stones near it are perforated all over with holes, 
probably on account of the soft parts being washed out by 
rain. They seem to consist chiefly of oxide of iron, and on 
them are piled small stones by the people who imagine 
by so doing that they benefit their dead relatives. Around 
this place also many fossil leaves in a soft condition are 
found. Kusatsu we found to be 3,800 ft. above the sea-level. 
It is one of the coolest and most interesting places we passed 
in our journey. On comparing the thermometric readings 
taken in Kusatsu on July 17th, i8th, and 19th with those 
recorded in Yedo by Mr. Joyner, I find an average differ- 
ence of 8° C, or 14° F. for those days, in the temperatures 
of Kusatsu and Yedo. 

Leaving Kusatsu, we crossed the mountain pass called 
Kusatsu-toge, or Shibu-toge, because, it leads from Kusatsu 
to Shibu. We could hire only cows to take us across this 



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pass because the natives said it was too rough for horses 
to go. However I found it one of the easiest and most 
beautiful climbs I have undertaken. About a mile and a 
half from Kusatsu we came in close to Riyofu-no-taki, 
a very, pretty fall of about (roughly guessing) loo ft., over 
a rock completely covered with oxide of iron which looked 
like rotting wood. Shortly after Shirane-san, an interesting 
mountain apparently covered with red oxide of iron to the 
summit, and quite bare, comes into view. On this moun- 
tain many fine crystals of sulphur are found and a stream 
of water impregnated with alum and sulphur flows down 
from it. At the place where this stream crosses the road 
there is a notice engraved on stone * Doku midzu ' (Poison 
water), but before this was brought to my notice, I had 
taken a good mouthful to quench my thirst which it 
didn*t do as the water was wairm and tasted strongly of 
alum. All the way from this stream to the summit which 
we reached at lo a.m., there were grand views of Asama- 
yama, Shirane-san, the mountains of Shinshu and neigh- 
bouring provinces, and the peerless Fuji towering above 
all in the distant horizon. There was snow in some of the 
valleys of the toge and on Shirane-san and Asama. On 
reaching the summit we were struck with the magnificence 
of the high mountains of Hida, a range beautifully streaked 
with snow. Our aneroids indicated a height of 7,000 
ft. In our descent we came along the side of Yotoke- 
san, the highest mountain in the east of Shinshu. Shortly 
after leaving the summit one notices a conical hill called 
Kazaga-take, on the other side of which lies the famous 
Zenkoji which we visited the next day. Further down 
there comes into view a very beautiful plain called Kawa- 
nakajima (the river island) where, according to Japanese 
story, a great battle was fought between the two heroes 
Shingen and Kenshin, and shortly afterwards the lofty 
peaks of Mioko-san and Togakushi-san tower above the 
clouds. Altogether this is a magnificent pass and for 
high mountain scenery surely unequalled in Japan. It is 
the highest, and I should think also the longest, mountain- 



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pass in Japan, the distance from Kusatsu to Shibu, the 
nearest villages on each side, being seventeen miles. Riding 
on cows we found rather more comfortable than on pack- 
horses but a little slower. Next day we travelled to Zenkoji 
famous for its great Buddhist temple. The road is interest- 
ing, most of the way through a plain where we felt the heat 
intensely, and crosses the broad Chikuma-gawa which flows 
into the sea at Niigata. It was at Zenkoji that we entered 
the Hoku-rokudo. The temple, approached like that at 
Asakusa in Yedo with two handsome g-.tes, is 198 feet long, 
108 broad, and is elegantly built, the roof being of the 
costliest kind. It contains the golden Buddha brought 
from Corea through China, and on payment of a bu the 
curtain which hides the cabinet containing this image was 
lifted for us, but only in the midst of the sounding of gongs 
and the chiming of a bell. The cabinet consists of seven 
gilt boxes one within the other, in the innermost of which 
is the golden Buddha. The lifting of the curtain impressed 
those who were present immensely, everyone taking 
advantage of the favourable opportunity to supplicate the 
mercy of the god. There are many other interesting things 
to be seen in this temple. 

Leaving Zenkoji we travelled next day to Seki-yama 
through some high mountain scener)'. The most prominent 
peaks are Idzuma-san, Kuroshime-san, and Miuko-san, and 
behind these the high mountains Togakushi-san, Okunoin- 
san, and Yaki-yama. This last is an intermittent volcano, 
active at present. At Nojiri there is a very pretty lake con- 
taining a small but beautifully wooded island dedicated to 
the worship of the goddess Wugaia (Benten), one of the 
seven gods of good luck of the Shinto religion. Seki-yama the 
province of Echigo, best known to foreigners from the mineral 
oil found there, is entered. At Takata, one of the largest 
towns in this province, the road to Niigata separates from the 
Hoku-rokudo. This town is built as I have heard Niigata is, 
viz. : with pavements on both sides of the streets covered 
by the projecting roofs of the houses. By this means the 
people are protected from the snow in the winter and the 



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sun in the summer. Immediately after leaving Gochi the 
beach of the sea of Japan is reached, and between this and 
Tomari there are only occasional portions of made road — the 
beach being regarded as the route to be taken. However, 
riding along it we found a pleasant change to riding inland. 
Between Gochi and Arima-gawa, the prominent summit of 
Yone-yama, stretching far into the sea, forms a striking 
object in the scenery, and as the latter village is neared there 
is a very beautiful part of the road over a hill descending to 
the river, especially in the variety of shade and luxuriance of 
the foliage. Further on there comes into view a range of 
mountains much covered with snow, including Kurashime, 
Rege, and Echo-yama, while behind in the distant horizon 
is the gold-bearing island of Sado. Between Nadachi and 
Nosho we saw many women far out in the sea, diving for 
a species of seaweed called tego-kusa, which is very much 
prized and used to make a kind of jelly called tokoroten. 
They seemed to keep swimming, diving, and pocketing the 
weed with little or no difficulty. It was curious also to see 
the children bathing and floating in tubs. We noticed 
that here the rising generation have very dark sjfins, in- 
dicating how much they lived naked in the open air — naked 
children both boys and girls being very commonly met 
with. In this part of the coast hemp is one of the chief 
products of the soil, and we found all the natives making 
rope or fishing. 

Itoi-gawa, could one but get European food and accom- 
modation, would make a pleasant summer resort. In 
this village there is abundance of delicious fish and a fine 
pebbly beach for bathing, which one can do at any hour 
of the day, because there is scarcely any tide. The inhab- 
itants, however, are yet little accustomed to foreigners, as 
about two hundred men, women and children collected on 
the beach to see us swim — not a small number out of a village 
of 1,300 inhabitants. For a great part of the way between 
Auumi and Uta there were enormous blocks of granite 
which didn't require any quarrying. Also a high bluff 
consisting almost entirely of limestone, which was convert- 



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cd into iime on the spot and boated away. From Uta to 
Tomari a distance of over 13 miles we travelled by boat, 
which was dragged by two men and steered by one. This 
was by far the pleasantest and least fatiguing way we had 
yet travelled. Oyashiradzu (not knowing parents), which 
we passed, are high precipitous rocks affording very little 
passage room between them and the water, so that when a 
west wind blows it is a dangerous part of the road, as the 
name implies. The rocks are full of small caves, which 
enable travellers to shelter themselves in stormy weather, 
when a guide who gives the command to pass from one cave 
to the next, is quite necessary. It is said that people have 
been confined in these caves for two and three days. From 
Tomari the Hoku-rokudo becomes again more worth calling 
a road and is no more along the beach. Between this and 
the next village, Niusen, it passes through rice fields, and 
in these we saw the labourers stirring up the mud about 
the roots, with thick bundles of straw on fire tied behind 
their backs, that the smoke therefrom might keep off the 
mosquitoes. On the left is a fine range of snow-covered 
mountains called Kurobe-no-mine. On to Uwotsu the 
scenery is much of the same kind except where the river 
Kurobe is crossed, the mouth of which is more than a mile 
broad and much divided into separate streams. Be- 
tween Nameri-kawa and Machifukuro another broad river 
is crossed, called the Joganji-kawa or Iwase-gawa. Here 
the water has a mineral taste. At Toyama we were told 
the surrounding country is full of springs, and artesian 
wells can easily be sunk, whence the water rises 2 or 3 
feet above the ground. At the end of this large town 
the river Jinzu is crossed by the Funa-bashi, the longest 
bridge of boats in Japan. Thence to Takaoka the road 
goes through a large well -watered rice-plain, on one side 
mountains, on the other sea, and much of it is lined with 
fir trees like the Tokaido. Here the snow-capped Haku-san 
is a striking object in the landscape. On to Fukuoka 
the road was covered with suge, a kind of reed, laid out 
to dry. It is used principally to make hats, an industry 



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for which the next province Kaga is famous. .This pro- 
vince is entered when Kurikara-toge is crossed between 
Isurugi and Takenohashi. In ascending this pass we met 
many women, each with two baskets of fish and pole on the 
shoulder, running down the hill very fast, desirous, I sup- 
pose, of getting a good market in the villages on the other 
side of the pass for their fish caught 5 or 6 miles distant. 
We dined on some of these fish on the summit of the pass, 
and on asking our hostess for the bill, were surprised to be 
asked rok-kuwan happiaku^ but our equanimity was res- 
tored when we found from the change that ik-kuwan 
equalled 5 sen and hiaku half a sen. When we informed 
our hostess of the different values of hiaku and ik-kuwan 
in Yedo and in Kaga, she in her turn seemed surprized ! 
In descending we had two particularly good views of the sea 
of Japan, with wooded valleys in the foreground, the first 
on the left, the second on the right. 

The next town of importance on the Hokurokudo is the 
capital of the province wtj have just entered — Kanazawa. 
It is a large town with wide clean streets, and when viewed 
from a height looks quite like a garden, so numerous are the 
trees cropping up amongst the houses. It possesses a silk- 
thread factory similar to that in the Kobusho buildings in 
Yedo, but here steam is used instead of water-power. A 
steam engine in such a town is surely a step in civilization. 
The castle is very picturesque and in its important features 
like those of Yedo, Hikone <S:c. Two considerable rivers flow 
through the town, Asanogawa and Sai-gawa, both crossed by 
well-built wooden bridges under which in the warm summer 
evenings the people go to cool and enjoy themselves as un- 
der the Shijobashi in Kioto. Strange sight there to see the 
bed of the river covered with tables, happy people reclining 
on them drinking tea and otherwise making merry, and the 
whole lit up with two or three hundred eastern lamps. 

In Kaga, and I think also in some of the neighbouring 
provinces, the people say 'ya ' for ' hat ' of the Yedo 
dialect, and use it ver}' much as the Germans do the same 
word. The dialect of this province has many other 



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differences from that of Yedo. Leaving Kanazawa our next 
goal was Terai, the headquarters of the manufacture of the 
well-known Kaga porcelain. From Midzushima we could not 
go the direct road to Terai on account of the flooded state of 
the river Awo, but had to wander by Mikawa and the mouth 
of the river and boat across many a field before we were 
landed safely again on the main road. At Terai we examined 
the manufacture of the porcelain in the house of Mr. Shozo 
the chief manufacturer. First the clay is shaped, then baked, 
after which the black portions of the design are painted with 
togusaj (which is brought from China) and the dish baked 
again ; after this the red parts of the design are painted 
with beni, the well-known pigment used to paint the lips, 
then baked again ; finally the gold and other colours 
are put on and baking repeated. The clay is brought 
from the famous valleys Ku-tani and Nabe-tani which 
are about 5 miles from the town. The red porcelain is 
said to be peculiar to Kaga, but whether it is because 
the Kutani clay takes the red on better than other clays, 
I could not get trustworthy information. 

From Terai we had a pleasant jin-riki'Sha drive to 
Komatsu, the next town on the road, in the midst of a 
golden sunset which illuminated a fine range of mountains 
in the East, in the centre the high and snow-capped 
Haku-san or Shiroi-yama. Soon after leaving Komatsu 
we came upon two large inlets of the sea united by a 
canal which crosses the road at the village Emai. In 
these it is said fish are caught in large quantities. We 
next passed through a tea-district when the villagers were 
engaged preparing and sorting teas. The larger leaves 
before roasting were steamed, sunned, and afterwards 
rubbed between the feet as they are too hard to be treated 
at once like the young leaves. From Daishoji to Hosorog^ 
the road is hilly but smooth 'and pleasant for jin-riki' 
sha. The scenery is beautiful, mountains and valle3's 
on the left, valleys and the sea on the right. The ground 
is cultivated only in small patches at the bottoms of the 
valleys, in many of which pretty little villages are seen. 



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From Kanadzu to Morita the road passes through a great 
plain in which there were growing all kinds of crops — rice, 
various species of beans, cotton, millet, indigo, hemp, 
potatoes, different species of melons, &c. 

The next important town is Fukui. The situation of this 
town is admirable. Hills surround it closely, affording most 
picturesque views, and as one enters it he feels as if enter- 
ing an inhabited garden. The ivy-covered walls of the old 
castle cannot but remind its former inmates, as it did us in 
imagination, of the good old days of yore when the sake 
flowed there and the geisha sang. 

The river Asuwa flows through the town and is crossed 
by the Tsukugo-bashi which at one end has a fine gate called 
Tenite-gomon. From Fukui to Takebu the next 12 miles 
was among the easiest and most beautiful we had travelled. 
Here mountains tower over mountains and are green to the 
highest point. On to Yuno-toge the scenery even improves. 
The flat valley covered with young rice looks like a green sea 
and the mountains rise suddenly from its level. One of these 
called Hinaga-take is a striking object in the scenery. Yuno 
at the end of the valley is charmingly situated. At the 
summit of Yuno-toge, which we now cross, there are four 
yasume-ya (resting houses) filled with girls, who no sooner 
see a traveller coming than they all set up a shouting and 
•clapping of hands, quite to the alarm of the unexpecting 
pedestrian. The view from the summit is very pretty and 
the descent even more beautiful than the ascent. We see 
still on this side the river Hino which watered the valley 
just left, winding peacefully round one of the mountains 
on its pebbly bed. The rich green rice fields separated 
only by borders of the dark-leafed bean, and the trees, 
some covered with velvety moss, others with rich ivy, rich 
cryptomerias, graceful acacias with their feathery pink 
blossoms, here look exceptionally beautiful. Between the 
pass and Futatsu-ya the road winds through a valley 
which reminded me of that of the river Watarashi be- 
tween Nikko and Omama, but there is wanting the grand 
river and rock scenery of the latter. From Futatsu-ya 



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the road crosses the thickly-wooded Kinome-toge and 
Osaga-toge to Tsuruga, one of the principal seaports in 
Japan. Tsuruga harbour is undoubtedly one of the best 
in the island. It is not large but is surrounded by hills 
which rise suddenly from the sea-level and afford perfect 
shelter from all winds. Junk-building is one of the chief 
industries of the place. There is a temple called Kino-miya 
in it, said to be the most famous in the five provinces 
around ; a fine large red torii and a handsome stone lamp 
appeared to me the only objects of interest in it. 

From Tsuruga the Hokurokudo goes round the N. E. 
end of Lake Biwa to meet the Nakasendo at Toriimoto 
and there it ends. Those, however who, by this time, in 
spite of the beauty of the country they have just passed 
through, are tired of tinned meats and live futons, may 
branch off across Fukazaka to Shiwotsu, whence two 
steamers go daily across the whole length of Lake Biwa 
in 7 or 8 hours to Otsu, which is only 7 miles from the 
ancient capital. Fuka-zaka is a rough mountain pass. 
In ascending it the traveller will be struck with the bar- 
renness of many of the hills, many of these being just 
yellow sand so different from those he has lately passed 
through. From the summit there is an interesting view of 
Tsuruga harbour, which from here looks more like a 
mountain lake than part of the sea. 

Lake Biwa is so called from its resemblance in shape 
to the musical instrument of the same name. It is also 
called Lake Omi from being situated in the province of 
that name. According to Japanese fable Fuji-san was 
raised and Lake Biwa sunk in one and the same night. 
There are four islands on the lake called Chikubushima, 
Okinoshima, Takeshima, Shiraishima. The first of these 
is the most interesting, and is a pretty wooded isle 
twenty-five cho in perimeter containing a temple and 
some houses. One side of it is covered with white lake 
birds, the guano of which foreigners are said to have 
shipped in large quantities when they first visited it. 
One of the best views of the lake is from the yagura 



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173 

of Hikone castle, which anyone who has the ambition to 
do all the Hokurokudo or who traverses the Nakasendo 
shouldn't miss visiting. Those who are fond of Japanese my- 
thology will find great pleasure in staying a day or two at Otsu 
and visiting the places of interest around it. To the N.E. is 
the Fuji-like Mikami-yama where lived the centipede whose 
tail wound round the mountain seven and a half times, and 
which was killed by Hide Sato. This great hero shot the 
deadly arrow from Seta-bashi, a bridge in two parts, which 
crosses the outlet of the lake, and for his skill was rewarded by 
the goddess Dingnu with a large bronze bell which is still in 
Midera, a temple interesting from its antiquity and connection 
with Japanese history as well as from the beauty of its 
grounds. 

Another object of considerable interest is the old pine-tree 
at Karasaki. To reach this is a pleasant walk of three miles 
along the west margin of the lake in the direction of the 
sacred Hiyei-zan. It must be an enormous age although not 
quite so old as the Japanese say, who make it older than 
Jinmu Tenn6 the first emperor of Japan. It has been trained 
to spread over as large an area as possible, and shews that 
the Japanese taste of training pine-trees in this wa}' is very 
old. The outermost branches spread far into the lake. We 
measured the perimeter of the polygon formed by the princi- 
pal outenriost supports and found it to be 477 feet, while 
the principal branches stretched from the centre of the 
trunk to a distance of from 77 to 83 feet. 

Another place that should be visited from Otsu is 
Ishiyama, celebrated in song. To reach this the Tokaido 
is followed for 3^ miles to near Seta-bashi, and then for 
another mile a road to the right along the outlet of the 
lake, here called Seta-gawa. In this last part of the road 
a small shrine will be noticed covered with a large 
number of stones hung up by strings. These, we were 
told, are offerings from those who are afflicted with dis- 
eases of the eye to the god whose assistance is prayed for. 
Ishiyama derives its name from there being at its 
base a natural collection of large rocks, presenting a 



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very fantastic appearance. They are approached by 
an avenue of maple trees, and on the hill above 
them there are many temples and monuments of various 
styles of architecture. The rocks, and especially a small 
shrine above them, are covered with pieces of paper rolled 
up and tied on them. These are the offerings of beating 
[ hearts who have written on them something connected 

f, , with one they have seen and loved. Our Japanese friend 

opened and read one, and on it was written his age and 

I when she had met him ! Sad tale to tell ! From the summit 

f of Ishiyama the moon is supposed to appear clearer than 

' from anywhere else and there people go to view it. From 

J there also there is a good view of the lake, the bridge, the 

river Mikami-yama and the strange Hagetonya-yama, a 

barren sandy range of mountains behind Mikami which 

can be seen best from its summit. 

To reach Kiyoto from Otsu I should advise everyone 
to take the hill road at the foot of Midera, as then half of 
the main road which is rather, uninteresting is avoided. 
There is a great amount of traffic on this latter road. 
Bulls of a large size are used to drag the . merchandise 
along ; but, only two years ago when the road was quite 
full of deep pits, men and women were also employed to 
do the same work and certainly they looked more like 
beasts than human beings. This I note because now that 
a railway is determined on between the city of the Mi- 
kados and the lake, it shall soon be one of those customs 
quite forgotten, and was the only revolting sight we ex- 
perienced in or around wKat is undoubtedly the most in- 
teresting city in Japan. 






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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 

A General Meeting of the Asiatic Society was held in the yio 
Gakko^ Yedo, on the 14th June 1876, Rev. Prof. Syle in the chair, 
which was ^ftcrwards taken by Rev. D. Veeder and finally by Sir 
H. S. Parkes, Vice-President. 

The reading of the Minutes of last Meeting was omitted — a copy not 
being at hand. 

The Secretary submitted (in accordance with the Council's Reso- 
ation of 6th Oct. 1875) a list of proposed office-bearers for the coming 
year. This list containing the names of more officers than the rules 
of the Society contemplated, the following resolution was submitted 
as an amendment, according to Rule 29. 

Resolved to amend Rule 10, by substituting the words *'Ten 
Councillors" for •• Five Councillors ;" and ** Two Recording Secre- 
taries" for •* One Recording Secretary." 

A Committee of ordinary members was thereupon appointed, in 
conjunction with the Council, to report on the proposed amendment at 
the next General Meeting ; the members of the Committee being Dr. 
Veeder, Dr. Eldridge, Mr. Wilkin, Professor Grigsby and Mr. Dallas. 

The corresponding Secretary reported having received communications 
from the President of the Organizing Committee of the International 
Congress of Orientalists, Professor Grigoricff, inviting the Society to send 
a delegate to the Congress to be held on the ist of September, at St. 
Petersburg, under the auspices of the Russian Government. Professor 
Summers stated that H. E. the Russian Minister had expressed his 
readiness to forward any objects of interest for exhibition on that 
occasion, if sent to him not later than the 5th of July : whereupon. 

Professor Summers moved and Professor Perry seconded the reso- 
lution ** That Ernest M. Satow Esq. be requested and authorized to 
represent the Society at the approaching Oriental Congress at St. 
Petersburg." Carried unanimously. 

Professor Syle mentioned that Mr. H. Pryer, a member of the Society 
was about to visit the interior as a naturalist, and suggested that a sum 
of money might be placed in his hands for the purpose of procuring 
specimens &c. for the Society's Museum. Whereupon it was moved by 
Mr. Dallas, seconded by Mr. Grigsby and carried : — 

** That this Meeting recommend to the Council Mr. Pryer's journey as 
a praise-worthy object for assistance, provided that the Council consider 
that the Society has funds in hand to devote to that purpose." 

Mr. Poate's paper on Cotton in Japan was then read. Sir Harry Parkes 
observed that it dealt with a very practical subject ; that if Japan could 
grow cotton enough for its own consumption it would be satisfactory ; if 
sufficient for export so much the better ; but he was afraid that this 
could not be done. Japan being a mountainous country it might be too 



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cold except in the flat tracts of land. Moreover Japanese cotton 
was of a short staple, though fine, and was not in request in 
Europe. The yield was very uncertain, and the farmers could not 
rely on their crops. Whenever there was a poor crop in this 
country Japan had to import raw cotton to a great extent from 
China. The value of the import in 1873 was #146,5^; in 1874 
9i|i55,076, and in 1875 9255,690. Besides this a deficient crop 
necessitated extended purchases of English yarn. 

Prof. Atkinson asked Mr. Poate whether he had any information 
respecting the botanical characters of the cotton plant first intro- 
duced. He (Prof. A.) had been told that the Japanese called the 
cotton plant first imported, but which was afterwards lost, "tree 
cotton** on account of its size; whilst that at present cultivated 
was known as " grass cotton.'* If this were known it might afford 
a clue to the country from which the first supply was obtained. 

Mr. Poate stated that the yield in Japan was small, about half 
that of America, which reached 250 to 300 lbs. per acre. Dr. Veeder 
thought the introduction of American cotton, with good husbandry, 
into Japan was worth trying. In the Slave States, bsfore the war, 
the ground was exhausted by cotton cultivation and the desire to 
extend its cultivation by slave labour in the Free States was one of 
the causes of the American Civil War. 

Professor Marshall then read his paper, ** Notes of a journey from 
Yedo to Kidto vid Asama-yama, the Hoku-rokudd, and Lake Biwa,** 
which was well illustrated by diagrams and maps. Some of the 
celerbated Kaga porcelain was exhibited also. Sir Harry Parkes said 
that such an itinerary would be of great use. He believed that 
few foreign travellers, if any, had preceded Mr. Marshall in the 
Hoku-rokudd, and his, at least, was the first account which had 
been received of that route. He could, from his own experience, 
testify to the beauty of much of the country described in the paper 
and to the accuracy of the statements of Professor Marshall, who 
had done good service in recording his observations for the benefit 
of the Society. He knew of no more interesting trip than that to 
Asama-yama. Dr. Veeder stated that Asama-yama was sometimes 
visible from elevated points in Yedo. 



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CHALYBEATE SPRINGS. 



Osaka, Tsumi-machi, 23rd Nov., 1875. 

To Mr. Ayrton, 

Tfu Corr, Secretary of the Asiatic Society. 

Dear Sir, — Some months ago I was requested by the Japanese 
Government to make an analysis of the hot chalybeate water of Arima, 
and now kindly beg of you to have my result inserted in your periodical 
of the Asiatic Society. It is as follows : — 

Properties. — The water is almost clear, colourless, without scent ; the 
taste indicates the presence of much salt and chalybeate ; exposed to the 
air, it loses some carbonic acid, while at the same time its surface covers 
itself with hydroxide of iron, afterwards found at the bottom as a brown- 
redflocky powder, mixed with silicates, indissoluble in acids. Tincture 
of litmus is slightly reddened by it, which indicates the presence of a 
little free carbonic acid ; the quantity of which I could, however, not 
determine, on account of my not having been at the spring myself. The 
Water was sent to me at the laboratory in two portions, the first in the 
month of September, and the second in October 1875. 

The specific gravity of the water is at the temperature of 23° Cels. : 
1.01 15. One liter=iooo C. C.= 1011,5 grm. at 23*^ C. contains 19.56 
grm. solid matter, 0,022 grm. of which are lost through a moderate 
ignition. Before the ignition. the residue gives with water a slightly 
alkaline solution. 



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The solid substances contained in one liter of this water arc prin- 
cipally as follows : — 

Chloride of Sodium NaCl 14,717 grm. 

Bromide of Sodium NaBr 0,105 „ 

Chloride of Potassium KCl 1,281 „ 

„ Ammonium NH4 CI 0,013 „ 

„ Lithium LiCl Traces, 

„ Magnesium MgCl2 0,241 „ 

„ Calcium CaCl2 2,896 „ 

Sulphate of Lime CaS04 0,014 t, 

Chloride of Aluminium AI2 C16 0,029 „ 

*Protosesquioxide of Manganese Mn3 Mn3 O4 0,055 „ 

\ Sesquioxide of Iron Fe2 O3 0,246 „ 

Silicic Acid Si O2 0,058 „ 

Organic Matter Small quantity. 

Liebig's analysis of the principal spring of Kreuznach, ** die Ora- 
nienquelle," proves there exists much resemblance between the two 
waters, although the hot water spring of Arima contains still more salt 
and almost eight times more iron than that of Kreuznach, which con- 
tains in one liter 0,032 grm. sesquioxide of iron. 
Believe me to remain. 

With due respect 

Your obedient Servant, 

B. W. DWARS. * 

* Presents itself as bicarbonate of protoxide of manganese. 
I „ „ „ ci-earbonate of protoxide of iron. 



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ALL the preceding Volumes of the Society's Transi 
tions can be procured from the Correspondi 
Secretary or from the Agents of the Society in China 
Japan, at the following prices : — 

Vol. L (one part — reprinted) . . . $1-50 

Vol. IL(one part — reprinted) . . . 2.00 

Vol. II L part i (reprinted) . . . . 1.50 

" Appendix (reprinted) . . . i.oo 

** part 2 (reprinted) . . . . 1.50 

Vol. IV.(one part — reprinted) . . . i.oo 

Vol. V. (2 parts) each i.oo 

Vol. VI .(3 parts) each 
Vol. VII. part I 

u tt 2 

u 3 



Vol. VIII. parts i and 
3 
4 
I and 



Vol. IX. 



Vol. X. 



2, each 



2, each 



** Supplement 

Vol. XL (2 parts) each 
Vol. XII. parts i, 2, and 3, each 

4 
Vol. XIII. (2 parts) each . 
Vol. XIV. part i 
<( (( 2 

Vol. XV. part i 

a i« 2 

Vol. XVI. part i 



2.00 
I.oo 

1.50 
I.oo 

2.00 
1.50 
4.00 
1.50 
I.OO 
2.00 
I.OO 
1.50 
2.00 
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1.50 



Members who do not receive the Transactions in dl 
course are requested to notify the Corresponding Secreta^ 
B. H. Chamberlain, Esq., Tokyo. 



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:^s 



i 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN. 



-VOXj- -^.-FJ^TbT I. 



From 25th October, 1876, 



TO 



27/// e/<^//e, 1877. 



YOKOHAMA. 
** 1877. 
PRINTED AT THE "JAPAN MAIL" OFFICE. 




l^T 



i 



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TEANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN. 

VOL. "V.-FJ^Ti/r X. 
From 25th October, 1876, 

to 

27th June, 1877. 



YOKOHAMA. 

1877. 

FEINTED AT THE « JAPAN MAIL " OFFICE. 



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CONTENTS. 



Piei 
Japanese Heraldry, by Thomas R. H. 1 

McClatchie, H. B. M.'s Consular Ser- > 1 to 23 

vice, Japan ) 

Useful Minerals and Metallurj^y of the Jap- 1 o/- qj 

anese, by Dr. Geertz. — Arsenic f » ' 

The Caroline Islands, by Russell Robert- J , , ^^ 

eoD.Esq ; I '^ " ^^ 

Notes of a Trip to Vries Island in July ) 

1872, by J. L. Hodges, Esq., H. B. > 64 „ 68 

M/s Consular Service ) 

Japanese New Year Celebrations, by Mrs. 7 ^i i^q 

Chaplin-Ayrton 5 '^ " '^ 

On the use of ** Pillow-words" and Plays S 

upon Words in Japanese Poetry, by > 79 „ 88 

Basil H«all Chamberlain, Esq....; ) 

Japanese Fisheries, by George Elliott Gre- 1 i/^g 1 1 o 

gory. Esq 1 ;..J " 

The Specific Inductive Capacity of Gases, \ n/^ ^on 

by John Perry and W. E. Ayrton f ^*^ " *^" 

The Importance of a General System of\ 

Simultaneous Observations of Atmos-f -.«, . ., 

pheric Electricity, by W. E. Ayrton r^"^* " ^^^ 

and John Pony j 

Some Meteorological Observations in Japan, ) i "^^ | ^q 

by the Revd. Dr. Veeder f ^^"^ " ^^*^ 

Chalybeate Spring 155 „ 157 

Notes on the Crania of tho Botans of For- ) , /-« ^^q 

mosa, by Stuart Eldridge, M.D | *^^ " ^^^ 

On Primitive Music; especially that of I ,^^ ,^q 

Japan, by the Revd. Dr. Syle | ^ '^' '' ^'^ 

On a Neglected Principle that may be em- ) 

ployed in Earthquake Measurements, > 181 „ 202 

by John Perry and W. E. Ayi*ton ) 

The Early Study of Dutch in Japan, by i ^^^ ^.^ 

K. Mitsukuri, Esq j "^^^ " ^'^ 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



LIST OF 3i^E3S^BEI?.S. 



Honorary Members. 

Admiral Sir 0. Shadwell. K.C.B. Captain Arthur, R.N. S. Wells 
Williams, LL.D. Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B. Sir T. E. 
Wade, K.C.B. Professor George E. Day, Yale College, U. S. 
Professor W. D. Whitney, New Haven, (j.S. Honble. George 
F. Marsh, U.S, 



Members. 



AlbinBOD, T. A. 

Allen, H. Jnr. 

Amerman, Revd. E. L. 

Anderson, W. 

Aston, W. G. 

Atkinson, R. W. 

Andsley, G., Ashdown. 

Ayrton, W. E. 

Beglne, J. 

BeDamy,A. 

Bryner, J. 

Bingham, Hon. J. A 

Biaset, J. 

Bowes, J. 

Boyle, R. V., C.S.I. 

K^sen, W. 

Brennwald, C. 

Brent, A. 

Bridgford, Capt S. T. 

Brinkley, Capt. F. 

Brooke, J. H. 

Brown, A. R. 

Brown, R. M. 

Brown, Revd. S. R., D.D. 

Bumside, Revd. H. 

Caldwell, J., M.D. 

Cargill, W. W. 

Cawlev, G. 

Chamberlain^ B. H. 

Chaplin. 



Chipman, H. S. 
Chnsty, F. C. 
Cochran, Revd. G. 
Conder, J. 
Cocking, S. 
CoxTw. D. 
Dallas, C. H. 
Davison, J. 
Day, F. 
Day, Lieut. 
De Boinville, C. A C. 
De Groote, H. E. C. 
De San, E. 
Dickins, F. V. 
Dillon, E. 
Dixon, W. G. 
Dodds, J. 
Donitz, Dr. W. 
Duer, Y. 
Dyer, H. 
Dwars, B. W. 
Eaton, I. 

Ebey, Revd. C. S. 
Eldridge, S., M.D. 
Elliott, H. R. 
Elmore, J. F. 
Eusden, R. 
Fagan, C. S. F. 
Farley, G. Junr. 
Faulds, H., M.D. 



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Walker, F. 
Walsh, C. F. 
Walsh, J. G. 
Walter, J. 
Warren, Revd. C. P 
W^atson, E. B. 
W^etmore, F. R. 
Wauchope, G. 
Wheeler, R, M.D, 
>Vhitney, W. M. 



Whittall, E. 
Wilkin, A. J. 
Wilkinson, H. S. 
Williams, G. B. 
Willis, William, M.D, 
Wilson, J. A. 
Woolley, W. A. 
Wright, Revd. W. B. 
Zappe, E. 



1 



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OFFICE BEAREES. 

SESSION 1877-78. 



President^ 
Sir Harry S. Parkes, K.C.B. 

Vice-Presidents, 
David Murray, LL.D. 
J. J. Keswick. 

CouncillcrSy 
T6ki6»—W. G. Aston. 

Rev. Geo. Cochran* 
Henry Dyer. 
Rev. E. W. Syle, D.D. 
Rev. P. V. Veeder, D.D. 
Yokohama. — F. V. Dickins. 

S. Eldridge, M.D. 

J. C. Hall* 

J. C. Hepburn, M.D., LL«D. 

E. Wheeler, M.D. 

Corresponding Secretary^ 
E. Satow. 

Treasurer^ 
W. E. Ayrton. 

Recording Secretaries, 
R. W. Atkinson, T6ii6. 
C. H. Dallas, Yokohama. 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



The Annual Meeting of the Society was held in the 
Society's Library, T6ki6 Dai Gaku, on Wednesday, the 
27th June, 1877, Sir Harry S. Parkes, the President, in 
the chair. The following members were present : Messrs. 
Aston, Atkinson, Ayiton, Cawley, Chaplin, Conder, 
Dallas, Faulds, Grigsby, Hattori, Marshal], McClatchie, 
Milnes, Mondy, Mori, Murray, Parson, Perry, Smith, 
Soper, Syle, Veeder, Whitney. 

The minutes of the last General Meeting held in Tdki6 
on the 30th ultimo, also those of the last General Meeting 
held in Yokohama on the 13th instant, were read and 
approved. 

The Library Committee reported receipt of some jour- 
nals and the presentation of some books to the Society by 
Professor Morse of the Essex Institute, Mass, U.S.A. 
, The annual report of the Council^ which contained the 
Treasurer's report, was thereafter read by the Correspon- 
ding Secretary. Professor Atkinson moved that the re- 
port he adopted. This was seconded by Professor Parson, 
and carried. 

Dr. Murray moved that the thanks of the Society be 
tendered to the Director and Officers of the T6ki6 Dai 
Gaku for the use of the room which served as the 
Society's libi*ary, and for other rooms of the College. The 
President added his own expression of appreciation. The 
motion was seconded by Dr. Syle and unanimously 
carried. It was moved by Mr. Dallas that the Council 
be requested to ascertain what building suitable for the 
purposes of the Society could be obtained in Tdki6, and 



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whftt wonld be the total outlay at well for rent as for 
oontingent expensesj and farther that the Council be re* 
quested to ascertain what would be the funds available for 
the purpose, and to report on both these heads at the 
next General Meeting. This motion was seconded by 
Mr. Aston, and canned. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year by ballot 
was then proceeded with, and the following gentlemen 
were found to be elected :<— 

President, — Sir Harry S. Parkes, k.c.b. 
Vice-President.— For T6ki6 : Dr. Murray. For Yo- 
kohama : J. J. Keswick, Esq. 
Corresponding Secretary, — E. M. Satow, Esq. 
Councillors.'-FoT Tdkidi^W. G. Aston, Esq., Rev. 
Dr. Veeder, Rev. J. Cochran, Rev. Dr. Syle, H. 
Dyer, Esq. For Yokohama: J. C. Hall, Esq., 
Rev. Dr. Hepburn, Dr. Eldridge, F. V. Dickins, 
Esq., Dr. Wheeler. 
Recording Secretary, — For T6ki6: Prof. Atkinson. 

For Yokohama : C. H. Dallas, Esq. 
Treasurer.^Frof, W. E. Ayrton. 

A vote of thanks was then accorded to the Chairman 
and the meeting closed. 



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in 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ASIATIC 

SOCIETY OF JAPAN FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING JULY, 1877. 



Tbo Council cougi-atulales the Members on the ailvauce 
made by tlie Sociefy during the past session both in the 
increased number of Members and of General Meetings. 

Since October of last year thirty-four new Members 

ibave been elected, being more than double the number 
elected last session ; of these twenty-five are resident in 
f T6ki6. Ten General Meetings including one Extraor- 

( dinary Meeting have been held in Tokio and five in Yoko- 

[ hama. 

The number of papers that have been read have been 
seventeen, six more than during the previous session. 
Those read in T6ki6 were, 

1. — On Japanese Heraldiy, by T. R. H. McClatchie, 

Esq. 
2. — Modem Shinto Burial Ceremonies, by W. G. Aston, 

Esq. 
3. — On the Mission to Rome in 1616 of an envoy from 
the Priuceof Sendai, by Sir Harry S. Parkes, K.C.B. 
4. — A Japanese Account of the Island of Hachijo, trans- 
lated by J. H. Longford, Esq. 
5. — On the Japanese New-Y.ear Celebrations, by Mrs. 

Chaplin- Ayr ton. 
6. — On the use of Pillow-words and Plays upon Words 

in Japanese Poetry, by B. H. Chamberlain, Esq. 
7. — A Summary of the Japanese Penal Code, by J. H, 

Longford, Esq. 
8. — On the Modes of Fishing in Japan, by G. Elliott 

Gregory, Esq. 
9. — On the Specific Inductive Capacity of Gases^ by 

Profe880i*8 J. Perry and W. E. Ayrton. 
lOi^ Some Meteorological Observations in Japan, by 
the Rev. Dr. Veeder. 



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IV 

11. — The importance of a General System of Simul- 
taneous Observations of Atmospheric Electricity, 
by Professors W. E. Ayr ton and John Periy. 
12. — On a Neglected Principle that may be employed in 
Eanhquake Measurements, by Professors J. Perry 
and W. E. Ayrton. 
And in Yokohama, 

13. — Useful Minerals and Metallurgy of the Japanese, 

by Dr. Geerts, Paper F. — Arsenic. 
14. — On the Caroline Islands, by an anonymous author. 
15, — On the early study of Dutch in Japan, by Mr. K. 

Mitsukuri. 
16. — On the Crania of the Botans, by Dr. Stuart 

Eldridge. 
17. — On Primitive Music, especially that of Japan, by 

the Revd. Dr. Syle. 
The Library Committee reports that the following 
books etc., have been abided to the Library and Museum 
during the past year. 
A Collection of Flint Arrow-heads, presented by 

Herr Von Siebold. 
Ground-plans of the Chief Castles in Japan, 5 vols. 
2 Picture-scrolls of Ainos' Customs. 
Descriptive Report of Railways in Japan. 
Outline History of Japanese Education, by Hon. F. 

Tanaka. 
Livre de Marco Polo, by Pauthier. 
Art Ceramique, by Ninagawa Noritane. 
Asiatic Researches, vols. 1 to 6, 4 to. 
Daily Bulletin of Weather Reports for 1873, Washing- 

ton, 13 vols. 
Report of Smithsonian Institution for 1876. 
Dr. Geerts' Introduction to his larger work. 
Elementary Treatise on Steam, by Professor J. Perry. 
The works of Professor E. S. Morse, consisting of: — 
First Book of Zoology. 

The Oviducts and Embryology of Terebratulina. 
Address as Vice-President of the American Associatiou 
for the Advancement of Science. 



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Tarsus and Carpus of Birds. 

Systematic Position of Bracbiopoda. 

Embryology of Terebratulina Septentrional is; 

Observations of tbe Terrestrial Pulmonifera of Maine. 

Id Exchauge for tbe Society's Journal tbe following 
Journals, Transactions, etc., bave been received from 
England, France, Germany, Italy^ Spain^ India, Cbina, 
Tbe United States and Tasmania. 
Tbe Royal Asiatic Society. — Proceedings. 
Tbe Royal Geograpbical Society. — Proceedings. 
Tbe Royal Society. — Proceedings. 
Tbe Pbilological Society. — Transactions. 
The Antbropological Institute of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. — Journal. 
La Soci^t^ de la G^ograpbie. — Bulletin. 
La Soci^te d' Acclimatation. — Bulletin Mensuel. 
Le Congres d' Orientalistes. — Notices. 
La Soci^te des Etudes Japonaises. — Annuairc. 
Monatsscbrift fiir den Orient. — Wien. 
Mittbeilungen der Deutscben Gesellscbaft. — Yokohama. 
Cosmos: from Guide Cora. 

Bollettino Italiano degli Studii Orientali, Florence. 
La Sociedad Geograpbica de Madrid. — Boletin. 
The Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch. — Proceed- 
ings. 
The Royal Asiatic Society^ Ceylon Branch. —Proceedings. 
Tbe Asiatic Society of Bengal. — -Proceedings and Journal. 
Tbe Royal Asiatic Society, Nortb Cbina Brancb.^- 

Proceedings. 
Tbe Cbina Review. 

The American Pbiloeopbioal Society. — Proceedings. 
Tbe American Geograpbical Society. — Proceedings. 
The American Oriental Society. — Proceedings* 
Tbe American Pbilological Society. — Proceedings. 
The Boston Society of Natural History .-r-Proceedings. 
Tbe Royal Society of Tasmania. — Transactions. 

Tbe Council beg to tender their thanks to the Director 
of tbe Dai Gaku for tbe continued use of their room 



L 



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vi 

for the Library^ and for the offer of the Hall for large 
meetings should the Society desire it. 

The Library Committee, however, suggest that it is 
desirable that some steps should be taken to provide the 
Society with a permanent building of their own. A con- 
veniently situated Hall, suitable for meetings and lec- 
tures, and also available as a Library, Museum and 
Readiug-room, would be of great service in consolidating 
the iuterests, and promoting the usefulness of the Society. 
The present stock of the Transactions in the Society *» 
Libi-ary is 

Vol. 1 45 copies. 

Vol.11 7 „ 

Vol. Ill, Pai-t 1 8 „ 

Vol. Ill, Part 2 112 „ 

Vol. IV 74 „ 

The Committee would be glad to buy back copies of Vol. 
II and Vol. Ill, Part 1, from any who may be willing to 
part with them. 



The following is the Treasurer's Report: 

The Asiatic Society op Japan, in Account with 

Mr. J. Walter. 

July Ut 1876, to June 20M, 1877. 
Dr. 

To Printing Transactions $278.37 

„ Advertising 68.00 

„ Stationery, Postage, and Freight of Ti*ansac- 

tions to Europe, America and China 68.32 

„ Purchase of book-cases for the Library 40.50 

„ Purchase of books, newspapers, maps and 

pictures 29.00 

„ The Librarian's wages 36.00 

„ Insurance on $600 16.00 

I, Expenses in connection with the meetings in 

T6ki6 and Yokohama 13.00 

I, Balance to credit of Society 342.33 

$869.62 



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vn 

Cr. 

1876. 

By Balauoe A*om last year $207.76 

„ Subscriptions for 1876 10.00 

1877. 
By Subscriptions for 1877 : 

["63 collected in Yokohama 319.77 

Tokio 188.08 



r63 collected in 
J 38 „ „ 
111 „ „ 
(4 „ „ 



^^^ ^ '^ Hlogo 55.00 

Nagasaki 20.00 

By sale of Ti-ausactions i h rough Messrs. Wetmore 5 1 .92 

„ „ „ the Secretaries... 17.00 

$869.52 



Signed John Walter, 

Hon. Treasurer, 

We have compared the above accounts with the Vouchers 
and the Bank Pass Book, and find them to be cor- 
rect, leaving a balance in the hands of the Treasurer 
of three hundred and forty-two dollars and thirty- 
three cents. 



Harbt S. Pabkes, ) a ju 
W.E.AYRTON, 'j-4«c?itors. 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY, 

ST 

THOMAS R. H. McCLATCHIE, 

H. B. M. 's Consular Service, Japan. 

Head before the Asiatic Society of Japan, on the 
25th October, 1876. 



In almost every land where feudalism has existed, 
Heraldry has enjoyed distinguished honour and careful 
attention. The annals of every European country, at least, 
will show conclusively that the " nobyl and gontyl sci- 
aunce," as old Heralds delighted to term it, has become so 
bound up and intimately connected with History, that the 
two are hardly sepnrahlo. Although the fanciful symbols 
of Heraldry have not as yet been regarded in Eastern 
climes with the same amount of consideration as amongst 
the nations of the West, it is nevertheless well known 
that the germs of the science exist, and perhaps have only 
lacked the fostering influence of advancing civilization in 
order to attain to a full growth. Japan, where the feudal 
system has flourished for an extraordinarily lengthy period, 
is no exception to this rule, and it is of Japanese Heraldry 
that this paper proposes to treat. 

In comparing Japanese with European Heraldry, it 
will, as might naturally be expected, at once be seen that the 
former is remarkably deficient in rule, variety of style, and 
general character of treatment. So meagre, indeed, is it 
that it can hardly be deemed worthy of comparison except 
with the very earliest Heraldry of the West. It is 
allowed by Heralds that before the adoption of regular 



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-2- 

ooat8»of-arms there existed in Europe merely what ware 
lenned Badges, that is, " figures or devices assumed for 
** the purpose of being borne either absolutely alone, or 
** ill connection with a Motto, as the distinctive cogni2ance 
"of an individual or a family." Up to the present time 
Japanese Heraldry has advanced no father than this pri- 
mary state. No snch thing as a coat-of-arms proper has 
ever been known in the country, and the only distinc- 
tive marks hitherto in use have been Badges and Crests. 
This is, in a gieat degree, owing to the fact that the 
shiekl, on which in Enrope the arms of the bearer were 
bhizoned, has never been in vogne in Japan. The only 
piece of defensive armour at all resembling it nsed iu Ja- 
panese warfare was a large screen of wood, fixed in nn 
upright position by a moveable rest at the back, so as to 
form a protection for archers. The smaller shield for 
the arm would have proved a serious encumbrance to 
a warrior, as the long Japanese sword is two-hand- 
ed. Thus, then, the only place where the distinfraish- 
ing mark could be borne was either on the helmet 
or on the breast-plate, and in this way crests and 
badges are the only Heraldic insignia here known. The 
deficiency, however, has partly been remedied by the fre- 
qnent instances of these devices being marked npon flags 
or bannci-s of different colours, and it is a curions fact that 
a large nnniber of these flags could be accurately des- 
cribed by any European Heraldic scholar, in the set 
phraseology peculiar to his art, so that the shape, colour, 
etc., of the flag and the device could be correctly deli- 
neated from the mere written details. But as a general 
rule the Japanese do not adhere to those strict laws re- 
garding the combination of metals and tinctures observ- 
ed in Western lands ; they care but little how often the 
colour of their symbols may be altered, provided only that 
the general outline of the device be preserved; and this 
alone is quite sufiicient to show that their system of 
Heraldry is as yet far from perfect. In spite, however, 
of their deficiency in regard to these most essential points, 
they still possess various rough laws and are guided by 



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oerUln nsftges whloh show that there exiit, without donbti 
the mdiments of a system that may eventually be matur- 
ed into something npproachiug more closely to regular 
Heraldic art. 

How^ and when Badges first came into use in Japan is 
a matter enveloped in considerable obscurity. The popular 
tradition seems to be that they took their origin from the 
patterns embroidered upon, or woven into, the state gar- 
ments of the old court nobles at Kiy6to, and in support 
of this theory there is adduced t lie fact that the Chinese 
charncter used iu writing to express the word Ba^ge or 
Crest (no distinction being mnde between the two) is a 
compound of two other characters signifying " thread- 
pattern '* or " thread- writing." The embroidered patterns 
alluded to were generally circular, and hence it comes to 
pass that nearly all Japanese Heraldic devices are more 
or less circular in shape. At the very first, a difference 
was made in the size of the Badge, according to the rank 
of the wearer. Those of nobles and officials of high posi- 
tion were no less than three inches in diameter, while 
8ul)ordiuate officers and persons of lower rank used small- 
er ones, down to the ordinary gentry, in whose case 
the diameter was but one inch in length. In latter times, 
however, the Budges were very seldom borne larger than 
the size last-mentioned, except when blazoned on flags or 
on breastplates. A miniature facsimile of the Badge was 
generally worn on the helmet as well, being placed in the 
front, and often between the horns of a crescent shaped 
piece of metal called tat4tnon<^, used as an ornament there- 
on. Thus it would appear that the Japanese owned no 
distinction between a Crest and a Badge. According to 
the colour of the flag or the breast|>late, so did the tinct- 
ure of the device vary. On a dark -coloured ground 
it would be blazoned in gold, white, or red ; while on a 
hghter groniul, black or red were generally used. Some- 
times families of rank assumed to themselves, as a kind 
of livery, a special colour for their banners or war-surcoats. 
The " Nihon Gu'aishi,*' a standard history of Japan, 
states with regard to Taira no Takamochi that ^* his 



kiQgle 



<^ descendants for generations were military vassals (of 
**the Crown). They used a red flag.*' And again^ 
speaking of Minamoto no Tsun^moto, it is remarked in the 
same work that " his descendants were military vassals 
•* from generation to generation, and they used a white 
" flag.'* The two warriors to whom allusion is here made 
lived in the early part of the 10th century, and were the 
founders of the two rival families of Hei and Gen, or 
Taira and Minamoto ; and these colours were constantly 
displayed, in after years, in civil conflicts that caused as 
much bloodshed as the English wars of the Red and White 
Roses. It is, too, a well known fact that these two 
families had also their distinctive cognizances, and the 
Badges of many of their chief retainers have likewise 
been handed down to posterity, so that it would appear 
to be a perfectly reasonable conjecture that a kind of rude 
Heraldry had existed in Japan far earlier than the year 
900 A.D. 

In Japan, as in European countries, the badges were at 
first assumed at will by anyone wishing to select for him- 
self and his family some distinguishing mark. In later 
times, apart from such assumption, there are to be found 
instances of badges being couferred by a chieftain upon 
such of his retainers as had distinguished themselves by 
bravery in fight or by some other deed of merit. As a 
general rule, however, each man selected his own, and 
this custom has continued until the present date, so that 
it is by no means uncommon to see members of the same 
family wearing diff*erent badges. A good instance of a 
badge being " conferred " is to be found in the history of 
the family of Kumagae Naozane, one of the chief-retaiu- 
ers of the Minamoto clan. At the battle of Ishibashiyama, 
near Hakone, in 1181 A.D., Minamoto no Yoritomo was 
signally defeated by the Taira forces, and fled away, 
hotly pursued, accompanied by only two or three of his 
followers. He concealed himself in a hollow tree on 
the mountain, to avoi.l tlie enemy's scont-s, and it is said 
that one of the latter actually thrust his bow inside 
the tree to ascertain if any one were hiding within it. 



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— 5— 

It is narrated in the ^'Gempei Sei-sui-ki," or "His- 
tory of the rise and fall of the Gen and Hei," that 
'* the bow touched the sleeve of Yoritomo's coat of 
**mail, whereupon he prayed fervently to Hachiman (iho 
*• god of war}, when as if for a sign, there flew forth from 
" the hollow tree two wood-pigeons, clapping their wings 
"loudly.'* The pursuers, on seeing the birds, gave up 
the idea I hat anyone could be concealed in the tree, and a 
heavy shower of rain coming on at the moment they 
ab.uidoned the pursuit. The guiile-book to the Nakasen- 
do says, in speaking of the town of Kumagae, — the 
residence of Nacizane, — through which that road passes, 
that "as a reward for his (Naozane's) services at the 
"battle of Ish ibnshiyama, -when he concealed Yori- 
" tomo in a fallen tree, he received from the latter a 
"curtain marked with the mistletoe and pigeon 
"badges." It may be mentioned in this connection that a 
badge so conferred was not always worn by the 
recipient in preference to the one which might already be 
possessed by himself; but could be used at option either 
as the real or second badge. As an instance of the "as- 
sumption '* of a badge, there may be quoted the origin of 
that borne by tlie family of Nlwa, holding one of the 
Northern daimiates. It is said that an ancestor of this 
family once went out to battle, bearing as a distinctive 
mark what was termed a sashimono, that is, a small 
rod, fastened into a socket at the back of the cuirass, 
which was usually adorned with a small flag bearing 
the badge of the wearer suspended from a slender 
cross-bar fastened at one end to the main staff". That 
ofNiwa, however^ was only ornamented with eight thin 
strips of metal hanging from it. When the fight was 
over it was found that no less than six of these had been 
hewn away, while the remaining two were bent one across 
the other in the form of the letter X., or a "cross sal- 
tire," — and this figure was consequently assumed by Niwa 
as his family badge. Another version of the tale, how- 
ever, has it that the warrior in question killed so many 
of his adversaries that after wiping his sword, according 



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— 6— 

to Japanese custom, upon the left knee of his wide trousers 
after each several encounter, the stains of blood eventual- 
ly left upon the garment two broad lines in the shape just 
described. This latfer explanation is given by some of 
the former retainers of the Niwa family, and therefore is 
probably the more correct of the two. Again, the badge 
borne by a family named Narita, formerly adherents of 
the above-mentioned house of Niwa, represents two 
parallel lines drawn through a circle, and extending for 
some distance beyond the circnmfercnce. The fonntlfr 
of this family, so the tale runs, was once engaged in 
one of the frequent wars ou the Eastern marches of 
Japan, and his provisions having failed, was put to 
great straits to obtain food, — a battle being imminent 
at the time. Casting his eyes around, he espied in 
the mountains a small shrine, and entering this, found 
laid therein as an offering a bowl of rice and a pair 
of chopsticks. The pangs of hunger overcame any relig- 
ious scruples that Narita may have possessed ; he seized 
the bowl and devoured the rice, and refreshed by this 
timely sustenance, went forth and bore himself gallantly 
iu the fight. In it he earned considerable distinction, and 
ascribing this to the favour of the deity whose shrine he 
had invaded, he took for his badge ihe circle and two 
Hues, as a rough deliueatiou of the rice-bowl and chop- 
sticks. The above quoted instances will suffice to give a 
general idea of the manner in which crests or badges 
were conferred or assumed in the ancient days of Japan. 
Most of the great nobles, as may be seen by a glance at 
any Japanese list ofdaimios, possessed three badges, whilst 
those of lower rank had two, and ordinary samurai but one, 
except iu some few instances. Of these, one was always 
termed ihe J0'jno7i or " fixed badge'^of the family, the others 
being styled iae-monf or badges worn instead of the chief 
one, and these were used on occasions when it was not 
absolutely necessary to appear iu full dress. In time of 
war, the soldiers iu Japau always fought in full armour, 
and then the crest or badge was of course a conspicuous 
mark whereby to distinguisb friend from foe iu the battle* 



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field* It was then displayed on the hreastplate, the 
helmet, and the small flag attached to the sashimono as 
mentioned above. It was also marked upon the curtains 
usnally fastened to upright posts so as to form an enclo- 
sure around a military encampment. In time of peace, 
the badge was as now, generally worn in five places on 
the upper garment, namely, at the back of the neck, on 
each Kleeve, and on each breast. In some instances, 
however, the number was increased to seven, by the 
addition of two upon the colLir or margin of the garment, 
just over the chest, and in a line with those on the breasts. 
Apart from the clothing, nearly every article of 
Common use was marked in like manner. The 
badge appeared on the lacquered hat, the fittings 
of the swords or spear'shafts, the norimono or planquin, 
travelling boxes, lanterns, etc., of every Japanese gentle- 
man; and, in the case ofAdaimiS, these distinguishing 
marks were noted down with such accuracy in the lists 
of nobles, that by the insignia of a train or retinue on any 
of the highroads, the name and the rank of their lord 
could at once be determined. Of so great importance was 
this deemed in a country where etiquette required the 
cjbscrvanfe of various details of ceremony when two nobles 
and their followers met on the road> that there were gene- 
mlly placed in the van of every procession two or three 
Well-informed retainers,— a kind of Heralds, as it were, 
'^whose special duty it was to take note of the insignia 
of any train coming from an opposite direction, and pass 
Word down their own ranks as to the due ceremony to be 
observed under the circumstances. These heralds had by 
no means an easy duty to perform, for they fell into great 
disgrace if they failed in what was required of them. It 
was customary in these trains for the whole of the inferior 
attendants to wear their lord's badge on their mantles, to 
facilitate recognition by other travellers. On the castle re- 
sidences of Japanese nobles in the country, and also on their 
yaihikis or fortified mansions in Yedo or elsewhere, the 
badge of the owner was conspicuously displayed. It was 
plactd over the large gateway, the 2Qd badges, if suoh exist* 



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cd, being placed alongside in many cases; — the large tiles at 
the extremities of tlie roof-ridge and end beams also were 
marked with it, and in some cases the whole of the smaller 
tiles along the edge of the roof were ornamented with the 
2nd badge. It was not very nsnal to place the chief 
badge on these smaller tiles. If a DaimiS changed his 
residence, these tiles, so mjirkcd, were generally removed, 
but if not, the badge was always carefully erased, the 
space being left blank if the new occupant did not care 
to fill it with his own cognizance. Sometimes, as an 
especial mark of favour, a feudal chieftain would permit 
one of his retainers, whom he wished to highly honour, 
to make use of his own badge ; but in such rare instances 
there was always given to the retainer a haori^ — the 
upper mantle worn by the military class, — marked with 
the badge, and the privilege lasted only so long as that 
particular garment was in existence. Nor was the 
recipient of this favour pormiltea himself to mark the 
badge upon any other part of his clothing, and it 
does not seem that any hereditary honour was at- 
tached to the gift. From the above rennirks it may be 
be seen that iu the case of nobles, at least, there existed 
some kind of restriction preventing the assumption of a 
family badge belonging to another house. No badge was 
worn by the principal during the ceremony of the hnra' 
kiri ; nor again, at funerals, was any marked on the white 
mourning garments. At marriage ceremonies, in very 
high families, neither the bride nor bridegroom wore a 
badge on their clothing. The regulations as to women's 
badges have always been rather vague, but as a general 
custom it would seem that they commonly wore that of 
their own family, even retaining it after marriage, though 
then the badge of the husband's family was occasionally 
taken in preference. 

It may here bo interesting to note the devices borne by 
some of the chief families of Japan, as selected from the 
list of nobles. But firstly the badges of the Imperial line 
claim our attention. They are two iu number. The 
first is a rapresentation of the kiku^f or obrysaatbemum 



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flower, and is usually delineated bj sixteen petals, eon- 
joined, and rounded at tbe outer extremities, issuing from 
a small circle in the centre. Some Japanese, however, 
stale that this is not the chrysanthemum, but is intended as 
a i-epresentation of the sun, so as to bear some connection 
with the red sun on the national flag, of which mention is 
made below. But this latter theory seems wholly unworthy 
of credence, as the kihu is frequently represented 
as a double flower, — that is, with the rounded ex- 
tremities of sixteen other petals showing, from below, 
iu the interstices at the ends of those drawn in the 
foreground. It is, nevertheless, a fact worthy of 
remark, that iu European Heraldry, when the Sun 
is blazoned as " m his splendour,'* i,e, irradiated, 
the rays are nearly always sixteen in number, though 
they are then always drawn with pointed extremities. 
The Jciku is used as a mark on the hilts of the swords 
forged by the Emperor Go-Toba, who ascended the throne 
in 1186. The second of the Imperial badges is a repre- 
sentation of the leaf and flower of the kiri, or Panlownia 
Japonica, as it is termed in botany; it displays three 
leaves, and three flowers, each of the latter consisting of 
a slender stem with the buds attached. The central stem 
bears aeven buds, and those on the sides five each; — thus 
this badge is termed in Japanese the ^' go-shichi no kiri,^* 
or •*fiveand-seven AriV*." Many other families bear the 
kivi badge, but, as a general rule, the buds are but five 
in number on the central stem, and three on each of the 
others, — such a one being styled " go-san no kiri" or 
"five-aud-three kiri,^* This law regarding the difierenco 
ill the number of buds is not, however, observed very 
strictly. The small square banner usually borne before 
the Mikado when he drives out in public, bears the kiku 
badge in gold upon a ground of red and gold brocade. 
Thus allusion is made, in a popular song written at the 
time of the expedition against Choshiu in 1866, to the 
''Imperial Standard of Brocade," and during the troubles 
in Yedo iu IS6S, the ''loyal troops " earned the nickname 
of kingiri from the ihredi of brooade which they wore 



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as a distinguishing mark upon the right shoulder. The 
kiri badge, embroidered in gold, is now every day to be 
seen upon the uniforms of Japanese officials. But, to 
speak of tlie badges of some of the nobles, the following 
short list will suffice as a sample : — 

{Three leaves of the hollyhock, wilh- 
in a circle ; the points of the 
leaves meeting in the centre 
II. — Makda, dai' C A plum-blossom of live petals, — each 

mio8 of Kaga. \ of circular shape. 
III. — Shimadzu, 

The rino: of a horse's bridle bit. 



I. — TOKUGAWA, 

(late Shorjun) 



rfaimi&of Satsu- 
ma. 



{ 



IV.— Yamaxo- 

UCHI, Jai/HlOi of-< 

Tosa. 



v.— KuRoDA, dai- 
miSs of Chiku- 
zen. 

VL— Hachisuka, 
daimios of Awa," 
in Shikoku. 



VII. — A RIM A, dai- 
mios of Chikugo. 



VIII.— Ikeda, dai- 
mios of Bizen. 



IX.—Nambu, dai- 
mios of Morioka, 
in the province of 
Mutsu. 



1st. — Three leaves of the kasliiwa 
(a kind of oiik) within a circle. 

2nd. — Two horizontal and parallel 
lines. 

3rd. — The same as the Ist, but 
without the circle ; the stems of 
the leaves being in each case join- 
ed in the centre, the ends poiut- 
ing outwards. 

Ist.— A black ball. 

2nd. — Three Howers of the /a/i, or 
wisteria, conjoined in the centrei 
and flexed in circular form'. 

1st. — Same as Tokugawa, only of 
different colour. 

2nd. — The figure called a manji^ 
within a circle. 

3rd. — The same without the circle. 

Ist. — The gentian leaves and flowers^ 
arranged in a peculiar circulai* 
form. 

2nd. —The figure called mitsu tomoye. 

Ist. — A butterfly ** displayed,*' or, 
with wings spread open. 

2nd. — Two siniilar butterflies^ front- 
ing each other. 

Ist. — Two Cranes, with wings ex- 
tended, fronting each other, with- 
in a circle. 

2nd and 3rd. — Four lozenge-shaped 
figures, arranged so as to form 
ouo large lozenge. 



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X . — M 6 R I , r/u imiSs 



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let. — The leaf and flower of a watel*- 

plant called omodaka. 
2iid & 3rd. — A horizontal line, with 



of Mutbii. 



ofChobhiu. I three balls, or stars, armnged 

j uuderueath it in a pyramidical 

I form. 

'Ist. — Two sparrows, with wings 

^y y^ ^ , . extended, fronting each other, 

r'o i'*'-" within two branches of the bamboo 
mios oi oendai, j ^ • • i /* 

,, . V arranged in circular form, 

in the lu'ovince o i rnl i r y n 

— * 2nd. — The peouy leaf and flower. 

3rd. — A circle, enclosing three per- 
pendicular lines. 

VTT A J ' fist. — The feathered ends of two 

XII. — AsANO, aai-l , .,, . . , 

- . , .' < arrows, crossed, wHhm a circle. 

L3rd. — llie snme, without the circle. 
The Tokugawa badge above-mentioned was delineated 
on flags as either gold or silver upon a blue ground. This 
badge is stated in the "Nihon Gunishi" to have been 
adopted by Kiyoyasu, father of the famous Tokugawa 
lyeyasu, in the year 1529. Kiyoyasu, returning from a 
successful expedition against the eastern portion of the 
province of Mikawa, was entertained by one of his vassals, 
named Honda Masatada, at the latter*s castle of Ina in the 
nbnve province. During the feast, Honda presented his 
lord with some food placed on a small wooden stand upon 
which were laid three leaves of the hollyhock. Kiyoyasu, 
observing them, exclaimed, "upon my return in triumph 
" I have received these leaves ; from henceforth I will 
"adopt them as my badge.'* A less authentic version of 
tlie tale has it that the Tokugawa badge was originally 
taken from that of the house of Honda, who bore as their 
cognizance three similar leaves, but with stalks attached 
and placed perpendicularly within the circle. lydyasu, it 
is said, was once admiring this badge, when Honda Tada- 
katsn, the son of the above-mentioned Masatada, begged 
him to adopt, it as his own. " I should like to do so, ** said 
" lydyasu," but I am sorry {hdbakari) to deprive you 
••of it." "Then take the ha bakari ('the leaves 
alone")'* was Honda's punning retort, " and I will retain 
" the original badge of both stalks and leaves." ly^yasa 



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did 80^ and tbus assumed the modern Tokugawa badge 
iustead of that previously borne by his family, — a hori- 
zontal black line within a white circle. The ** black 
ball" of Kuroda was originally a circle within which 
were drawn several black cranes. This badge was cjilled 
the sem-bn-dzurn, or " thousand cranes," but as it was 
found to be far too great a labour to depict the birds ac- 
curately in each several case, it evenlually assumed the 
present form. This is the badge displayed in the former 
Chikuzen yashiki at Yedo, now used as the Department 
of For-eigu Affairs ; — the Second Badge, the wisteria, 
being marked on all the small tiles along the edges of the 
roofs of the outer building. The mattjl badge of Awa is 
curious. This figure is drawn thus, f^ '^»>d sometimes, 
but less frequently, thus, y^. It is taken from a 
Chinese character meaning ** ten thousand,*' and is a 
Buddhist symbol, supposed to be emblematical of good 
luck. It is frequently to be seen on Buddhist temples, 
as a sign of Fudi Sama, or the " motionless Buddha." 
It was often marked upon the lids of cofHus, being sup- 
posed to act as a charm to protect the corpse against 
the attacks of a demon in the shape of a cat, called 
ku^Or-ha, which was said to seize and mangle the d^ad 
bodies of human beings. An exact facsimile of this 
figure is also to be met with in European Heraldry, 
but it is a very rare 'charge.* It is there termed a 
** fylfot," but nothing is known as to its origin,~the only 
description given in Heraldic works bing that it is "sup- 
posed to have been a mystic symbol." The milsa'tomoy4 
of Arima, is shaped thus, ^», being — as its name implies 
— a triplicate representation of the single tomoy^y @, 
Many diffbrent explanations are given in regard to this 
figure. One is that it represents "snow falling whirling 
down " (a common expression in Japanese descriptions of 
a snow storm), — another, that it is intended to depict 
waves dashing up and breaking against a rock, — and a 
third that it is a delineation of the tmio^ or small leathern 
glove, cousisting of loops for the fingers attached by thin 



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itrips of leather to a broader piece fixed on the back of the 
hand, as worn in ancient times by Japanese archers. The 
last of these three wonid seem to be the explanation most 
worthy of credence. Tlie mitsutomoy^, like the manji, is 
also frequently used as a symbol of good-luck, and is to be 
seen constantly on the small tiles of the j a thii is in Yedo. 
As a rule, only the one figure is ihus shown, but in some 
instances it is surrounded by a circle of small balls, vary- 
ing at times in number. On a gateway in the post-town 
of Hodogaya, on the T6kaid6, to the west of Yokohama, 
appears a device of three single tomoyi interlaced. The 
crossed arrow-feathei'S of the daimioa of Aki may be 
found, beautifully carved, on the tomb of Asano Takumi 
no kaml, a cadet of that house, in the cemetery of the 
temple of Sengakuji in Yedo. 

The above are but a few of the badges of the noble 
families of Japan. Apart from these, there may be 
observed on all sides exceedingly numerous devices, 
widely different in style and character. It is, of course, 
utterly impossible in a short paper to give any details of 
these, but any one feeling interested in the study of 
Japanese Heraldic art will find it an easy matter to obtain 
many curious specimens of badges. In a country gifted 
like Japan with luxuriant vegetation, it is not surprising 
that by far the greater number of devices should consist 
of representations of flowers, leaves, fruits, blossoms, 
grasses, etc. Amongst these may be mentioned the iiri 
leaf and flower, — the rose (always drawn exactly as in 
European Heraldry), — the flowering gentian {sasarindi), 
— the chrysanthenum leaf and flower, — the creeping wis- 
teria, — the ittihiwa, — the holly-hock, — the sorrel leaf, — 
the peony, — the orange, — the clove, — the pear, — the 
plum and cherry blossoms, — the bamboo, — and the radish 
{daiion). The animal kingdom is also well represented, 
though it is a noticeable fact that there do not exist 
any badges showing portions of the human body, so 
often to be met with in other countries. Nor, again, are there 
found many quadrupeds, the solitary instance, at least in the 
devices of the nobles, being that of a black horse, tethered 



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to two stakes, borne by the family of Sdma, formerly 
holding a small daimiate In the province of Mutsu. There 
certainly is another figure, termed the kara-shishi, which 
is supposed to represent a lion, but it bears no resemblance 
whatever to that animal, and so may be set down as a 
mere fanciful symbol. Birds and insects, however, are 
favourite subjects. Among these are found cranes, geese, 
pigeons, sparrows, buttei*fiies, and wasps. The celestial 
objects worn as badges are the sun, moon, and supposed 
representations of stars and clouds; these, however, are 
very rare. As natural objects, the only two instances are 
running water, and a mountain-peak. The water is always 
delineated in conjunction with some other device, as for 
instance, by the family of Kusunoki, a chrysanthemum 
flower issuing from a stream of water, — by that of Naka- 
yama, the sun issuing in like manner, — and again, hy that 
of Midzuno, an omodaka plant similarly depicted. The 
only example of a mountain in the list of daimids is the 
badge of a small daitnid named Aoki Geugoro, formerly 
lord of the small castle-towu of Asada, near Osaka, in the 
province of Setsu, which badge displays a perfect deline- 
ation of the summit of Mount Fuji, showing three of 
the peaks, issuing from clouds. After these come a 
host of miscellaneous devices, of every possible shape 
and design, — such as fans (sometimes bearing some smaller 
charge, and sometimes plain), — the framework only of 
fans, — ladders, — wheels, — fences, — mcllets, — cash, — ar- 
rows, — hats, — gateways, — bridle-bits, — Chinese charac- 
ters, etc., etc. As smaller and simpler designs may be 
noted circles, lines, squares, hexagons and lozenges, 
several of these being in some cases conjoined so as to 
form one badge. In a few instances, very complicated 
devices are formed by combination of two or more totally 
different objects, as for instance, three leaves conjoined in 
the centre and pointing outwards, placed above three 
others arranged in the form of a triangle, the whole with- 
in a circle; — and on one of the small yashikis in Baucho, 
Yedo, there yet remain tiles marked with a strange badge 
showiug one-half of an eight-spoked wheel, between four 



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broad leaves, two on either side, — the whole bebg en- 
closed within what appear to he the stalks of some plant 
bent into circular form. 

It is just possible, fiom this example, that there may 
have existed in Japan some vague idea of what is termed 
Heraldic Marshalling, i.e., the comhination of two or 
more Heraldic composiHons so as to form one single com- 
position, but there are certainly no definite rules on this 
important point. 

There exists in Japan some crude notion of '^ differenc- 
ing " Heraldic devices, that is to say, modifying or adding 
to the 01 iginal so as to indicate the difference hetween 
two or more families sprung at the first from the same 
stock. The common system of " dififerencing " by colour 
could not be carried out in the ordinary use of Jnpanese 
badges, as, when these were worn on clothing, they were 
always marked in white, but in ihe case of flags, etc., that 
admitted of a change in the colour of the grounding, the 
task was rendered more easy of accomplishment. 
Thus, the hollyhock badge of the Tokugawa house was 
marked, in the case of the head family, in gold or stiver 
upon a blue fiag, while the kindred houses of Mito, Owari, 
and Kii, bore each some modification of the same. That 
of Mito was black on a white flag ; Owari*s white on a 
fiag striped horizbntally white and black ; and Kii's, white 
on a blue ground, the interstices of the leaves being filled 
in with black, and not allowing the ground colour of the 
flag to be visible. The delineation of the badge itself was, 
however, identical in the whole four cases. Other instances 
might be quoted, but the above is sufilcient to illustrate 
the Japanese idea of " difference.** 

In Japan, also, as in Europe, there is found many an 
example of what is termed " Canting Heraldry," consisting 
of devices which have an allusion to the name of the 
bearer, thus forming a kind of rebus. One instance is 
that of a family called Hashimoto, whose badge, the but- 
tresses or "foundation*' of a "bridge,** gives an exact 
rendering of the name. The free use of Chinese charac- 
ters as badges of course gives rise to many opportunities 



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for BQch panniDg allnBions, and thus we find the fkmtliei 
of li, Honda^ Kuki, Okubo^ Inouy^ and others, bearing as 
their cognizances characters the reading of which gives tlie 
sound of the first syllable of their name. Again, in the 
Hakuhuisu iu*an, or Exhibit ion Department, in Yedo, there 
is exhibited a beautiful specimen of a »a»himono^ as 
above described, to which no description is attached, but 
the badge marked thereon, — a " temple gate-way,'*-— 
together with a second device displayed below, serve at 
once to make known the fact that it belonged to some 
member of the house of Torii, a family formerly holding 
the daimiate of Mibu, in the province of Shimotsiik^. 

Flags and banners of various shapes have been in use 
in Japan from the earliest ages. They are first mention- 
ed, iu the history called " Nihouki," as having been borne 
by the army of the Empress Jing6 in her expedition 
against Corea, in 201 A.D. ; and from the year 900 A.D. 
onwards frequent allusion is made to them in Japanese 
works. The very earliest kind of standard was the setsu, 
the original insignia of a Commander in Chief, which 
consisted simply of a bundle of hair from a bull's tail, 
fastened to the end of a staff. In later times the favourite 
forms of flags were those called fuki-nagashi, and haia. 
The latter of these was an oblong-shaped banner, gene- 
rally several feet in length and breadth, which was sus- 
pended from a small cross-bar affixed to the staff; the 
fuki-nagashi was a smaller edition of this, very narrow, 
and terminating in two long streamers. In one of the 
shrines at Enoshima there is still shown an old speci- 
men of a hatUy said to have belonged to a member of the 
family of H6j6, a powerful house that was for a long 
time a hanger-on of the Minamoto clan, and itself 
held supremacy in Japan during the 13th and 14th cen- 
turies. This hata is about 5 feet in length by 3 in 
breadth, and is made of coarse stuff of a blue colour, 
embroidered with gold. At the top are broidered two 
mino- garnet or fiery- tailed tortoises, and at the foot a 
large ^'^q clawed dragon. Towards the centre appears 
the H6j6 badge, consisting of three equilateral triangles 



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arraDged in the form of a pyramid, a central space of 
similar shape being left vacant. This is called the nroko 
badge, supposed to represent a fish's scales, the legend 
being that Benten-sama, the Sea Goddess worshipped at 
Enoshima, appeared to Hojo no Tokimasa (b. 1137 — d. 
1216) and bestowed this upon him as the cognizance of 
his family. The narrow fuki-nagashi were ordinarily 
nsed to mark out the bounds of military encampments, and 
it was in Japanese warfare a common stratagem to change or 
alter them so as to deceive the enemy and lure them into an 
ambuscade. During the civil wars in the period 0-nin 
(1467 — 1469 A.D.) two brothers of the Hatakdyama 
family were ranged on opposite sides, and it is narrated 
in the "Yamato Ji-shi,'* a small encyclopoedia published 
in Tenwa (1681 — 84) that confusion was caused by the 
fact of their both displaying the same kind of white flag, 
and that one of the brothers th«refore invented and used 
a different style of flag, called nobori. This nobori was 
but an enlarged sashimono, as already described, and is 
now always to he seen on the occasion of a Japanese 
festival. In recent times, the Japanese have adopted the 
European style of flng for use on ship board and also in 
the field. 

The national flag of Japan, so well known to every 
foreigner resident in this country, displays the device of 
a red ball on a white ground. This red ball is termed in 
Japannse ki-no-maru, or ^* circle of the sun," in allusion 
.to the fact of Japan being the most distant Eastern coun- 
try. The adoption of this as the national flag was only 
notified by the Government in 1859, but the hi-no-maru 
had been for centuries before that time a very favourite 
badge. At the ffakuhutsn-kn'an there is to be seen an 
old standard, described as the "sun and moon 
standard." This curious specimen consists of a staff, on 
the end of which is fixed a large white crescent, with the 
horns upwards, surmounted again by a small red ball : 
from below the crescent hangs down what appears to be a 
bunch of white horse-hair. In the 19th volume of a 
work entitled the ^' Yedo Meisho Dzuy6," or " Pictorial 



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Gnide to the celebrated localities of Tedo," there is given 
an illnstrHtion ofhsashimono bearing a precisely similar de- 
vice. This sashimono, it is stated, belonged to one Chiba no 
Tan6michi who was in charge of the hamlets in the de- 
partment of Kokubn, Shim6sa, in the period Jinjei 
(1182-85). It is possible that the old standard above 
mentioned may date from abont the same period. Prior 
to this time, the Emperor Takakura (ace. 1169, abd. 
1180) presented at the shrine of Itsuku-shima, in the 
province of Aki, thirty fans, which, as the "Gempei Sei- 
sui-ki " narrates, '* were all pink fans, bearing the hi-nO' 
mam" When Takaknra*s successor, the Emperor An- 
tokn, was carried away to the West by the Taira family, 
when they fled from Kiyoto before the Genji forces iu 
1182, he visited the shrine, when one of those fans was 
given to him by the priest in cliarge, who asserted that 
'Hhe sun thereon was the spirit of tlie late Emperor, — 
"and that the arrows of the foe would be caused by it to 
"recoil upon their own persons.** Confldent in the efficacy 
of their sacred talisman, the Taira troops, at the battle of 
Tashima, in Sanuki, in 1185, placed this fan upon a pole 
in a boat, which was rowed to within fihj yards of the 
beach, in full view of the Genji, who were mockingly 
challenged to shoot at it. Nasu Mun6taka, a Minaraoto 
warrior, accepted the challenge, shot, and struck the fan, 
upon which the hostile army were greatly dismayed. 
In memory of this feat, Munetaka*s descendants, the Satak6 
family, till lately lords of the castle-town of Akita, in 
Dewa, adopted for their badge a fan marked with a ball. 
They, however, "differenced'* this device by changing 
the colours of their chief badge to a black ball on a white 
fan, their Srd badge shewing a white ball on a black fain. 
We next meet with the hi-tw-maru at the time of the inva- 
sion of Kiushiu by the Mongols iu 1281. Whilst the 
Kamakura Shogun, Koreyasu, was collecting forces to 
march against the enemy, he sent on, as leader of the 
vanguard, .Utsunomiya Sadatsuna, to whom he gave two 
sacred banners, on which were portrayed respectively 
the sun and the moon. Both these devices were inscribed 



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with the names of Buddhist deities. Upon Saclaisana^s 
arriving on the sea-coast at the scene of action, he un- 
furled these banners, when a sudden whirlwind arose and 
destroyed the Mongol fleet. The two flags were bestowed 
upon Sadatsuna as a reward, and were by him presented 
to the temple of Minobusan in Shinshiu. Subsequenlly 
the one marked with the sun (hi-no-maru) was transport- 
ed to Saikiyqji, a temple near the village of Kamedo, close 
to Yeilo, while the moon banner (tsuki-no-maru) was left 
in iis original phice. The banner brought to Saikiyoji is 
described in the ** Yedo Meisho" as being 6^ feet (Japan- 
ese) in length by 5^ in breadth. Around the edges were 
marked eight dragons, wilhin which, again, were portray- 
ed the " Four Tenno*' (four Buddhist guardian deities), 
while in the very centre was the hi-no-maru inscribed 
with the names of other Buddhist deities. A banner of 
this description is styled hata mandara. It was suspend- 
ed, like the ordinary hata above-meutioned, from a cross- 
bar fastened to a staff*. Of late years^ it may be remarked 
in passing, this word hata has been used in a much wider 
sense, and is the name at present given to all flags 
or banners, of no matter what shape. The suit of 
armour worn by Toyotomi Hid^yoshi, better known to 
foreigners as Tuikd sama, (b. 1540— *d. 1598), now on 
view at XheHakuhutm-ku^an^vAmhes^v^ the hi-no-maru in 
three pluces, namely, on the breastplate^ nnd on the two 
shouldor-flHps. In this connection« it is interesting to 
note that ou the Taik6's breastplate and gauntlets there 
are marked no less than eleven different badges, amongst 
others the Imperial Idri and kiku. From the above may 
be learned the antiquity of the present national device of 
Japan. 

Nearly every public department in Japan now possesses 
its own special flag. That of the Board of Works bears 
the Chinese character ko^ 31? (^'works'') in red on a 
white ground, and that of the Survey Department is 
divided diagonally from right to left, red and white, with 
the same chamcter, in black, at the base* The War De« 
partment usee a white flag with the At-nj-maru adorned 



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with 16 red rays, and the Marine Department a deeply 
indented horizontal red line, surmounted by an anchor of 
the same colour, the whole on a white ground. It will 
be observed that in every iustnnce the Imperial colours of 
Japan, red and white, are strictly preserved. 

So much importance has always been sittaclied to flags 
by the Japanese, that we find the Christians who revolt- 
ed at Shimabara in 1639, a<lopted and usetl as their 
war ensign a white flag marked with a red cross, as 
narrated iu the " Shimabarjr-ki,*' a history of the revolt 
in question. So hateful in the eyes of the Japanese was 
this Christian symbol that in 1673, at Nagasaki, the crew 
of an English vessel named the ** Return '* were advised 
not to hoist the English flag with the cross of St. George. 
Fraissinet, who mentions this circumstance in his work 
**Le Japou," further quotes a passage from the journal 
of the voyage of the "Return,*' in which it is stated that 
a special flag had been made, without the cross, in order 
not to give offence to the prejudices of the Japanese, who 
tookthecross to be a distinguishing mark of the Portuguese 
who had been expelled the country some 30 years pre- 
viously. On one occasion, we are told, there was hoisted 
by mistake the flag containing the cross, and this was at 
once delected by the Japanese authorities, who sent ofl' 
to enquire the reason. This little incident showsclearly what 
attention was paid in early days at Nagasaki to even so small 
a matter as a change in a Heraldic device. The cross does 
not hold here the honourable position that Western Heralds 
give to it ; it is exceedingly rare as a Japanese badge, and 
amongst the many suits of armour at the Hakubutsu- 
iu*an there is but one bearing this device,— as a Crest, 
on a small circular piece of metal. 

Before leaving the heading of flags, it will not do to 
leave uumentioned that of the Mitsu Bishi Company, the 
Japanese Mail Steamship Company running between 
China and Japan. This well-known flag displays the 
device of three red diamonds, conjoined in the centre, on 
a white ground, thus bearing a ''canting'' allusion to the 
name of the Company. The diamond-shaped figures are 



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said to represent the seed-vessels of the water-plant called 
hiski (the Water Caltrops) which is found in large 
quantities in tbe province of Tosa, to which province be- 
longed the mercbants who started the Company. It is 
not improbable that there is likewise contained an allusion 
to tbe badge of the foimer daimio of Tosa^ the three oak- 
leaves being '^ differenced '' and changed into diamonds. 

Of Monumental Heraldry there do not exist very strik- 
ing examples. Indeed^ with the exception of tbe devices 
shown upon the mansions of the former daimiSs, hardly any 
exist save those on tombstones. The badge is generally 
sculptured in relief at the head of the stone^ the inscription 
coming immediately below it. In some instances it is 
gilded. In temples^ many of tbe torii or gateways are 
ornamented with Heraldic devices carved upon them, and 
in other places small plates of metal marked in similar 
manner are affixed to the poets or beams of tbe buildings. 
Tbe tombs of the Tokugawa Shdguns at the temples at 
Nikkd^ in the province of Shimotsuk^, and at Zojdjiy in 
YedOf furnish many beautifully executed specimens of 
these devices. 

In imitation of Foreign Orders of Knighthood, etc., tbe 
Jflpanese Government^ in February 1875, instituted an 
** Order of Merit." This consists of eigbt classesi to each 
of wbicb is assigned its own peculiar decoration. Tbe 
decoration, in the case of the First Class, consists of an 
eight-pointed star of thirty-two white enamelled rays, is- 
saing from a red enamelled ball (the hi-no'maru) ; this is 
worn on the rigbt breast, while a badge consisting of a 
smaller star of similar description, surmounted by a *' five- 
nnd seven kiri *' in green and purple enamel, bangs from a 
white ribbon with red edges worn across the right shoulder. 
By tbe Second Class the star alone is worn, on the rigbt 
breast, while fur the Third Class a narrow white and red 
ribbon round the neck supports a smaller facsimile of the 
badge of tbe Fii*st Class. Below the Third Class 
tbe small badge only is worn, on the left breast, from 
a small ribbon of the colours, and some difference is made 
in the enamel and also in the number of flowers on the 



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—22— 

JUri. The seventh and eighth classes wear the Uri on\j, 
without the irradiated hi-no-maru below it. The design is a 
good oue^ and the decoration compares very favourably 
with many of those seen in Europe. It would^ perhaps, 
have hud a better effect had the red ball in the centre 
been smaller, and surrounded by a circle of white enamel. 
This would not only have relieved the dark colour of the 
ki'tiO'tnam, but would also have been in accordance with 
the strictest Heraldic usage, as showing likewise the 
ground colour of the national flag. A good precedent 
for this may be observed in the case of the star of the 
English order of the Garter, where the red cross of St. 
George has a narrow white edging, the better to represent 
the device of the English ''White En.'^ign." The Japan-, 
ese War Medal, which was likewi:fe instituted in Febru- 
ary 1875, is of silver, and hangs from a white ribbon 
edged with green, worn on the left breast. The obverse 
bears the Chinese characters for " War Medal,'* while the 
date is engraved on the reverse. 

For the sake of pure Heraldic art in this country, it is 
to be regretted that several of the Japanese officials who 
have visited Europe have carried their imitation of foreign 
usAges so far as to invent and make use of Supporters for 
their Badges. This arises from ignorance of the fact that 
in Heraldry it is only a shield, not a badge or ereat, that 
can have supporters, and it should likewise not be forgot- 
ten that in the West it is only to persons of a certain rank 
that Hemlds accord the right to bear supporters to their 
shields. But, in the absence of any definite rules of He- 
raldic art in Japan, these anomalies are likely to con- 
tinne. 

It does not, however, seen very probable that any per- 
fect system of Heraldry will arise in this country. With 
the fall of the feudal regime passed away the most favour- 
able opportunity for its establishment, as in the case also 
of the countries of the West. In Europe, Heraldry is at 
this date little more than an interesting study of the past| 
as a companion to Historical research; and in Japan 
there does not appear any reason to hope for a revival of 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 





•If 11 




NIWA. 



NARITA. 




IMPERIAL KIKU. IMPERIAL KIRL 



TOKUGAWA. 



HONDA. 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 





maEda. 



SHIMADZU. 




C— 3 




(l8T.)— YAMANOUCHL— (2nd.) 



( 1st.)— KURODA.— (2nd.) 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLU STRATIONS. 





HACHISUKA (2nd.) 



THE FYLFOT. 





(l8T.)-.ARIMA.— (2nd.) 




THE TOMOYl^. 



IKEDA.— (1st.) 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 




( 1 ST.)— NAMBU.— (2nd.) 




66 



(IsT.)— MORI.— (2nd.) 



( 1 ST. )— D AT6.— (2nd.) 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 




DATli: (3rd.) 



ASANO. 




SATAK6. 





KUSUNOKI. 



NAKAYAMA. 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY. -ILLUSTRATIONS. 





H6j0. CHIBA no TANfiMICHL 



CROSS CREST, 
AT EXIIIIUTION DE- 
PARTMENT. 





MIDZUNO. 



AOKL 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FLAGS. 



(a 



SPECIMENS OF 
SASHIMONO. 




HAT A. 




FUKI'NAGASHL NATIONAL FLAG. 





^^AiWAvvWV^ 






OLD STANDARDS AT EXHIBITION 
DEPARTMENT. 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FLAGS 




BOARD OF WORKS. SURVEY DEPT. 




WAR DEPT. 



NAVAL DEPT. 





MITSU BISHI Co. POST OFFICE. 



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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 



MISCELLANEOUS, 










:{^i=rb 





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JAPANESE HERALDRY,— ILLUSTRATIONS. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



O O (m® 




t>. 




eJlEJ 
















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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 



MISCELLANEOUS 






O 




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JAPANESE HERALDRY.— ILLUSTRATIONS. 



MISCELLANEOUS . 









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—33— 

an art which has long since seen its most palmy days in 
other lands. The above notes may, however, prove of 
some interest to any one who has studied Western 
Heraldry, and at least give rise to a comparison hetween 
the old system of our own middle ages, and that followed 
during the late feudal times of the Empire of Japan. 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OP JAPAN. 

A general meeting of the above society was held in the 
Imperial University (Kai Sei Gakko) on Wednesday, the 25th 
instant, Sir Harry Parkes, President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting, as given in the 
new volume of the Transactions, "were then read; also those of 
the Council meeting in which it wus notified that Professor D. 
H. Marshall was appointed BHCording Secretary for Tdkid in 
place of Professor Summers, whose resignation was necessita- 
ted by his removal to Niigata. 

These minutes having been approved of by the society, the 
names of three new members were announced, Professor Dixon, 
J. H. Longford, Esq., and Professor Milne. 

Sir Harry Parkes then called upon Mr. McClatchie to read 
the paper for the evening — ''Japanese Heraldry," which there- 
after ealled for some very complimentary remarks from 
the President on the erudition in Japanese literature as well 
as knowledge of the science of Heraldry displayed in the paper. 
He thought that the crusades, tournaments, and wearing of 
shields and armour would account for the great advance 
Heraldry had made in the West in the middle ages. He did 
not know whether so much value was attached to pedigrees 
in the East as in the West, but if so we must look to China for 
very long pedigrees. Mr. McClatchie had said that Feudality 
was productive of Heraldry. China, like Japan, bad her feudal 
system, but he did not remember seeing any Heraldry there. 
The figure called the tomoye was, he thought, probably 
derived from the Chinese figure, painted in black and white, 
staudmg for the origin of all things. 

Dr. Geerts asked whether Mr. McClatchie was quite sure 
that the three leaves in the Tokugawa crest were holy hock, and 
that they were not three leaves ot'Saishin or Hazarum Sieboldii, 
Mr. McClatchie said that the Japanese name of these leaves 
in the badge was certainly tho holyhock. 

Professor Ayrton thought that different members of the 
same family, having difierent badges, might be parallel to the 
custom of some English families whose members adopted 
different mottoes although the same crest. He obseryed that 



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—24— 

it &ppardBtly vas the modernfashion to wearthree mont instead 
of five on the haori, one on theback and one on each aleeve. Mr. 
Ayrtoii also thought that the study of badges lead to tlie 
study of shop signs. The well-known sign of the bush out- 
side a sake shop is the same as that used iu England, which 
gave rise to the proverb "Good wine needs no bush.** 

Dr. Faulds, remarking on the doubt whether the Mikado's 
crest represented the sun or the cry san them urn, suggested 
that it might represent the sunflower, which certainly is seen 
growing in Japan now, biit whether or not it did formerly 
he did not know. 

In answer to one remark of Sir H. Parkes', Mr. McClatchie 
observed regarding Heraldry in China, that he had noticed 
that at the change of guards at the gates of cities, each com* 
mander had his own special standard. 

The meeting was then brought to a close. 



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—26— 



USEFUL MWERALS AND METAUURGY 
OF THE JAPANESE. 

F. — Arsenic. 



BY 

Dk. geerts. 



Meatlng of the Asiatic Society of Japan on the 
Sth November, 1876. 



LiTiRATXTKB.— Stan. Julten et Champion, Induatries, &o., 
Parifl, 1869, p. 47, Chinese Technology: ^^X^^ '^^' 
kohalhutm. Vol. VI., Tab. 6. Natural History :$:|3Hg 
Hon-zo-komol'u, Lib. IX, Fig. 25 and 26; Lib. X., Fig. 52 
and 53. Ono Ranzan. ;2f:^i^@^^ Hon-zoko-mo- 
ku-keimoy EcL 1847, by Oxo Tsunenori and Te-kkn-shi- 
YEKI, Vol. 5 and 6. Japanese Encyclopedia, ^^"^."j^ 

HW 'W^«-^"-*«'»-««^-'^2"-y<^» VoL 61. 
Arseuiferous minerals are very abundant in Japan, 
especially the Arsenides and Arsenio- sulphides. The 
yellow and red sulphides of arsenic, known as orpiment 
and realgar, and the native white arsenic, or arsenic-blos- 
som occur in considerable quantities in China, but are not 
yet found in Japan to a considerable extent. The Chinese 
have known these three latter ores from the remotest times, 
and were acquainted with their poisonous properties long 
before we had in Europe any knowledge about these mi- 
nerals. Aristotle (4th century B.C.) has mentioned for 
the first time both the sulphides of arsenic under the 
names of 9avhipa')(ri and apatviKov, the first being realgar 



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ftnd the latter yellow orpiment, bat the Arabian chemist 
Geber* (5th century) first describes tbo poisouous quality 
of arsenic. Chinese works of the 8th century before our 
era speak already of arsenic as a highly poisonous 
substance. It seems^ nlso, that the Hindoos have known 
the use of these arsenic minerals in leprosy from the 
earliest times. 

Realgar, orpiment and native white arsenic are dis- 
tinctly known to the Chinese and Japanese, but as to the 
numerous anenides and arsenio-sulphides, there exists 
great confusion and want of any distinct knowledge. 
All ores, in which arsenic is combined with various metals 
or with metallic sulphides, are designated by the generic 
name of jp 5 ^^^ JR'ff Yo-seki or Nedzumi-koroshi 
(rat-poison), because they yield arson ious acid by a pro- 
cess of roasting and sublimation. The crude ai-senious 
acid obtained by this process bears also the name of Yd- 
seki. The name gft ^ Hi-seki is commonly given to all 
substances which contain arsenic, but these Chinese 
characters are used more specially to denote the arsenic- 
bloom or native white arsenic. The character ^ F^ of 
the word yo-seki means raf'poison, whilst the figure 
Sit hi or ^ hi is derived from ^ Hi or Takeki-kSmono 
(fierce animal) and means properly *' bad stuff" (ashimo- 
no). The confusion of names has caused the Japanese to 
believe that the rough arsenious acid, prepared by the 
roasting of arsenides (Yo-seki) is a different substance 
from the natural arsenious acid (Hi-aeki), Old Chinese 
works speak of several kinds of natural yo-sehi or arsenic- 
minerals, but in a very unsatisfactory manner. I 
have noc yet succeeded in collecting one of these ores 
by the names given to them in Chinese and Japan- 
ese works, because of the profound ignorance which 
I found to exist among the native naturalists. The only 
" Yo-sehi " procurable, and well known to every one, is 
the crude arsenious acid, prepared by the roasting of several 
arseniferous minerals. I will mention the names of the 

* Qebri Somma perfect, Pars I, lib. II, Cap. IL 



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—27- 

several l^indsof Yo-sehi of the Sinico-Japanese works, 
bat must leave them undeterminedy ou account of the im- 
possibility of seeing and examining these substances. 
There are then : 

6^5 ...ffaiu'i/o-seki White arsenic-mineral. 

^ ^ >j5 ...So-yo-seki Green „ „ 

^ 1^ 5 •••Shi'i/0'8el'L Violet ,, „ 

SC J^ ^ ^"'Kohi-yO'Sekl S.ifflower-bark „ „ 

¥k ^ ^ -^5...To-^?£W7a-y^-5<»A:i..Peach-fl()wer „ „ 
^ M ^ S'**^^""*^^"!/^-*^^* -d^olden-slar „ „ 
ffi M ^ ;5'...CT//i-^<'/-?/^-5e/f/... Silver-star „ „ 

4^ ^ ^ ^'••Toku-sei'y5-sekL.lm\a\e(l ,, „ 

S €^ li^ ^'•'A^u-setnU'}/3'SekLSi\ow'-hti\\ ,. „ 

The last named mineral is said not to be poisonous, and 
probably is not an arseniferons mineral ; the others should 
possess nearly the same properties with exception of the 
colour. The two first named kinds are especially recom- 
mended for medical use. 

The arsenic-mineral yd-seki is held to be one of ihe princi- 
pal minerals impregnated with the male principle of nature 
(IS >5 J^'^'f*)' I^ *8 therefore considered to contain a 
large amount of internal heat, and forms, according to 
Chinese medical philosophy, one of the most powerful 
medicines to subdue all diMenses which are cjiu>ed by the 
female or cold principle in nature. Water containing Yo' 
seki dissolved is said never to freeze, even at the lowest 
tempei*atnre, and several lakes in China nre believed to 
contain i%seii on account of their water never being 
frozen. Snow and ice cannot remain for any length of 
time on the mountains in the interior of which this mineral 
is found. Some native works say that the crane (^ |Q 
Bun-kuwan) swaddles her young with a piece of this 
mineral, but other more prudent authors deny this 
story. 

Rats die quickly, but silkworms are said to grow big 
and fat, if they eat this poisonous substance. The last 
named kind of Ya-seki, namely Aku-setsu-yo-seki (snow- 
ball-aweniferous mineral) b a white rough mineral from 
i^hioh a liquid exudea during the winter. This stone is 



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—28— 

considered the marrow or brain of the minerals (^ ^ 
Schi-nd) because it is believed to possess the quality of 
lengthening life and of transforming mercury into a solid 
substance, if heated with this metal. 

Native writers speak of natural white arsenic Hi-seki 
filt >ff> in the following words. "This mineral is found 
of better quality and more abundantly in China than 
Japan, and should be most al)Uiidunt in the neighbourhood 
of copper mines. But it is also found dissolved in certain 
mineral-waters, the poisonous water of a spring in -fg^j+j 
Shin-fhu (China) being the most renowned. This 
water should have a greenish colour and at the bot- 
tom of the spring solid Hi-seki, white arsenic, is 
found. When this natural white arsenic has been 
purified by sublimation in a closed vessel, it is 
called 3t Jg^t-*^, *' Rime of Arsenic.** The naturalist 
Ono Eauzan is of opinion that the poisonous qualities of 
the water of ihe river of Tamagawa, near the nK>untaia 
Koya-San, in the province of Kii ; of the water of the 
spring Tori-nO'jigoku (bird's hell) at Arima in the pro- 
vince of Setsu ; of the mineral water on the volcanic 
Uuzenga-dak6 at Shimabara in the province of Hizen, and 
of the stone named SetsU'Sho-seki at Nasu, in the province 
of Kotsuke, are all due to a certain amount of arseuious 
acid. 

Having mentioned what native books say about arsenic, 
I will now describe the different Japaue«ie arseniferous 
minerals, which have come under my knowledge. 

1. Arsenical Pyrites. — I adopt for this mineral 
the Sinico-Japanese name Sj fi ^ ^ Ko-shoku-yhseki 
or Hajaae-iro-yb'Sekiy "Arsenic-mineral with a steel-grey 
colour.'' As synon)^m I have adopted the name ^ 4ti ^ 
Hi-hiwa-teteu, which means ** Arsenide of iron." 

This mineral forms amorphous masses, with a steel- 
gi'ey metallic colour and pretty hard. It is found in Japan 
in very large quantities in the same veins with copper 
pyrites. The latter ore is often mixed with and adheres 
to araeuical pyrites. In the pure state this miaei*al eon* 



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—29— 

tains about 66 per cent, of arsenic, 30 per cent, iron and 
2 to 4 per cent, sulphur, but it is often mixed with tho 
following ore, so that the chemical constitution is ex- 
tremely variable. 

2. MispiCKEL or ArseniO'Sulphide of Iron (sulphurous 
arsenical pyrites). This mineral resembles very much 
the former in its physical qualities, and differs only by a 
larger amount of sulphur (about 20 per cent.) which it 
contains. I adopt the same name: fl| fe ^ >& Ko-shoku^ 
yo'Sehl and the synonym % 4)^ Ht ^ i^E 4fi ^ Hi-htwa- 
feisu iO'i iu-Jtuwa-ieisn, which name expresses the chemi- 
cal constitution (arsenide of iron with sulphide of iron). 
This mineral is also found in the same veins with copper- 
pyrites or sulphurous tin ore (Tinkles). Both these arsen- 
iferous ores are used in Japan for the roasting and 
sublimation of crude arson ious acid, which process I will 
de8cril>e afterwards. (For localities where it is found, seo 
Copper-pyrites, Vol. III., part I., p. 40.) 

3. Pharmaco-siderite or Cubical araeniate of iron 
{Wurfelerz or 2>ice-ore), for which ore we propose tho 
name /^ffiHi^ RoKU-MEN-YO-8EKi(Hexhedrical arsenic) 
and the synonym /^IfiSlt^^^iSlit ^^u-men- hi-san" 
ean-imca-tetsu (cubical arseniate of iron). This curious 
miueral is not uncommon in China as well in Japan. It 
forms perfectly cubical hard crystals of a dark brown 
colour and of various sizes. I saw some fine specimens 
from Kiura, in the district Onagori, in the province of 
Bungo. The mineral is sometimes found in Japanese 
druggist shops under the wrong name §j^^ «/i- 
neti'do (native copper). Besides, the cubical iron-pyrites, 
which differs from pharmaco-siderite in its metallic bril- 
liancy and yellowish colour, bears also the inexact 
name of ji-n en-do, 

4. Olivenitb or Arseniate of Copper. -^Thia ore is 
found in Japan at Ashiwo in the province of Siiimotsuke 
and at Naganobori in the province of Choshiu (]Sagato), 
in the form of compact or fibrous masses of a dark green- 
iih colour and irideeoent Burfietoe. I have given it the 



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name ^ ^^ So-to-Seki (greenish arsenic mineral) 
and the synonym % ^ ^ ^ 1^ Hi'San-san-kuwa-do 
to express the chemical constitution. It is not improbable 
that the So-yo-seki of old Chinese and Japanese books is 
identical with this ore. 

5. Grey-Copper-ore (antimonial and arsenical) [^Pana- 
base, Fahlertz']. — The mineral known by (his name has 
a very complicated and variable composition, not less than 
siXy and sometimes seven elements being found in it. It 
may be regarded as a combination of sniphide of copper 
with the sulphides of antimony, arsenic, iron, zinc and 
often feiiver. It has a blackish-grey coh)ur with a metallic 
lustre, and forms in Jnpan one of the principal ores used 
in the extraction of silver and copper, all hough the former 
precious metal is rarely present in any huge quantity. Grey 
copper ore gives off in the roasting process a considerable 
amount of impure arsenious acid, and forms one of the canses 
of the unhealthy life to which Japnuese cop per- founders 
generally are unhappily condemned. This mineral is in 
Japan mostly found together with copper-pyrites. (B'or 
localities where it is found see Metallurgy of Copper Vol. 
Ill, part I, p. 28.) 

6. Tennantite or Arsenical grey-copper ore.— This 
forms crystalline masses of a lead-grey colour, and resem* 
bles much the former mineral of which it is only a variety* 
It has also a very variable composition, but may be re- 
garded as a combination of sulphide of copper with mis- 
pickel. In Japan it is found accompanied by copper^ 
pyrites, one of the most common ores of this country. 

7. CuPRO- Sulphide of Tin (arseniferous), (Tink- 
ies). Tfft itHk ^ Riu-kuwa-shaku-ko. — Tinkies seems 
to occur abundantly in the provinces of the south-west of 
China, but in Japan I know only of its being found in the 
provinces of Satsuma and Bungo where it is worked upon 
tin. It contains generally a considerable amount of 
arsenic, of lead, antimony and copper, so that the tin ob- 
tained from this mineral is always very impure and often 
arseniferous. The Japanese know very well that their 



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native tin U not a pare metal, and is muoh less ralnable 
than Malacca or Banca tin. 

The aboTC meutioued ores form the different arsenides 
and metallic ai*senio-suIphides which I have met with 
in this country. There are still many other arseniferous 
minerals, which I have not yet seen here, but many of 
them doubtless exist in Japan, as for instance : 

Native arsenic (metallic) ** Scherheniobalt" gft ^ 

Kupfernickel or arsenide of nickel ^ 4li K 1$ % 

Arsenical nickel or biarsenide of nickel.^ Zl%^KI$% 
Nickel-glance or sulto-^rMe}^^^^^^^^^^ 

Nickel arseniate Sit Bl^ 1^ 4li K ItS % 

Arsenical cobalt or Tin-white cobalt ) ^a ^v 4^ 4ir Si ^ 
(Smaltin or Speis cobalt) j wlKi W?X W ^ 

Cobalt-glance or sul-^ 

pho-arsenide of co- V||fli«ft5C«|^RStfli«ft5C«l^ 
bait (grey cobalt).... J 

Cobalt-arseniate ?» ifc ifc fli j«f ^^ W ^ 

Ked silver ore or sulpho-arsenide ^^l-^ lu iM'jt -^ ly m 

All these minerals occur generally in metalliferous 
veins or deposits of the primitive and metamorphic rocks, 
which are so well represented in Japan. 

8. Native white arsenic (Arsenic-blossam), 5Hl 5 
Hi-SEKI or 'g ^ SniN-SEKi. Synonyms : f^ Slfc Shin-hi. 
— 3lt H ^ Kd-riu'kuwa, — ^ 'j^ ^ ^ Seki-teUkuwa- 
$ei. 

This mineral, the " Safed Sumhul" of the Hindoos, is 
well known in India and China, and seems to be found in 
relatively small quantities as a secondary product near 
solfatares and certain volcanic mineral springs. As known 
in commerce, it forms crystalline, semi-transparent crusts 
or concretions, partly consisting of aggregates of small 
prismatical crystals, and partly mixed with a reddish, 
yellowish and greyish substance of a more compact 
character. This latter coloured admixture contains 
probably some metallic arsenic and sulphides of 
arsenic. The reddish or yellowish part bears the name 



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-32- 

^^ Ei'Wo, t.0. '' yellow arsenlci" and those pieces wbich 
hare the colour of raw beef are much esteemed by the 
native druggists as a medicine against itcb| leprosy and 
other skin-diseases. 

I am not quite sure whether this mineral is found in 
Japan, although it can be seen in every Japanese drug- 
shop. I have, however, reason to believe that all this white 
arsenic comes from China, where it is found especially 
in the province of Kiang-shin (Shin-shu), but I have 
some pieces in my collection which are said to have been 
found at the volcano Unzengadak^, at Shimabara in the 
province of Hizen. 

9. — Orpiment (crystallised) or Yellow Sulphide op 
Arsknic Nld^ Shi-w6 (i.e. (female yellow). Synonyms: 
^\^ Kin-yekL—^-fl^^ Tei-jo-ketsu {i.e. Blood of the 
Empress). The fine crystallised kind or soft scaly aggre- 
gates of a bright yellow colour I have never seen in Ja- 
pan, although sometimes fine Chinese orpiment can be 
found in the collections of Japanese naturalists. The 
name Shi-wo is more particularly applied to the crystalline 
bright yellow specimens. Orpiment in compact or granu- 
lar masses of a dull omnge colour, the Hartal of the 
Hindus, can be found with every JaponeRe fire-work maker, 
and bears the name ^ ^ Seki-wo (i.(*. stone-yellow). 
Whilst the first crystallised kind from China is very high 
in price, the latter can be bought cheaply. It is used 
chiefly in pyrotechnical mixtures, for the fabrication of a 
yellow kind of ink or drawing stuff, and in medicine 
against diflerent diseases of the skin. I know only the 
following places in Japan where orpiment is found in 
respectable quantities, Sadayama-dani near Sapporo, on 
the island of Yezo, at Furub6 in the district Sugayab^-gori 
in Yezo and at Sa^aya in the district Shikase-gori of 
the province of Iwami. 

No. 10. Realgar or Red Sulphide of Arsenic. 
iH ^ 0-w5 or 0-w6 {i.e. male yellow). This mineral, 
the " Maiiiail " of the Hindus, is not rare in China, but in 
Japan an inferior kind only has been found up to this 



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time. The Japanese import the better kinds from China^ 
and distinguish, according to quality, three varieties : — 

^' ft S 5 Kei-kuwan-seki ^cockscomb-stone) or the 
true O'VH) with a fine bright red colour. It forms irregular 
masses, is soft to the touch and must not give any smell 
even when rubbed with the fingers. This kind is highly 
appreciated by the Chinese and Japanese in jewellery and 
medecine. 

2. H^ ^ KuN-wo (odorous realgar). This variety has 
no bright red colour, is hard and not as pure as the former. 
It gives an odour when rubl>ed with the finger. 

3. J^ ^ Shu- wo (fetid realgar) is the most inferior 
kind and possesses a peculiar kind of garlic odour. The 
Chinese wash this fetid realgar with vinegar in order to 
remove its bad smell, and by this means augment its com- 
mercial value. 

According to the Japanese chronicle Zoku-nihon-kiy 
some inhabitants of the province of Is6 presented tlic first 
Japanese realgar to the Emperor Moumu Tenno, in the 
year 699, 

The Chinese and the Japanese of the old scliools of art 
cut ornament8, mostly balls, fruits, peaches and small 
vases, from this mineral, whi(rh takes an excellent polihs. 
Sometimes netsi^ke of cut and polished realgar can be 
found in curio-shopa, and I have often seen a series of fine 
pulidhed spheroids of realgar, crystal, rose-quartz, agate 
and jade fixed on silver ornameuts (ships, birds, flowers) 
for the Tokonoma, 

Although a piece of well polished realgar forms a pretty 
precious stone, it is useless for any other purp<»se than for 
articles for the drawing-room, on account of its softness. 
The objects made of this mineral cannot support contact 
with other substances, without losing their polish. 

The small Chinese medicine-cups made of realgar, are 
already too well known to need much mention. In Jji[)an, 
however, I have never seen these cups, the use of which 
seems also to be perfectly unknown in this country. The 
netsuke of realgar were considered formerly a kiudof pre- 



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servative (amulet) against fever and malaria (5f|5^, JaH), 
but of late, it seems, ihoy have lost their reputation. A 
small portion of powdered realgar is sometimes placed 
upon burning ehareoal as a protection against mosquitoes, 
who die speedily from the poisonous vapours of arsenious 
acid, given off by this roasting process. Besides it is used 
for the preparation of a reddish ink and painting colour. 

I am not sure if the Japanese know the* method of 
producing artificial realgar by fusing arsenical pyritea 
wiih iron-pyrites, as it is effected in Europe. 

The localities in Japan where it is found, known to me, 
are : 
Provinces. District Place, 

Is6 Ihikagori Tanj6-mura. 

Sendai Minoha-yama. 

Riknzen (Mizawa A:^w)....Knrihnrng6ri Monji-mni-a. 

After having thus mentioned the different arsenic ore.*, 
I will now proceed to the description of the prepara- 
tion of arsenious acid. 

Preparation of arsenious acid, ^ jQ Y6-8EKI or JW 
dzumi-koroslii. 

Sublimed arsenic is prepared in China and Japan by 
a rude process of roasting and sublimation. Different 
arson iferous minerals are used as material, but chiefly ar- 
senical pyrites, teunantiie and grey copper ore. This 
woik is very dangerous to the wr>rkmen on account of the 
bad construction of the roasting furnace and condensing 
apparatus. The Chinese method which is sometimes used 
in eJapan, and is described in the Chinese work on Tech- 
nology l^en-hf-hai-biitsUf is better than the original Japan- 
ese manner, which I shall mention afterwards. The in- 
closed figure is a reproduction of the said Chinese work 
and gives some idea of the whole apparatus. 

A temporary furnace is built with stones and rough 
clay in an uninhabited place on the mountain. It has 
the shape of a cone cut off at the top. The narrow upper 
part of this cone is loosely covered l>y a subverted senii- 
gloliulous iron-vessel, and at the lower and wider part of 



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the conical furnace is an opening for the entrance of 
the air and for the introduction of the ore and fuel 
(wood). The ore being divided into smaller pieces by 
hammering, is placed upon the wood in the furnace and 
afterwards firing is commenced. The sulphides (of the 
ore) are decomposed by the double action of heat and 
air, the sulphur escaping for the most part as sulphurous 
acid gas. The arsenic of the ore is thus converted by 
the air into arsenious acid and the latter is deposited as a 
fine powder or semi-crystalline crusts on the inner side of 
the colder iron vessel. When the sublimated crust has ob- 
tained a certain thickness, or if the iron pot becomes too 
hot, the fire is allowed to cool, in order that the sublimate 
may be removed. The first iron receiver is then replaced 
by another and firing is again commenced, until the stock 
of the ore is exhausted. The condensed matter in the 
iron receivers is still very impure, and contains ordinarily 
a considerable amount of oxyde of iron. For this reason 
it has always a yellowish or brownish colour. 

In this impure state it is mostly known in commerce 
under the name of Yo-seki or Nedzumi-koroshi (rat*8-poi- 
son). 

Soinelimes, however, it is subjected to a second suhli- 
mafion, or is purified by means of cristallisation. It be- 
comes then a wliite coloured crystalline powder and bears 
the name of St H S^ Hi-so-seki " Rime of Arsenic,'' 

During this roasiing-process the workmen are advised 
to remain at a distance of at least 100 feet off the furnace 
in the direction from which the wind blows. The same 
workmen may not work continually ; they ought to 
change after each two consecutive operations, if their 
health is not to be speedily destroyed. 

According to Ono Ranzan, the preparation of arsenious 
acid is effected in Japan principally at the mountain Gin- 
san in the province of Iwami ; at Nasuno in the province 
of Kotsuke, and at Nagano-bori in the province of Choshiu 
(Nagato). Tlie arseniferous minerals are laid upon tbe 
-fuel is a small open furnace, rudely built with some 
stones and clay. The upper part of the luruace 



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—36— 

is closed by wet straw-mats and firing commenced. The 
arseuious acid formed by this roasting process is condensed 
by the wet mats, and finally the latter becomes dry and 
burns to ashes. The fire is extinguished and the crude 
arsenious acid taken away. It is very impure and has a 
yellowish or brownish colour. This old Japanese manner 
of preparing arseuious acid is still more unhealthy and rude 
than the Chinese process already described. The roast- 
ing of arson iferous minerals is even in Europe an unwhole- 
some operation, although good furnaces and large con- 
densing chambers are used, but the Sin ico- Japanese me- 
thods are, in fact, very dangerous to the workmen. 

If the ashes of the mats which have served in this 
operation are thrown into the river, the fishes are said to 
die speedily. 

Until the year 1661 the sale of arsenious acid (yo-seki) 
was perfectly free in Japan, and the Chinese exported it 
also into this country. But the Emperor Gosai Ten no 
prohibited the importation on account of the numerous cases 
of poisoning at that time. 

The arsenic mines in the provinces of Kotsuke and 
Setsu were closed and palisaded, but in latter times this 
prohibition was again withdrawn. At the present time 
the sale of arsenious acid and other poisonous substances 
is subject to registration, according to the new law of the 
department ^ ^ ^ Ye-sei-kiyoku (Board of Health) 
of the Ministry of the Interior, p^ ^ i^ Nai-mU'Sho, 

At present cases of poisoning are creditably rare in 
Japan and less than in most foreign countries, but there 
was a time when it was not so. It is said that formerly 
political and social adversaries used the ceremonial tea- 
parties, named cha-no-yu to poison their enemies secret- 

ly- 

Under the guise of friendship the adversary was 
allured into the small tea-room or summer house which is 
invariably to be found in the garden of evrery official of a 
certain rank, and the tea was there served with all the 
customary ceremonial. The guests of highest rank drank 



i 



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PREPAR 



TEN-KO KAI-BUTSU. 
Vol. VI. Tab. 6. 




//' ^'\ 





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tnif And the host dispensed the tea without the aid of 
servants, who were never permitted to be present at an 
official elta-no^yu. 

Thus the tea-p»rties became the most famous occasions 
for all sorts of secret negocialions, political intrigues ami 
eveu of poisoning. It was at one of these that the cele- 
hrated general Knto Kiyo-maim, Prince of Higo, and con- 
temporary with Taiko Hideyoslii, was poisoned secretly 
in 1611 by the Shognn lyeyasu ut an official cha-nnyu. 
The chief use of arsenious acid in Japan is as rat-poison ; 
further it is used in medicine and for the melting of an 
alloy of copper, antimony and arsenic, called j^ ^ Haku' 
do or " White Copper." 

The antidotes recommended by native works for poison- 
ing by arsenic are numerous, the thi*ee following however 
are considered the best. 

1. A cold infusion of a kind of small beau |j^ Tg 
Roku'dzu or Bando^ninmi or Yayenariy the Phaseohts 
radiatus L., var. Stthtriloba Miq, of botan ists. The efficacy 
of this infusion would be augmented when it is mixed 
with powder of dried human excrement. 

2. — Very fine powder of lead or tin, as it is obtained 
when these metals are rubbed on a hard stone. 

3. — Powder of a kind of red ochre mixed with a little 
water. 

There can be no doubt that these antidotes are inferior 
to the hydrated peroxide of iron recently prepared, as it 
is adopted by most of the foreij^n Pharmaco|>oeias for this 
purpose. 



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—SB- 
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



A general meeting of the above society was beld in tbe Imperial 
University (Kai Set Onkko)^ on Wednesday the 22nd November, 
Sir Harry S. Parkes, President, in the chair. 

The recording secretary read the minutes of last meeting, and 
reported that at last council meeting H. Machida, Esq., Hahuran 
Kuwai, and Dr. Naumami, Kai Set OaH-o, were duly elected 
members of the society ; also Dr. Syle had received communications 
from Kobe and Nagasaki stating that the time had not yet arrived 
when branches of the society could be profitably established at 
those places. 

The library Committee intimated the receipt of several journals, 
also the presentation from the President of a valuable work on Old 
Japanese Pottery, and a pamphlet from Mr. Boyle (with map) 
describing the Main Trunk Lines of Railway between Yedo, Kidto 
and Nii><ata. The corresponding secretary mentioned having re- 
ceived from Mr. Bruiiton a report issued by the English Govern- 
ment Meteorological Department. This report w^s compiled by 
Commander Tizzard of H.M.S. Challenger from observations made 
during the last few years at the Lighthouse of Japan. Althongh 
these observations had been somewhat severely criticized in some 
of the English scientific papers on account of the results shewing 
probable errors in some of the instruments used, still it was 
pleasing to find that Japan could furnish sufficient data for tbe 
production of a report at all. Anoth~er contribution Prof. 
Ayrton had to bring before the notice of the members was 
the Introduction to the book which was being written in French 
by their indefatigable member Dr. Geerts. This book was 
intended to be an encyclopaedia of Japanese and Chinese Natu- 
ral History. Too much importance could not be attached to 
this work of Dr. Geerts', since nothing could be of greater 
value to a man arriving in this country, desirous of studying its 
Natural History, than to be able at once to learn what is already 
known on the subject. From a hasty glance at the Introduction 
Prof. Ayrton had learned that petroleum was discovered in 
Kchigo in 668 A.D., and that there was a Chinese Work on 
** Plants that can be used as food during a famine." Now if 
it be remembered what strenuous exertions the* Indian Government 
had to make to ward off last year the disastrous results that 
might have followed from the Bengal famine ; and if it be con- 
sidered that at this very moment the Madras Government is 
sorely tried in preventing the failure of the monsoon producing 
starvation on a large scide ; that but the other day the police 



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—so- 
had to he employed to qnell a famine riot in Madras ; will be 
seen tbat any information regarding that substitution of some 
otber food for rice in time of famine ia of the greatest importance 
to a rice-eating people like the Japanese. Another class of 
books referred to by Dr. Geerts was works on ornamental plants. 
One of iheaQf Somohi-k'tn-yoshut containing accounts of variegated 
leaf culture, might prove popular amongst foreign horticulturists. 
Mention is of course made in this Historial Introduction to Dr. 
Geerts* large work of Von Siebold's arrival in 1823, and of his 
collecting during six years, with gootl Japanese assistance, 2,000 
8|>ecimens of plants and many animals, and of his success in 
acclimatizing in his garden in Leyden on his return many new 
hydrangias and other plants. 

Dr. Syle proposed that the opportunity should be taken of re- 
cording the sense of the great loss the Asiatic Society of Japan 
has sustained in the death of Mr. Hatakeyama, late Director of 
the Imperial University, who was one of its earlier members, and 
to whom the Society are under many obligations for the facil- 
ities of meeting which they now enjoy. This motion was second- 
etl by Mr. Hamao and warmly approved of by the meeting. 
The President sympathized with the Society in its loss of Mr. 
Hatakeyama, whom he had known both abroad and in his own 
country, where he hail on several occasions to fill difficult po- 
sitions. His loss he could not but regard as that of a personal 
friend. 

The chairman then called on Mr. Aston to read his paper 
**On modem ShintO burial ceremonies." 

Some interesting discussion followed. Professor Ayrton asked 
for information regarding the custom the Japanese had 
of wrapping white paper round the hilts of their swords at 
funerals. In answer to this Sir Harry Parkes thought it a very 
natural custom, as it was merely putting a symbol of mourning 
on an important part of dress, and was paralled to the English 
custom of soldiers wearing black cloth on the arm. Mr. Aston 
observed that on funeral occasions the chonin even were allowed 
to wear swords, thus shewing what an important part* of dress 
the sword was considered tD be. 

Professor Smith enquired whether Buddhist and Shint^» cere- 
monies were not often mixed, and whether cineration was 
peculiar to one or the other of these religious systems. Dr. 
Syle remarked that however it might be in Japan as to the 
blending of ShintO with Buddhist rites, in China there was a 
great mixture at funerals of Buddhist with Tauist ceremonies. 
It bad been said that as long as a Chinaman was in prosperity 
he was a Confucianist, when lie fell sick and was in dread of 
death he was a Buddhist; and when bis bouse was burnt up 



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—40— 

or tome other outward oaUmity bAppened, bo wis a Tanitt. 
Among the common people in uid aronnd Shanghai it was the 
custom for a Taondse to officiate at the honse of the deceased, 
and as the body was carried out over the threshold he dashed 
in pieces with a heavy knife a bowl of earthenware — his object 
being to scare away the vampyre which is supposed to be wait* 
ing at the door to molest the departed. As to white being the 
mourning colour, the contrast between Asia and Europe was 
marked, for, beginning at Greece and going westward, we find 
black selected as the colour most expressive of the sorrow of 
sorrows. It was the boast of Pericles that he had never caused 
one family in Athens to wear black. If we knew the mourning 
colour among the Persians we might perhaps find a turning- 
point from which this noteworthy divergence conunenced. At 
some Shinto funerals offering were made of rice, fish, fruits, 
wine, and flowers, and the ceremonies were remarkably impressive 
from their simplicity and the beautiful symbolism they embo- 
died. 

Prof. Marshall remarked that white being the mourning colour 
has not confined to the Far East, for even in England white was 
considered a mourning colour, the hearses carrying the bodies of 
children being covered with cloth of that colour, &c., Sir Harry 
Parkes also remarked that at Japanese funerab men generally 
wore stuff of a grayish slate colour and not pure white. 

The President then accorded a vote of thanks to Mr. Aston in 
which the meeting heartily concurred. 

Sir Harry Parkes then read the 2nd paper *'0n the mission 
to Rome in 1615 of an Envoy from the Prince of Sendai'' This 
contained an account of a valuable old oil painting and illumin- 
ated parchment document, which was presented to His Majesty 
the Emperor at Sendai on the occasion of his journey to the 
North. The painting, executed in Italy, fs the portrait of the 
Envoy, while the other is an interesting document which 
granted to him the freedom of the city of Rome. Through the 
kindness of His Excellency Iwakura, and as a mark of his 
great apt)reciation of the work of the Society, the President 
was enabled to shew these this evening to the members. The 
light they threw on the history of the empire at the time of the 
mission was listened to with great interest. Unfortunately on 
account of the lateness of the hour the reading of some letters, 
&c., connected with the Mission, had to be postponed. A vote 
of thanks having been accorded to the President, His ExceUency 
Iwakura, Mr. Aston, and Mr. MacGlatchie, to all of whom the 
members were indebted for the interesting paper, the meeting 
adjourned. 



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"THE CAROLINE ISLANDS." 

Bead be/ore the Asiatic Society of Japan, on the 
13M December, 1876, 

BY 

RrSSELL ROBERTSON, Esq. 



The follow inor notes of the voyage of the British 
schooner Rnpak amo»orst the Ciiroliiie Islaiuls have heeii 
kiiully placed at my disposal hy Mr. Skiuuer, of Singa- 
pore (part owner of (he vessel), who was on board her 
thronghout the cruize. They furnish a narrative which 
will, I think, he lead wilh inlerest hy many here, treating 
as they do of lands and jx'ople which are not so very 
remote from these shores. The Caroline Islands consist 
of several groups spread out in a direclion from West to 
East, and measuring hclween those exlremes, somewhere 
about 2,000 miles, while from North to Soulh they extend 
also for a di^tance of about 200 miles. 

They may be said to bo contained between the 7th and 
10th parallel of North Latitude and extend from 184 de- 
grees to 1()0 degrees East Longitude, and, to put it 
roughly, about 1,600 miles distant from this. In the 
course of this paper 1 shall have occasion to refer to some 
of the Philippine Islands and to the Mariana group, the 
latter lying between this and the Carolines. Mention will 
also be made of some of (he Islands close to the Solomau 
go up, to the southward of the Carolines. 

The British schooner Kupa!,-, Mr. B. E. Gall, Master, left 
Singapore on the 10th January, 1875, bound on a trading 



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—42— 

and flailing voyagG to the Caroline Iskndp, and to the Is- 
lands lying to the north of the oqnator as far as 154° E, 

On the 30tii January the schooner was off the Inland of 
Geho, from which canoes were seen to put off. When along- 
side the crews were invited on hoard. The head men were 
found to he Bngis, natives of the Celehes, and their language 
wns Malay, while the rowers or paddlers were Papuans. 
One of the head men introduced himself as the Captain 
of Geho and was anxious that the foreigners should 
pro on shore. The invitation was, however, declined. 
These people had several sorts of fruits and vegetables 
and a few fowls in their canoes ; they had also some wild 
nutmegs of which they said plenty were to be had on 
shoie. Rice was apparently very scarce with them, and an 
offer was made to excliange three piculs of pearl shell for 
one of rice, and thonj^h the offer was a tempting one, it was 
withstood as it wonld have been impossible to procure rice 
at any of the other Islands it was intended to visit. A little 
tobacco and coffee, gunpowiler and percussion caps were 
given to the head-men ; some vegetables were purchased, 
and in addition some seed pearls of good water but of small 
size. 

On the loth February the Rtipak arrived off the Pellew 
Islands and anchored in the harbour of Malakan. 
This island is said to have been purchased from the 
miiives by the late Captain Clieyne, and the papers re- 
latinj]^ to the purchase are, or were lately, at the British 
Consulate at Manila. Tlie natives also consider the 
Island of Krrakon*;, near which the British ship Antelope 
was wrecked some ninety years ago, as belonging to the 
British Government. 

Since a prior visit made by the Ihtpak to these islands 
it was found that the natives had been turbulent and 
quarrelsome, and had robbed three of the European trad- 
eis residing on the group. It would appear that a repre- 
sentation was made to the Briiish Admiral, who availed 
himself of the good offices of Captain Knorr of the German 
corvette //<?rMa, which vessel recently visited the Carolines 
to enquire into the above circumstauce. I understand 



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thftt while At the Pellews Captain Knorr called the chiefs 
together on board the Hertha and gave them a severe 
admonition in the presence of the Europeans, telling them 
that any future oulniges upon, or robberies of, the white 
men wonld be most surely and rigorously punished. 

The northern part of the Pellew Islands, from Corror 
upwards, is moderately higb, and could with a more 
industrious class of inhabitants be made very pro- 
ductive, as the soil is extremely fertile. The southern 
portion of the group, with the exception of the 
Pillelew and Ngonr, is uninhabited. The islands are, 
as a rule, small and of basaltic formation, densely cover- 
ed with hard-wood trees, the cabbage palm, etc. Pillelew 
has a little tarro land but the root is small, and the natives 
of this island are dependent in a great measure on the 
northern islands for their food during certain seasons of 
the year. Tbe breadfruit, however, is more plentiful 
here than in the other parts of the group. The cocoa- 
nut is also abundant, and from its fruit the Pillelew 
people made oil and molasses which they exchange with 
the northern people. 

The Pellew Islands produce beche-de-mer, tortoise-shell 
and pearl-sbell, the latter however of inferior quality and 
known in couiniCMce as the " black lipped." The soil 
from Corror northwards is ri(!h and produces a great many 
tropical fruits (most of which were introduced by Cap. 
Cheyne) in abundance and without any cultivation. 
Tobacco of a superior quality is grown by the natives, 
and coffee could be i-aisod with very little trouble. 

The staple food of the natives is tarro, which is grown 
in the swampy or marshy land, and the tending of which 
falls upon the women. Pigs and goats, introduced by 
H. M. ships many years ago are plentiful in most parts 
of the group, and except under extraordinary circum- 
stances can be procured cheaply. The only indigenous 
animal is the rat. Dogs and cats are found, but as the 
native names for them are corrupted Spanish words, they 
were most probably introduced by vessels from Manila 
which came to trade here formerly. Two kinds of 



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snakes, neither of which is venomous, are found here. 
There are also a few alligators, but only in one portion 
of the large island called Babelthoup. Green pigeons 
are very plentiful in the season ; a few teal are got 
occasionally, and a small species of the flying fox is 
also found, which is considered a great delicacy hy the 
natives. 

The Pellew Islands are dividid who several petty 
districts, each of which has its own ruler and slat! 
of chiefs, but whatever may have been the case 
in former times they have now very little authority. 
The succession of chiefs does not appear to be regulated 
by any ^xed rule, and we generally find that those 
men who we considered the most wealthy (from a 
native point of view) attain the highest positions. 
There are certain families which claim to be noble. 
Their nobility, however, procures them no privileges beyond 
the bare title, and they have to do their share of work 
and pay their proportion of the expenses that full 
upou the community of which they are members. 
Polygamy is practised but to a small extent. Should & 
man have more than one wife, separate establishments 
are kept for each. 

The Pellew Islanders have but a vague idea of a future 
state, for they believe that only those men who have been 
chiefs will bo adinitled to it. Every tribe has its own God, 
to whom all questions of moment are referred, the medium 
of communication in nearly every case being a woman 
known as the " Kaleetb,'* or (rod's wife. These women, 
by a rude sort of ventriloquism, manage to deceive the 
people and have a great deal of influence in their councils. 

The natives have a currency amongst themselves of 
which they are very jealous and foreigners can rarely 
procure si)ecimens of it. It consists of beads of various 
descriptions, and of which no account as to their manu- 
facture nor of the material of which they are composed can 
be found, and the only way in which the natives account 
for them is that they came from the heavens. The most 
probable conjecture is that they were brought by tiie 



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—46— 

the Arabs who are supposed to have traded here in days 
gone by. 

The wliolc of (he Pacific Islands are beln«r g^radiinlly 
depopulated ; in the Pellews the principal cause at work 
is an epidemic wliich takes the form of a species of 
influenza. This, or a moditicalion of it, appears from time to 
time throughout the Caroline group and sometimes attacks 
the Europeans living on the islands. 

In the Pellews and Uap — an island close to (he Pcllcw 
and known asPillnla kap, — iheio rtrc institutions known to 
Europeans as " hig houses '' which are also potent adjuncts 
to depopulation. The primaiy object of (hose hoiisos is 
to keep the flghiing men together in the event of an attack 
being made on the village during the night, the time 
usually chosen by these people for making raids on each 
other. They are, howevei*, merely brothels, the inmates 
being, as a rule, those taken prisoners in the wars, those 
hired from other towns, and women who have left their 
husbands. There are many customs regulating these 
iiouses and their iniuates which are nnintelligihle to 
Europeans, and on occasions all women, even of the high- 
est class, have to spend some time in them. As a natural 
consoqnonco there arc but few ])eople married. Of the 
marrleil women it. may be safely said that not two women 
in tive bear children. Two or three children are considered 
a large family. 

In common with most of the Pacitic Islanders these 
people have solemn dancep, generally at the conclusion of 
a war or feasts} and there are also dances in which women 
alone perform, but they are rare and usuall}' scenes of de- 
bauchery, great licence being allowed on such occasions. 

The men all wear the tappa, or loin cloth, common to 
the whole of the Pacific Islands, red and blue cloth being 
most esteemed. The women wear a kind of apron made 
of various leaves and grasses, principally from thePandanus 
or screw pine, dried and shredded out. Some of the prin- 
cipal families have the privilege of dyeing the dresses of 
the women of various colours ; this privilege is much 
esteemed and encroaohmeuts on it are punished with a fiue. 



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All tho people are tattoed on the liauds, ai*tus and logs, 
aiul a rude system of heraldry may be traced in this and 
in the decoration of the canoes of the chiefs nnd principal 
people. 

Wars, so called, are frequcnl, nnd a settled enmily exists 
hetween the natives of the northern and southern i>nr- 
tionsofthe group. Sonic two or tlnce yeais ago, the 
King (so called) of Artingnal (the most important place 
in the north) married the head woman of Conor. It wjuj 
thought that this would have hrought nhout a lastiiM^ 
peace, but this has not proved to he the ca^<e l»ithert<>. 

In former times the spear was the only oU'eiisive 
weapon, but of late years the natives have been sup- 
plied with fire arms and generally show considerable 
bkill in their use. 

The Pellews are sparsely inhabited by a race of less 
stature than the other Caroline Islands, with the exception 
of the Island of Uap or Yap, a small Island lying to the 
north-east of the Pellews. They are also darker in col- 
our, although occasionally some of light colour are found 
amongst them, principally among the chief families. The 
men are lazy and do little else than fish, leaving the cul- 
tivation of the tarro to the women ; and it is noteworthy 
that the womeu attached to the big houses are nut allwedo 
to work in the tarro grounds. 

Great care is taken of the children, of whom, however, 
there are very few. At the age of 30 or 3.5 years the 
people eommeuce to look old, and it is rare to find man or 
woman above the age of fifty. There are several 
half-breeds on the islands, descendants of European sailors 
and others who have taken up their abode in these 
islands. There are also descendants of white women 
and natives on the group, though no accounts of how the 
women got here is extant, but as the natives are known to 
have attacked several ships about iifij or sixty years 
ago, the women were probably taken from some captured 
Vessel. 

The villages are almost without exception built at a 
iihort distance from the sea, the houses being neatly con* 



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-41— 

structed some two or three feet from the ground, the roofs of 
which are thatched with grass and the leaves of the paud- 
auus. In front of each house are seen the graves of deceased 
memhers of the family. The houses go with the titles, each 
chief in succession occupying the residence of his predeces- 
sor. In the centre of the villages there are paved squares in 
which consultations take place and dances are performed. 
There are paved roads through every village of the group, 
and when repairs are needed these are done hy the com- 
munity, any person ahsonling himself being fined. In 
front of every village of imporiance are large sea walls or 
piers built out on to the reefs, and some ofthese are apparent- 
ly very ancient. That at Corror, the most important of 
the towns, is very substantially built of stone and coral 
and is about a quarter of a mile long. The " big houses" 
before mentioned are also substantially built of hard wood 
and well thatched, and are fiom sixty to seventy feet 
long, anil from twelve to fifteen broad. In these build- 
ings the cross beams and suppoi ts are rudely carved iu 
relief, which carvings record the history of the people, 
and purport to chi'onicle any remarkable occun*ence, but 
there are, however, but few of the natives who can explain 
llieu). 

'1 he language of (he PelleWe) is idiomatic and apparent* 
ly difficult of acquirement by Eulopcinm. A sufficient 
knowledge fur trading purposes is, however, soon obtained. 

From the Tellews the schooner Httpak shnpcd her 
course to the Matelotas. These will be observed on the 
map to be a group to the eastward and northward of the 
Pellews, but still to the southward of the island of Uup 
previously mentioned. The Maleloias are also known 
under the name of the Gulus, and are inhabited by a few 
liglit-complexioned people resembling the other Caroline 
Islanders. Some six or seven years ago this group, and the 
neighbouring one of the Mackenzies, almost due north of 
the Mattolotas, were all but entirely swept away by a 
severe cyclone which destroyed nearly the whole of thy 
cocoanut palms, — the fruit of which, with fish, is the only 
food of the nativeBi 



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—48— 

The Mackeuzie group is also sparsely peopled by a 
lifjjlit coloured race. On one of Ihcsc islands the Jesuit 
father Cantova was killed, and the few natives remaining 
still look for his return, thinking that he will rest(»re 
the isl.inds to their original sinte. 

The Uap group, lying holwcon the Malelolas and the 
Mackenzies, consist of ihrce principal islands, which are 
coniparntively high, and are Hiickly inhnhitod hy a people 
similar in appearance to those of (he Pellews ; their 
manners nnd customs niso in a gre:»t mcnsure resend>le 
those of the Tellew natives, hut they me, however, 
a superior clnss of men nnd i\\r more industrious. 
They cultivate large quantities of yams and sweet 
potatoes, tohncco nnd some of the tropicil fruits. The 
whole of the coast is thickly planted with coconnut pnlms 
aud a large quantity of coppra is produced annually; 
coppra being, I may mention, the dried fruit of the cocoa- 
nut. The reefs surrounding the gionp formerly furnished 
beche-de-mer, but at present only a very little can be 
procured. Pigs are plentiful, aud there is also a kind of 
half domesticated fowl which can be procured cheaply. 
Deer and goats are seen, but the natives do not protect 
them as (hey <le<(rny their plan(ati<»n<. The rji( appears 
to be the only indigenous aminal, and the larg«^ edible 
iguana is found in the jungle, but is protected by the na- 
tives, who regard it as sacred. The money of iliese people 
consists of large worked pieces (in the shape of a mill 
Btone) of a semi-transparent spar, which is procured from 
the Pellew Islands and esteemed very highly ; its princi- 
pal uses are to pay war indemnities an<l the funeral ex- 
penses of the chiefs. Pearl shell of large size is greatly 
valued and much sought afler, and vessels trading in this 
group can supply themselves with a consitlerable quantity 
of provisions for a few pieces of pearl shell. 

-Until of late years these people have borne a very bad 
character, in consequence of (heir having boarded and 
captured several vessels from Manila and murdered their 
crews. Now, however, they are generally well disposed 
towards Europeans, of whom there are nearly always three 



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or four living on the group. The government la similar 
to that of the Pellews, but the natives acknowledge one 
supreme chief. This office appears to bo hcretlitaiy, ami 
the present hohler of it is a young man very well disposed 
towards Europeans, to whom it is customary for all trading 
vessels to make some trifling present. In Tap, as a rule, 
the chiefs appear to have considerable authority, and the 
absolute control of life and death. 

The ])Cople have a few fire-arms in their posses.sion, 
but Jhoy arc n«>t skilful in the use of them, prefering the 
rpcar, in the handling of which they are very expert. 
Their wai-s are conducted with energy, and a single battle 
(so called) is generally decisive. 

The dress of the Unp natives is somewhat like that of 
the Fellew Islanders ; the women wear petticoats made 
of leaves aiul grasses reaching to the ankle, the men wear 
the tappa with the addition of bunches of bark of the 
bread-fruit and other trees. Tattoeiug is practised by them 
— the pattei-ns and figures being more elaborate than 
those of the Pellew people. 

Uap is about 180 miles from the Pellews. Until recently 
the inhabitants travelled across to the Pellews in their 
canoes, many of which were lost annually. Recently, 
however, the number of European vessels trading 
to these islands has been greater than formerly, and 
passages are readily granted to the islanders to and 
from Uap to the Pellews, where they dig out and fashion 
what serves to them as a currency, the vessels return- 
ing and picking them up a few months later. 

The Germtfn corvette Hertha called at this group. It 
happened that a few days before her arrival an Englishman 
trading on these islands for the Hamburg firm of Godc- 
froi and Sons was robbed and roughly handled by the 
natives of the northern portion of the group. Captain 
Knorr, of the Hertha, seut for the chiefs, but all the natives 
young and old hid themselves in the jungle, and it was 
three days before he could get any of them lo come before 
him, and then only by dint of threats. He made them 
restore the stoleu property and fined them a quantity of 



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coppra, telling tbem thnt any further outrages on Euro- 
peans would be severely punished. 

On tlie 28th March the schooner called at Ulleai, wliiuli 
is a group of low coral islnnds almost surrounded by 
reefs. There is an Euglishumn living on this group who 
informed those on board the schooner (hat a Spanish man- 
of-war had been there shortly before, the crew of which 
had cut down half the breadfruit (rcosaiid a huge number 
of cocoanut trees, and tlnit the pcoi)le were consequently 
starving and dying at the rate of Jive and six a day. The 
commander of the vessel also ordered Williams, the Kug- 
lishman above referred lo, to haul down a tlag that ho 
kept hoisted there, and on hi^ refusing to do so a 
boat's crew was sent on shore to pulT the flag down. 
The commander (hen gave the natives a Spanish flag 
and told them to allow no other to be hoisted, but on the 
departure of the vessel the natives killed the man who 
had piloted her in and burnt the 8|mnisli flug. 

At the time of the Rnpak's vIhIi to OulUai, the epidemic 
above alluded to was raging. This, together with the scar- 
city of food, was making great havoc among the people, and 
Williams, the Englishman, stated that he did not 
expect more than half the natives would survive. 
They are a fine, well made race, good featured, light 
in colour, and are most harmless and inoflensive. 
This group has at one time been thickly inhabited and 
there are remains of piers and breakwaters similar lo 
those found in the Pellews. The dress of the natlvos 
consists of a species of fine mat which they weave from 
the fibre of the pandauus. This group produces nothing but 
cocoanuts, which with fish is the sole food of the natives. 

On the 31 St March the schooner hove to oflf Evalonk 
and several canoes came alongside. There is nothing to 
remark about these islands ; they ure low and of coral 
formation, producing nothing but the cocoanut. The 
natives traded olF flying fish against tobacco They aire a 
tall, handsome race, of light colour, their bodies being 
closely tattoed all over, their dress beiug the same as that 
of the Oalieai pQople« 



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On the 14th April the schooner anchored in the HogO'* 
leu group under the Island of Tol. The inhabitants of 
ihis group have always had a bad reputation, and in 1872 
Caiptain Simpson, of II.M.S. /^Jr^nrAe, had occasion to ad- 
minister a pretty severe chastisememt to tliem. A few 
canoes came oti' but brought only a small quantity of 
bananas and cocoannls for which they wanted tobacco. 
The natives are slightly built, but tall and of fair com- 
plexion. Tliclr canoes are very rudely made, when com- 
pared Willi ihoso of their neighbours to the westward, 
and everything about them seemed to point to a lower 
type of civilization. 

This group is inhabiled by two distinct races of people, 
that to the westward ns described above, while to the 
eastward they are more like Papuans or Negroes, having 
woolly hair and dark complexions. These two tribes are 
coutiuually at war with each other, and tiieir notorious 
inhospiialily to strangers is the reason that so little is 
known of the group ; one of the most important in size in 
the Caroline range. The larger island exhibited much 
high land but very little signs of cuHivation were 
seen. The houses are built on the summit of the 
hills, which fact is of itself sufficient evidence of the 
predatory nature of the people. Tortoise-shell can bo 
procured in this group, but only iu small quantities. 
Beche-de-mer is found on the northern group, but fishing 
would not be remunerative while the natives continue so 
hostile. 

The schooner remained at this group three days, during 
which time large canoes full of men were seen passing to and 
fro, and as from (he trenchei*ous nature of the people ap« 
prehensions of an attack were entertained, it was determined 
to leave, although all the people who came on board had 
their faces smeared over with red turmeric, the use of 
which root is an emblem of peace, or of peaceful intent ions 
in the Pacific. The much valued orange cowrie is found 
here, but none were procured. 

On the 19th April the Namalouk Islands were sighted, 
bat as they were surrounded by a barrier reef it was 



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found to be impossible to enter the lagoon. These islands 
are covered with cocoannt trees and are of the usual low 
coral formation. The natives do not hear a very good 
character, no canoes coining off, wliicli is in ilself abadsign. 

Leaving Namalonk llie schooner was steered for the 
Mortlock Islnnds, which were reached on the 30th April. 
Although in former years the inliahitants of these islands 
bore a bad character they are at pivsent a most harmless 
and inoffensive race. The ]\Iorih)cks consist of three 
groups, all of low coral formation and thinly inhabited. 
At the time of the 7??/y/r/A:'5 vi>it the cocoannt crop had 
failed and the people were very h:Mlly off for food. Fish 
is scarce here which is seldom the ease in the Pacilic. A 
native of Pornapite, or Ascension, is living in the Soatone 
portion of this group in the capacity of Missionary tea- 
cher, and there is also an European living on one of the 
islands. 

Shortly after the schooner anchored a chief came on 
board and made a statement to the effect that a vessel 
had been there some three years previously and had 
taken away about forty men and women. Probably re- 
ference wns made to a German vessel which is reported 
to have taken away some of the inhabitants of these 
islands to Samoa, to work on the cotton plantations ihere. 
The people of the group are well built and fair in 
colour, but of smaller stature than those to the westward. 
They have a few tan o patches, but these were apparently 
neglected and seemed to produce but little, and their habi* 
tations are nothing more than miserable huts with a hole 
at one end for ingress and egress. The jujople w^ere shy ; 
the dress is similar to that worn on the Oulleai uroup. 
IJcche-de-mer was found in the lagoon but not in 
large quantities. 

On the 27th April the Rnpak anchored in the lagoon 
at Nougoura, being the lirst foreign vessel that had ever 
visited there. Nongoum is a small group of low cornl 
islands about five miles in hreadth. The people of this 
group are without exception the finest looking, and most 
friendly and hospitable of all met with in the course of 



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the 8obooner*s cruise, and as the vessel remained there 
about a month, there was ample opportunity of testing 
their good qnnlities. 

The islands, however, are very poor, producing nothing 
but cacoanut and a little brack (a kind of root). Pearl 
shell of a quality superior to that usually found in the 
Carolines was formerly to he got here, but the supply is 
exhausted. Beche-de-mer is obtainable in small quan- 
tities only, but of a very superior description. 

A Dane was living on this group at the time of the 
Rupak^s visit, and confii'med the good opinion formed of 
the natives. There were only alrout one hundred and 
forty or fifty inhabitants on the group, and it seems proba- 
ble that in the course of sixty or seventy years they will 
be almost extinct. Those people have some knowledge 
of the division of time and of days and years; they 
have also a form of religion, and a temple in which 
are some rude carved images. The chief priest is never 
allowed to leave his house except on extraordinaiy 
occasions, but the arrival of the Rupak in the lagoon was 
looked upon as one, and he was allowed to go on board. 
The number of rats on these islands is almost beyond 
belief, and they are so tame that when the people 
are eating they come and sit round them waiting for 
any morsels that full. The houses are built without 
sides, being merely roofed, and the supports are careful- 
ly smoothed down to prevent the rats climbing up and 
eating the provisions which are stored away on shelves 
above. 

The chief personage on this group is always a woman 
and the honour is hereditary. The islands were left with 
regret, the kindness of the natives having endeared them 
to all on board, and standing out in marked contrast to the 
behaviour of the other Caroline Islanders. 

From Nongoura the schooner made for the Greenwich 
Islands. On the 24lh Alay the schooner anchored 
in a lagoon of considerable size and under the lee 
of a small island. The group was found to consist 
of about thirty low coral islands, on most of which 



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were plenty of oocoanut palms and breaJftmit trees. 
Shortly after anchoriug a canoe witb twelve men approached 
the vessel ; they appeared very much frightened, and 
it was with great difficulty (hat they were ultimately in- 
duced to come alongside. A few heads and some tohaceo 
were given tliem, but they did not seem to know much 
about either. 

These people appeared to be of an entirely different 
race to any that had hitherto been met with, the men 
being well built but shorter than most of the other Caroline 
Islanders. They wear their hair very short, use no de- 
scription of ornament whatever and are not tattoed. 
The women have their heads shaved close and are dress- 
ed in mats which ihey wear tied round the waist. The 
islands produce a little tarro and brack, but the principal 
food of the people is the cocoanut, of which they have several 
varieties. No iron implements were seen in use amongst 
them, and no weapons with the exception of a small javelin 
used for striking fish, the chisels with which they fashion 
their canoes and paddles, and shape wood for build- 
ing purposes, being made from the shell of the kima. 
There are not more than two hundred inhabitants on the 
group. More consideration api)ears to be shown to the 
women here than to those in most of the Pacific Islands, 
and the people arc hospitable. The Bupak remained at the 
Greenwich Islands about a month, and then endeavoured 
to go to the Paed Islands but was prevented by adverse 
winds and strong currents. 

On the 12th July the schooner was off Knans Island. 
Canoes came of with tortoise-shell, yarn, cocoanuts 
and turtle eggs, for which heads and tobacco were ex- 
clianged. The natives arc sliort in stature, of negro typo 
hut without the thick lip.<. A few of them are tattoed, 
the noses of all are pierced and have the claws of a small 
species of criib inserted in the nostrils. The hair is 
woolly and shaved in the most grotesque manner, chunam 
and different coloured ochres being rubbed in. Every 
canoe is provided with a large bundle of spears, the shafts 
of which are of bamboo, ornamented with carvings, the 



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heads being made of the betel and coeoanut palm. The 
c»noe8 are very neatly built and some bad handsome 
ornaments carved in ebony, and other hard wood, at the 
bend and ^tern. 

Passing ronnd the sonflieru end of this group the 
Riipak stood along the const of New Ireland. As the 
natives bear a bad clmracter and are known to be 
cannibals, no attempt was made to land. In fact, finding 
tbat canoes were meeting in force it was thought prudent 
to leave as soon as possible. As the schooner coasted 
along New Ireland a few canoes came off bringing fruit 
vegetable, etc., which were purchased for trifling lots 
of beads. 

Gerrit Denys and Fishers Islands were passed but no 
canoes came off. All along this coast the people are 
continually at war with one another. From what was 
seen of New Ireland the land was observed to be high and 
irregular ; several clearings were visible, but very few 
coeoanut palms, although plentiful on the other coasts. 

Passing along to (he westward the natives were found 
to be of the same type but their heads were differently 
decorated. Some were shaved on one side only, the 
unshaven side being covered with white chunam and with 
little ornaments of a pink colour stuck into it, while others 
again were decorated with the heads, tails and wings of 
bright plumaged birds. The men's bodies were thickly 
covered with hair, giving more particularly to those ad- 
vanced in years an almost apish appearance. The canoes 
were found to be different to those that had been seen to the 
eastward, as they are simply " dug outs,** but of most 
elegant shape and workmanship, lightly outrigged with 
bamboo, with carvings at head and stern, and of a better 
style than those seen previously. A few spears were seen 
in them, but the principal weapon was the blow pipe, 
of which there were several in each canoe. 

Leaving New Ireland I he Rupak passed along the 
shore of New Hanover. Some few canoes came off but 
stopped about 200 yards from the ship, and it was some 
time before their inmates could be persuaded to come along- 



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—66- 

Bide. A little tortoise-Bhell and some yams were got tvom 
them. The natives are similar to those of New Irelaud, 
the canoes alike, with the addition of eyes painted in the 
bows. Some bamboo pandcan pipes and a kind of jew':* 
harp were procured from Ihem, being the only tliing3 in 
the shape of musical InstrumenU met with up to now. 

The noilhern coast of New Hanover is not very high 
and is flanked by low sandy islands at about a mile from 
the main land. The interior of the island is modemtely 
elevated, but nothing was seen of the "beautiful planta- 
tions" described by Pampier and other navigators. 

Leavino; New Hanover the Rupak made the Portland 
Islands, which were foui^;tobe four in number siirronnded 
by extensive reefs. As, it seemed to be a likely place for 
beche-de-mer, a passage 'was sought in to the lagoon, but 
none conld be found, and it was with reluctance that the' 
schooner was kept on her course. A cnnoe, however, cnme 
off and a few green cocoanuts were oblaiiied from the natives, 
who are similar in appearance (o those of New Hanover. 
On the charts seven islands are marked as forming the 
group. There appeared to have been a violent storm a little 
before the Ruiftik visited here, as several largo uprooted 
trees weie seen, also banks of rocks which would seem to 
show that the remainder of the group had been washed 
away. 

On the 1 3th July the schooner was eU>se to the small 
Island of La Vandola, which is moderately high and cone 
shaped. No canoes came off and there were no si^ns of a 
landing plnee — the sea breaking heavily on the be^ch. 
Large fires were burning on different parts of the Island, 
probably as signals. 

On the 14th the Island of Josu Maria was sighted, being 
a comparatively large island to the eastward of the 
Admiralty group. In the afternoon several canoes came 
off and many natives visited the vessel. They are quite 
a distinct race from the New Island and New Hanover 
people and have more the appearance of the Uap ami 
Pel lew natives, both in features and in colour. They 
wore the tappa with bracelets, armlets and anklets of 



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small beads very neatly worked. The hair of the young 
and middle aged men is fastened np in a knot on the top 
of the head, done np into a queue behind and decorated 
with beads and a bhie seed or bean, but old men and boys 
have their heads close slinved. All were scented with 
patchouli, bunches of vybich were disposed about their per- 
sons. These penple bronji^ht oft* considerable quantities of 
tortoise-shell of a supeiior quality, but demanded such 
high prices that very little trade could be done with 
them. Hearing that br»che-de-mer was plentiful it was 
determined to heave to until the next day and examine 
the place. 

On the following morning a boat was sent to explore 
the reef and if possible find an anchoi'age for the ship, 
but the search was unsuccessful as there was no protection 
from the prevailing winds — the reef being of very small 
extent and affordin*^ no shelter, although on the charts it 
is marked as very extensive and as surroundinpf the island. 
Beche-de-mer of the best qunlity was found, but it was 
vain to attempt fishinor for it as no anchorage could be 
found for the vessel. When the boat went on shore the 
following raornin;r, there were several canoes on the reef, 
and the tmtives l»einf; in cojisitlerable numbers were in- 
clined to be insoloni, the more so when they found the 
boats crew was unarmed. The crew, however, got safely 
back on board and avoided a collision. 

Still steering westward some islands supposed to be the 
San Mi<?uel group were made the same afternoon, but their 
position did not, however, ngrce with that given on the 
chart. Several canoes came off, tho natives seeming very 
friendly and helping to work the vessel through the reef. 
At 6 p.m. the canoes were sent away and watches 
were set for the night, but before daylight the next morn- 
ing several canoes were seen coming from different parts 
of the group, and at 7 a.m. a large number were 
alongside, though as women and children were in several of 
them it was supposed they were inclined to be friendly. 
The anchorage not being considered safe, the mate went 
away in the long boat to look for a better one. While 



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he was sounding close in shore a large number of nattyes 
came on to the beach threatening him with spears^ and 
shortly after three large canoes came out and endeavoured 
to cut the boat off. A few rifle shots were fired over theu' 
heads which caused them to retreat, and the boat got safely 
back to the ship, where preparations were at once made 
to resist the attack which was imminent and which it was 
impossible to avoid as it was a dead calm and way could 
not be got on the vessel. The canoes now came down 
upon the schooner in force, but fire was opened upon them 
which compelled a retreat. Subsequently, and during the 
confusion, the natives from the Island of Uap who were 
on board the schooner got very excited, and taking to the 
boats with rifles and spears went in chase, but unfortunately 
fell into an ambush a short distance from the ship and were 
all of them (28) killed. Not having any boats left they 
were completely helpless on board the schooner, having 
only a few natives remaining, the crew (Chinese) being all 
sick; a volley was fired into the village, doing apparently 
but little damage, and shortly afterwards the canoes were 
again seen making to the ship in greater force than before. 
At this time a slight breeze sprang up, and by its aid the 
schooner managed to get clear outside the reef, when the 
wind again died away; and although the canoes still follow- 
ed, when they found the schooner was clear of the reef they 
desisted from pursuit. There is reason for fearing that 
but a short time previous to this some foreign vessel must 
have fallen into their hands, as European sawn planks, 
rope and carpenter*s tools were seen to be in possession of 
the natives, many of whom were also decorated with 
foreign made buttons. 

The canoes of this people are large and subst-antially 
bnilt, and capable of carrying from 40 to 50 men, being 
outrigged on one side, with a fighting stage on the 
other. As they all carried fire places and had appliances 
for rigging a sort of cabin or protection against the 
weather, it seems probable that the natives are 
accustomed to go long distances in them. All the 
canoes that were alongside the schooner before the 



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attack were well furnished with provisions, large fish, 
yams, ronst pork and varions fruits. They had also large 
hundles of short javelinj^ headed with a sort ofoh.sidiau or 
volcanic glass, or a species of flint, which they kept con- 
cealed in the hotloins of their canoes. 

These people use the hetel nnt and piri leaf. The lime 
is carried in a gourd, is used dry and is conveyed to the 
mouth hy means of an ehony stick. Th»» two or three 
villages that were seen appeared to he of small extent, 
huilt upon piles and snrionndod hy a stockade. While 
the attack lasted, and indeed for some lime afterwards, a 
loud noise of tomtoms was heard hut none were seen in 
the canoes. 

The Rttpak now rounded the eastern coast of the 
Island Jesu Maria before alluded to, and several low 
islands densely covered with cocoanut palm were passed, 

. The schooner then coasted along the northern shore of 

Admiralty Islands, which is high and appears to he thickly 
wooded. No canoes came oflT, which goes to show that 

I most of the natives in that neighbourhood had been impli- 

' cated in the recent attack on the vessel. 

i Leaving the Admiralty Islands the Anchorites were 

' made, and in due course the group known as the Ilermi's 

wab reached. Canoes came off, huL the bearing of the 

I natives attracted the suspicion of all on hoard the schooner. 

I But a few months previous H. AL S. Alacn'it/ had visited 

these Islands and administered a pretty severe lesson in 
consequence of the murder of a Capt. Bird; some of the 
villages were burnt down and two of the chiefs im[)licate(l 
in the murder were taken to Sydney. 

Being short of water it was intended to call at the 
Exchequers and fill up from a well which had been dug 
there in the previous year, and from which a good supply 
had been obtained. The natives on board, however, beg- 
ged that the schooner should not touch there, and a 
heavy shower of rain falling obviated the necessity. 
The Exchequers consists of a very extensive group of 
coi-al islands thinly inhabited by a most miserable and 
degraded race. They are bostiie to all struugers and 



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continual] J at war with tho Hermit people. In the after- 
noon of the 2oth July Dnroiir Island was made, which is 
an island ahout five miles long, low, uiih a great number 
of cocoanut palms ; no natives were seen. From 
this unlil the I8lh August fhe schooner was heat- 
ing up fur the Pellews, ihe wcadier being very unsettled, 
currents contrary, and as a rule the winds very light. 

On the 2oth November the Seragnni Islands lying to 
the southward of Mindanao were called at. The Span- 
iards claim these as part of ihe Philippines, jmhI they claim 
also all the islands lying on and above the fifth parallel of 
latitude as far as Pornapite, the easteinmost of the Caroliue 
group. Whalers formerly called at the Serangani Islands to 
procure provisions, which at certain seasons are cheap and 
plentiful. The island of Mindanao, the southernmost of 
the Philippines, is said to be very rich in minerals. Large 
quantities of bees-wax, coffee and tobacco are produced 
here, but were difficult to obtain in consequence of restric- 
tions placed in the way of traders. The importation of 
arms, ammunition, lead, iron and steel is forbidden, but 
tho natives occasionally get supplies from the Seragani 
Islands, the inhabitants of the latter obtaining them from 
whalers anil other passing vessels in exchange fur provi- 
sions, which at certain seasons are here plentiful and cheap. 
Ponies of good size exist here in great number, and 
game is also plentiful. 

Lying to the southward of Seragani are several small 
uninhabited islands. During the S. W. monsoon the na- 
tives of Sangir, an island between the Philippines and tho 
Celebes, come here to Citlch the hawks-bill and tho 
green turtle, which are then in abundance. These 
islands produce no food stuffs* except a little sago 
and arrowroot. From here the Ritpak passed along 
to the eastward and made the Tulour group, which 
consists of three principal islands, over which, and the 
neighbouring islands, the Dutch claim sovereignty, but 
have no officials stationed here. There are, however, two 
missiouaries on the group appoiuted aud paid by the 



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Netberlands Indiau Government, and at irregular inter- 
vals a gunboat calls to enquire into complaints. 

The natives of the island have for a considerable time 
bad intercourse with whalers, and at one village named 
Lerong noaily all the people were found to speak English 
with tolerable fluency. The northern portion of the group 
is less known ; the inhabitants are said to bo unruly and to 
occaijionally pirate small craft belonging to the southern 
islands. The missionaries referred to above have herds 
of cattle, the stock of which was imported from the Celebes. 
Whalers formerly supplied themselve here, but they have 
been getting scarcer and scarcer every year. At the time 
of the Hupak^s visit a bullock could be purchased for a 
little less than $10; goats and pigs can be obtained, but 
they are scarce and dear. The Tulour Islands are mode- 
rately high and well wooded ; ebony is abundant, a largo 
proportion of the houses being built of it. 

Leaving the Tulour Isles the little known Nanossa 
group weie visited. These consist of seven low lying 
islands, producing little worth mentioning except pota- 
toes and tarro of an inferior quality. The natives are 
dependent on the Tulour people for rice, which is the 
staple food. The people on this group appeared most 
industrious, the men building canoes and prahus which 
they barter for rice with the people of Tulour and Sangir. 
The women are employed in weaving cloth from a species 
of hemp and in making mats, both of which find a ready sale 
to the southward. The houses of these people are large and 
strongly built of ebony and other hard wood, and in the 
centre of each building there is a large common room with 
appartmonts for from sixty to seventy families arranged 
round it. Tortoise-shell and beche-de-mer can be got hero 
but only in small quantities. 

Sangir, which was next visited, lies to the S.W. of 
Tulour; it is high and has an extinct volcano on the 
west side, with isolated rocks surrounding it. The cocoa- 
nut abounds here and large quantities of oil are produced. 
There are about half-a-dozen Chinese located on the is- 
land who puLXshase ooooanut oil; giving in exohange goods 



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of European and Chinese mannfacture. This island is 
more immediately under the control of the N. I. Govern- 
ment, the chief paying a small nominal yenrly trihnte to the 
Kesident of Menado, a town in the north of the Celebes, 
who regulates the succession and invests them with the 
emClems of chieftainship. There are two missionaries 
resident here, and at Taruna there is a church and school- 
house, apparently very little u.seJ, however. 

The natives of Nanossn, Tulour and Sangir are of 
the same race and speak the Fame language. Their drcj^s 
is principally made of native cloth, hut the head drcf^s 
consists of an European coluuied Imn<l kerchief. 

From here the Rupak went to Guam, the principal 
island of the Ladrone or Mariana group. The chief 
town, San Luis d*Apra, is about 7 miles from the port, to 
which the only conveyances are bullock carts. The Marianas 
are used by the Spaniards as a penal settlement, and 
at the time of the Rupak^s visit there were about seven 
huudred convicts on the islands. Every six months a 
vessel comes from Manila, bringing provisions. Bread, 
fruits and cocoanuts abound, the former being the staple 
food of the poorer people, while deer, poultry, pigs, and 
goats are to be had in plenty. 

The town of San Luis d'Apra consists of about 400 
houses, ninety per cent, of which are built of wood and 
the remainder of stone and coral, covered with jdaster* 
The cathedral is rather more than 200 years old, the ex- 
terior being unimp(»sing and the enclosure around it is ne- 
glected and overgrown with weeds. The Vicar-Apostolic, 
a gentleman who has been many years resident in the 
Marianas and talks English fluently, was kind and oblig- 
ing; in fact all the officials were most courteous and 
appeared anxious to assist in every way. 

Guam was formerly a great resort for whalers. On 
Guam, Rota and Tinian there are a large number 
of Caroline Islanders who were brought here several 
years ago and are anxious to return, numbering iu 
all about 800. Rota is used as a convict settle- 
ment from Guam^ the most unruly of the Spanish 



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prisoners being sent there. Au Englishman has es- 
tablished himself on Tininn. Coasting up, the whole 
of the Marianas were sighted as were also the Bon ins, 
and Rosario, a small island to the westward of the Bonlns 
was called at. There was no vegetation here beyond 
a little grass and sage bush ; the wreck of a junk was seen 
on the beach. On the 13th September the Rupak 
arrived in Yokohama. 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 

A regular meefcingof the Society was held on Wednesday 
the 13th instant at the Grand Hotel, Yokohama. In the 
ahsence of the President and Vice-Presidents, Dr. Hepburn 
occupied the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting, held in T6ki6 on the 22nd 
November, were read and approved, and the election at the 
meeting of the council on the 8th instant of the Revd. A. L, 
Amerman as a member of the Society, was announced. 

Mr. Bussel Bobertson then read a paper on the Caroline 
Islands. 

Mr J. C. Hull made some interesting observations on the 
two races that are found in the islands of the Pacific, remark- 
injaj that oui' knowledge of the Brown, or Malay Race, is far in 
excess of that which we possess of the Black Race ; and added 
some information respecting the languages or dialects spoken. 

Mr. Cole, a visitor, stated that in consequenceof the falling 
off of the yield in the pearl fisheries off the north of Australia, 
expeditions to the Caroline Islands were more frequently 
fitted out from Singapore than had hitherto been the ca.se. H^ 
thought' that the hostile disposition shown at one of the islands 
might possibly be considered as an indication that kidnapping 
had been practised at that particular islaud. 

The Chairman then expressed his sense of the value of the 
paper, and requested Mr. Robertsou to convey to its author 
the thanks of the Society. 



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NOTES OF A TRIP TO TRIES ISLAND 
IX JULY 1872. 

BY 

J. L. HODGES, Esq., 

n. B. M.*8 Consular Service. 

Read hffore the Asiatic Society of Japan, on the 
3i'd Januart/, 1877. 



On ray arrivnl at Misaki from Yokohama I commenced 
to make enquiries about the best means of. jetliner fo 
Osliima, or, ns it is generally styled by Europeans, Vries 
Island, and was informed that the distance to it wus 
eighteen ri, and that I eonld reach it either in a bin-sen, 
or a passenger boat hired by a number of persona, which 
might be stnrling in a few days, — or by a a/ii-fatf^ or 
express boat of my own, — when the wind changed. The 
wished for change, however, did not occur till the follow- 
ing morning, when not being able to find a boat ready to 
start, I was obliged to charter one on my own account 
for six riyos and a half, and started in the grey dusk for 
Oshima with six sturdy boatmen and a large boat. 

After a pleasant sail of about six hours we came within 
about a couple of miles of the coast, and from this time 
our progress became slow in the extreme, and the current, 
which here runs at the rate of a mill-stream, required my 
boatmen to use their best exertions to make any headway 
against it. At the same time, the swell caused by the 



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enrrent meeting the wnves raiseil by the wind rocked onr 
boat about in rather an unpleasant manner. Seen from 
this pointy 6shima preseiiU a boUl and rugged appearance, 
the volcano, however, U not vi:<ible. 

After a severe struggle my boatmen managed to gain 
tlie channel, and keeping in close to the western shore of 
Osliima, to avoid the current, sculled slowly ou through a 
sea as unruffled as a mirror. The cojist of the island, now 
on our left, is here low and daik in colour, — shewing 
evident traces of volcanic action, — but at the distance of a 
mile or so inland vUes the range in which the volcano 
lies. Fish seem to be in abundance. For not only are 
they leaping out of the water near our boat, but all along 
the shore every rock seemed provided with a man and 
fishing-rod. 

At about 1.30 p.m. we at hist arrived opposite to the 
village of Motomura, which from the sea does not pre- 
sent a very populous aspect. There is no regular harbour 
or lauding plaj^e, but the water is deep close up to the 
shore, and we easily gained terra Jirma once more. Here, 
however, my difHculties commenced. I in vain enquired 
for an'inn or place of refreshment, but was informed there 
was nothing of the kind on the ishunl. I then betook 
myself to the nauutih/, or headman of the village, Mr. 
Seizayemon, who at first declared he could not receive 
me, and that his duty compelled him to send me back to 
Yedo, as foreigners were not permitted to land on the 
island. Ou representing, however, that I had oidy engaged 
the boat to come here, that the wind was adverse, — and 
perhaps moUitied by some other soothing influence — he at 
last yielded, and consented to house me himself till I should 
obtain a boat to proceed to Shimoda. Once having relent- 
ed he proved a most attentive host ; the greatest kindness 
was shown me by himself and family, and on my departure 
he refused to accept the slightest remuneration. 

Motomura, the village in which I had thus succeeded 
in establishing myself, is the largest of the six upon the 
island. The names of the others are respecting Okata, 
Sendzn, Nomashi, Sashijiji, and Habu. The last named 



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hM a picturesque and landlocked little harbour. The 
popnlfttion of the whole i.sland is about four thousand. It, 
nnd the other six islands in the same group, are under tlie 
jurisdiction of the Asliikara ken. They are named T6- 
sliimn, Mlake, Nijima, Hacliijo, Milcura and Kozu. All 
are populated. O^hiina is the most northern of the group. 
It is ahout eight miles in length and five in breadth. 

On first landing on the island my attention was im- 
mediately arrested hy the appearance of ihe inhahitaiits, 
especially the women, who differ in many respeet^s from 
the ])copIe of tho mainland. They seemed to me to 
be taller, fairer in skin, and better favoured. The 
women dress their hair in a diffei'ent manner. It is 
never shaven, even in youth, hut simply thrown back 
from the forehe.id and tied in a knot behind ; the 
married women thus forming one long chignon which 
is generally worn to tlie side of the back of .the head, 
the remainder of the hair flowing part of the way down 
the neck ; while the unmarried women, tie th« knot 
in the middle, so as to make a bow, wiih the ends 
sticking out at both sides of the back of the head. The 
women also wear a peculiar emhroidered hand or cap on 
tho head. This is generally of a blue color, and has a 
while or coloured crest in front. They also have a kind of 
petticoat, round the skirt of which the same emhroidery, 
etc., is worked. The dress of the men however, does not 
differ from that of ordinaiy Japanese, and their hair is worn 
in the same fashion. It is also worthy of remark teat 
the women, married or single, do not hiacken their teeth ; 
that there is not a single samisen or musical instrument 
on the island ; that dancing is unknown ; that there are 
no public baths, etc., and that concubinage does not exist. 
That the inhabitants are peaceful may be argued from 
the fact that they possess neither swords or fire-arms ; 
and that their habits are simple may be concluded from the 
circumstance that in the only semblance of a shop in the 
village of Motomura, the greater part of the business was 
carried on by barter, and money seldom used. They live 
by fishiug, and exporting cherry-tree wood to Tedo. There 



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is no rice grown, and the only crops grown are a little com 
and sweet potatoes. The soil is dark, or dark-red, and 
evidently pulverized volcnnic rock. Indeed tlie very stones 
on tlie sea-beacli are of tlie same matet iiil, and closely re- 
semble those I afterwards saw on Fnji-san. The 
conutiy is well wooded, but not many of the trees are of 
any size. The general work seems to be done in great 
measure by the women, who, curious to say, carry all bur- 
dens on the head. On the evening of my arrival I was much 
amused to see them coming down in troops to draw water 
from the well (of which there is only one in the village), 
each one with her pail balanced jauntily on her head, and 
her blue cap, set perhaps a little to one side, giving her a 
coquettish appearance. On the morning of my departure, 
too, a junk was being loaded with cherry-tree wood for 
Yedo, and the beach was covered with women and girls 
bearing down the bundles upon their heads, then skipping 
lightly along the plank between the vessel and the shore, 
and, with a graceful motion of the neck, tossing them on 
board. 

Above the village, and near the centre of the Island, is 
the crater of Mihara-yama. This is a volcano still in 
partial action, — that is, from to time smoke issues forth, 
and a smell of sulphur is perceptible. At night, too, the 
glare at its summit occasionally serves as a beacon to the 
sea-farer. It is situated about three miles from Moto- 
mura, and the ascent is rather difficult ; not only is it 
very steep, but the debris of former eruptions renders 
walking a very tiring operation. Ia height I should 
judge it to be about 2,500 feet. The crater itself is 
oblong in shape, and from 800 to 1 ,000 yards in length, 
by about 50 or 60 yards in breadth. There are marks 
of the lava having extended in three directions. I could 
not distinguish anything inside the crater but a mass of 
seething vapour, with what the Japanese accompanying 
affirmed to be smoke. 

On descending from the mountain, I was carried off 
by my host to witness, not a bull-fight, but what might 
be termed a *' bull-wrestle," which seems to be a fayoui*ite 



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amtiftement At Oehlma. Two bulls were brought down 
to the heach, nnd stationed on little hillocks, faciu^ 
each other. At a given ftignni I hey were let Iooh* 
and rushed down to the encounter. Tlicy met in the cen- 
tre, where they locked their horns tojjether, nnd pushed 
and struggled in the most scientific manner, to the 
great delight of all the inhabitnnts of the village. 
The conflict ended by one of the bulls pushing the other 
over, when they were with difficulty separated. I should 
mention that there are numbers of good cattle on the 
Island — there are also some horses, and three dogs which 
have lately been intro<luced. 

The dialect used by the people differs very considerably 
in pronunciation from that of Yedo or the neighbouring 
mainland of Idzu, and in sound, when spoken, one is re- 
minded of Chinese, as there is a sort of sing-song about it 
not heard in Japan. The hist word of the sentence is also 
prolonged, and the voice seems to rise towards the end. 

Oshima is said to be the Island to ^vhich the mighty 
bowman Minamoto Tametomo was banished by Yoshilomo, 
nnd here he performed his famous exploit of sinkint^ hy 
his arrows one of the vessels of Knno no ske, who had 
been sent to attack him. From Oshima Tametomo is said 
to have gone to Liukiu, and from this fact some persons 
trace a connection between the inhabitants of this group 
of islands and the Liukiuans. 

July 4th, 1872. 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



A regular meeting (defeiTed from December 27th, 1876), 
was held on Wednesday, the 3rd January, 1877, at the Society's 
Library, TdkiO ; tlie President, Sir Harry S. Parkes, in the 
Chair. 

After the usual reading of the minutes, the names of the 
following new members were announced : — Messrs. Geo. Caw- 
ley. John Hunt, H. R. Elliott, W. N. Wliitney, F. B. Walsh 
and Wm. Bramsen. 

The Library Committee reported a considerable number of 
books as absent from tlie shelves, and that some one had taken 
the liberty of cutting out a portion from the Society^s book of 
scientific extracts. 

The Secretary pro tern, presented a request, made through 
Mr. Wilkin of Yokohama, from an antiquarian friend in 
England, asking for a collection of Paloeolitic Flint imple- 
ments, if to be found in Japan, the search for these memorials 
of the remote past having been renewed of late with great 
earnestness. 

Mr. Longford then read his translation of a Japanese 
account of the Island of Hachijo ; explaining that it was little 
more than an outline of a fuller account which the native 
author was about to publiMh, giving details of his residence 
of two years at this remote settlement. 

The Prt'sidont romarktMl tlmt the sul)joct of the paper had 
great interest on many accounts; as exhibiting a condition of 
(hino:8 very unlike what appears in other places under Japan- 
ese jurisdiction ; as illustrating the policy of making )>enal 
settlements on the outlying Island ; as a place laid down on 
our Admiralty charts by the name of " Fatsisio — place of exile 
**for the grandees of Japan," <^c. It is the last of a chain of 
Islands extending southwards from Vries (Oshiraa) and is 
seldom vi;iited : the Acfwon vi.sited it in 1861 and reported un- 
favourably of the anchorage. One would wish to know whether 
the frightful punishments de.scribed were things of the past, 
or were still practised, and if so what could be the necessity 
for them.® It is to be hoped, therefore, that we may soon 
have access to the large work promised by the author. 

Prof. Grigsby doubted whether it was desirable to publish 
the account, as we now have it : it might be bettter to wait 
until fuller, and perhaps more reliable, statements were before 
the members. 

Mr. Hodges read, as illustrating the subject, some interest- 
ing notes he had made of a vi.sit to Vries Island. 

• The President has since ascertained that these severe punishn^euta 
have been discontinued. 



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The Preaident remarked that the similarity of some of the 
ciifltoins described by Mr. Hodges with those observable in Loo- 
choo, adtkd Aditioiial interest to the subject of the condition 
and ethnology of the people living in these various islan<i. 

Mr. liiaiiisen said that we might even hope to gain more 
information on thiH subject, as the Japanese Government were 
understood to be about establishing communication with the 
Boniu Island, by steamers which would prol)ably touch at 
Hachijo en route. He had beared descriptions of this latter 
island very <li verse from that given in the paper. 

Sir H. S. Paikes statetl, with reference to the secoiui paper 
which had been announced, — on the monastery of Koya Zan — 
that the lateness of 'the hour, and the extent of the subject 
deterred him from entering on its consideration at the present 
time. He gave, h«>wever, a general outline of the topic, show- 
ing its interest and importance. 

By a unanimous vote of the meeting the President was re- 
questinl to favour tlie Society with a fuller discussion of the 
subject at his earliest convenience. 



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JAPANESE NEW YEVR CELEBRATFONS. 

BY 

MRS. CHAPLIN AYRTON. 

Read before the Asiatic Societt/ of Japan on the 
24ih Janitan/f 1877. 



Tlie most slrlkino; foatme of Now Year's day in Japan 
is I lie decoration placed with more or less completeness 
before every pdrlal. Each ol»ject of which the decoration 
is composed has, as nn«^ht he supposed, a symbolic mean- 
ing. Suppose iheMpoctator to face the green arch ; on his 
right will be a Me-matsn (Plnus densifhra, Fam. Coni' 
/era) with its reddisli stem, and on his left will he the 
black trunk (»f I lie 0-matsu {Pinu^ thitnbevgius, Syn, 
Pinus mnssoniana). Althoujrh pines are moncEcius, fancy 
has lUirihuted to iho Mack trunke<l tree a masculine, — 
and to tiie ii^lilor tioo, — a .'"einiuiue sex. Furtlier, these 
hardy trees symbolize a slalwarl age that has withstood 
the storms and struggles of exislcnce. 

Immediately behind the pines, rises on each side the 
graceful stem of ihe 'iake-no-hi, or bamboo, of which any 
kin<l that is convenient is selected. Its erect growth and 
succession of knots marking its increase during succeeding 
seasons, render it a symbol of hale life and a fullness of 
years. 

The distance, of usually about six feet between the bam- 
hoos, is spanned hy a giass ro[)e (uawa), although con- 
venience obliges this rope to l»o sufficiently high to allow 
of passage beneath, it should, to accord with its symbolic 
meaning, dehar all bad and unclean things from crossing 
the threshold. 

In the centre of the arch thus formed of pines, bamboos, 



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and ropoi ts a group of several objectsr The most con- 
spicuous is the scarlet yebcy or lobster, whose crooked 
body betokeiiH llie back of the aged bent with the weight 
of years. The lobster is einhowered amongst ynsuri 
branches. In i\m t/iisuriy (Melia japonicOf Fam. Melia- 
cece) when the yonng leaves have bu(Uled the ohl leaves 
yet remain unshod. So may the parents conlinne to 
flouri.sh, while chiMren and grandoliihlren spring forth ! 

In the centre also are the graceful fronds of the shlda 
or urajirOf tlie Polt/podium dicotomm of Thiinbei g. 
This fern symbolizes conjugal life, beciuise the fronds 
spring in pairs from the stem. These uniform graceful 
leaves might snggest dangerous ideas of the equality of 
the sexes, but the simile has not in Japan beeu pushed to 
so desperate a length. Between the paired lejives nestles, 
as offspring, the liitle leaf-hud. Here and there are 
quaintly cnt .«craps of white papor, the gohei, or offering 
to the Gods, the form of the paper is said by some to be 
a conventionalized representation of a human form — that 
of the offerer, — devoting liimself thns in eifigy to the 
dieties. 

Almost as conspicuous as the lt»bster is the orange- 
coloured Daidai (fruit of the Citrus higaradai, Fam, 
CItrofiacece). It enacts a pun, the second meaning of the 
word daidai beitig ** generations ** thus intimating a wish 
that the family jKHli^ree may flourish. The juice of the 
daidai is uinch i)rized as a remedy again.st vomiting. 
This is inlcrcsiing because the juice of lemon, also a 
citronaceons plant, is often considered by Europeans a 
pallialivc fur ^^eti -^ickncss. Also in the nature of a pun 
is the [)iece of charcoal, snmi, that word signifying the 
homestead. 

The honta-wara or zimhaso (Halochloa macranthaj, 
is a sea-weed that is a memorial of good fortune, for once 
upon a tim€», about A. D. 200, when Queen Jingo-kogo 
reigned, she, concealing her husband's death least the 
troops shcMild be discouraged, headed a campaign against 
Corea. Iler troops stationed at the margin of the sea 
were in danger of defeat ou account of the lack of fodder 



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for their horses. However, she ordered this honta-wara 
to be phicked from the ehore, and the horses invigorated 
by their meal of .sea-weed rushed victoriously to battle. 
At the close of the war Jiiigo-kogo gave birth to a son, 
Hachi-man, who, appropriately to tho circumstances of his 
birth, became the ^lars of Japanese mythology. 

Another seaweed decoration is the kobu or Laminaria 
saccharma. The word is a pun bearing on the verb 
yorO'kobi, which means to rejoice, to gladden. 

Tho lust of til is group of decorations is tlie fukustii- 
Isumi^ a square piece of white paper tied up as a bag by a 
red and white string, midzu-shiki, that marks a present. 
It may be considered as a hicky bag, for its contents are 
offerings suitable to the season as, — 

Kachi-gnriy — roasted chesnuts. 

Kazu-no-ko, — the row of the herring {nishiti). 

Kaya-nO'tanCy — the seeds of the Torreya nuci/era, 
Fam, Conifera, used in the making of sweetmeats. 

Kushi-gaki, — the fruit of the ^aki {Diospyrua kahi, 
Fam, Ebenaeem) dried on a stick or kt/shi. 

The New Year arches are cut down in T6ki6 on the 
7tb of January, and in some places on the 3rd of January. 

Another decoration is the DaikoJtU'jime, a unnUiinvo 
ship of twisted straw containing representations of bales 
of grain, bits of green, and little ornaments, as fancy 
dictates. The idea of the ship is that of an offering of 
first fruits. In order to bring I he sleeper lucky dreams 
it is customary on the night of the 2nd of January to 
cover the pillow with a rude picture of a Takara-hune, or 
ship of riches, in which are seated the seven Gods of 
wealth, Bis/iamonsama, Fuku-rohnjiii, Benten-sama^ Jiro^ 
jin-sama, Hotei-sama, Vaiioiu'Sama, Ehes-sama. 

The little new year heap of some two — more usually 
three — round rice cakes, (motchi) of graduated size, piled 
one above the other and conspicuously placed on a lacquer 
stand, may be regarded partly as ornament, and having 
served this purpose are eaten on the lllh of January. At 
the close of the old year these motchl cakes are plentifully 
displayed at shopsi aud are also made by parties of three 



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men who go about the streets for hire, provided with an 
oven, a bottomless tub, and some niftlting to replace the 
bottom, all carried slung on a pole and borne on the 
shoulders of two of the men. The third man carries a 
heavy mallet for the prolonged striking of the paste with 
resounding thuds, when, to prevent rebounding, 
the slicky nniss is placed ( n the soft mat in the tub. lie 
also hcjus a hoard answering the purpose of a pastry -board 
on which to make up into form the well heaten cuke. 

Anotljor feature of the New Year is Mie univcisal risff- 
ing when the orthodox greetings are, — Shi-nen no go 
shiugi wo moshi-agemaSy or more simply omedetlo. The 
Japanese equivalent of a new year's gift is made at the end 
of the old year and is called seibo ; however as a matter of 
convenience the present giving is often combined wilh the 
new year visiting. 

The games played at this season of the year are very 
suitable. The girls dressed in their best which has been 
carefully hoarded during December, or better still in new 
clothes, with gaily ornamented battledores, of usually hiri 
wood (Paidonia imperialis, Fain, ScropJiuIarinece), strike 
briskly the airy little shuttlecock made of the black seed 
of the Wfflff {ITomoioceltis aspera^ FauK CcUuhw) winged 
with feaihers and decorated, singing out ihe while, — 
Hito-go ni futa-go — mi-watashi yo-me-go 
Itsu yoni musashi — nan no yalcaslti 
Kokono-ya ja — to yo, 
or>— 

Hitori no musumi wo — futari shiti 
Miru tab i yarn tabi — itsn shika niudzu-kashi 
Nan no yafiushi — kolono-ya torasho. 
Both these songs, it will be seen at once, are rhymes of 
the numbers up to ten. 

Another paslime is the hall made of paju r and wadding 
symmetrically wound about wilh i bread or silk of various 
colours. A popular song of the hall, pinying on the num- 
bers is, — 

HiyfUf mi, yo — wi yo nu yoehlda no 
Kataeumi oroshiU — kiri ni kizandi 



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Tamoto y4 ir^ru — famoto ga nureru 
Kiyomidzu kiyomidzu — kiyomidzu wo 
Samhon yenoki ni — sudzume ga samha 
Tomatta — ichi-wa no sudzume g a 
Hato ni owarete — are ga chiu cJiiu 
Kore ya po po^ — madz'c ikkan kasliimaskita. 



or,— 



Makd iimhai — shin-kaica mls/iai 

Odairara nayiushi no — Jtaka viusume 

IrO'jirode — saku ra ~irv de 

Yedo-zaki shhvo ya ye — moraicareta 

Sono shiwo-ya ga — date fio shiwo-ya de 

Kotoshi wa nani tea — kisemasho 

Km-ran don-sxi ni — ai mtirasaki wo 

Nana Jtasane — nana kasane 

Ya-kasane kasanete — somete okureyo 

Koya 8 an — koya naraba 

Somete mo shinjo ga — kata ni vani wo 

OtsuiS-yat'u — yuH furi ni 

Mume no ori ye da — sakura no ori yeda 

Naka tea Go-jo no — sori haski 

Sono hashi wo — wataru hito tote 

Watarauu hito tote — chokln choker a ko to 

Kokin kokera ko to — chaya no miisume ni 

Utareta — utareta ga 

Membokt(> nai tote — karasu-gawa ye 

Mi wo nag eta — mi wa shidzumu 

Kami wa ukedo — sozo ya tonogo no 

On kokoro — madzu ikkan kas himashita, 
A Japanese lady has kindly given me a rendering of 
tins song, of wliicli an exact translation would be difficult, 
as the song is old. The sudden transition of subject 
towards the end looks, she thinks, as if some part of the 
song had fallen into disuse. Tiie tale runs tiius : — 
" See opposite, — see, Shin-kawa I 

A very beautiful lady who is one of the daughters of a 
chief magistrate of Odawara-ch6. She was married to a 
salt-merobaut. He was a mau fond of display and he 



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thought how he would dress her this year. He said to 
the dyer : "Please dye ih\s Kinr<f7i nwii Dom^Hj and the 
purple for the middle dress into seven oreiglit fohl dresses," 
and the dyer said. " I ana a dyer and, therefore, I will dye 
and stretch if. What pattern do yon wisih ?" Either the 
dyer or the merchant reply. " The pattern of falling 
enow, and hrokcn twigs, and in the centre the cmved 
hridge, — Gojo.^* 

Crossing or not crossing this hriilge clwkin chokeray 
kokin Ickern (these words are inserted to fill up the 
rhythm and have uo known meaning). The girl was 
Btrnck here and there and the tea house girls laughed ; put 
out of countenance by this ridicule she drowned herself 
in the Karasgawn, the corpse sunk, the hair flonted. How 
fidl of grief the husband's heart, — noiCy the ball counts one 
hundred I " 

Sometimes during a game of ball, simple counting of 
how many rebounds can be kept up seems to bo going on ; 
the counting is, however, a regular game of debit and credit 
as I have endeavoured to explain in the following table. 

FIBST TURN. 

A KEEPS UP 100 BOUNDS. 

.1'.-* Account. ' B'a Account. 



A lends B [A pays back to B ^ B leuds A. 



100 



This with 
previous 
debt of 40 
makes 70 
that A lends 
B 



30 



B pays back to A 



2nd Ttn-n^ 
B keeps up GO bounds. 



3;t? Turn, 
A keeps up 30 bounds. 



Ath Turn 
B keej)s up 100 bounds. 



fand still 
owes A 40) 



60 



30 



6M Turn. 
A keeps up 20 bounds. 



20 



10 
and so ont 



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The boys specially devote themselves to kile-flyhig. 
The kites are constructed of Japanese paper which is both 
thin and slrono^, and having light bamboo frnmes they fly 
very easily during this season of prevalent winds, and 
produce a loud humming noise due to a piece of whale- 
bone which is attached to the kite being set in rapid vi- 
bration hy the wind. 

For had weatlier, or amongst those who have ceased to 
care for the.-^e active sports, such games as Jin rohn mil- 
sashif in wliicli the board is divided into squares and dia- 
gonals on which move sixteen men held hy one player, and 
one large piece held hy the second player. The point of 
the game is eilher that the holder of the sixteen ]>ieces 
hedges the large piece so that it can make no move, or that 
the big piece takes all its advei^saries ; a take can only be 
made by the large piece when it finds a piece immedia- 
tely on each side of it and a blank point beyond. 
Sugo-roku IS entirely a game of chance. It consists of a 
sheet of pictures, — educational pictures are at present fash- 
ionable — but the oldest Sii^goroku is Dochiu Sugo-roiii, 
and is the journey between Kioto and Tokio. The players 
write their names on slips of paper, or anything, and throw 
in turn a die ; the slips are placed on the pictures whose 
numbers correspond to the throw. At the next round, if the 
number you throw is written on the picture you find 
directions as to which picture you move forward or hack- 
ward to. You may, however, find your throw a blank and 
have to remain at your place. Winning consists in reach- 
ing a certain picture. 

Making verses, something like our own paper games ; 
simple lotteries, or Fuku-hikiy for various ohjects, and card 
playing, KarutayB.ve popular amusements. 

The passing Tori-wo-oita^ a strolling samisen woman- 
player, or a party of Kagura performers are called in to 
afford pastime to the spectators ; the latter by the quaint 
animal-like movements of the draped figure who wears a 
huge grotesque scarlet mask on his head, nnd at times 
makes this monster appear to lengthen and retreat its 
ueok by an unseeu change in position of the mask from 



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—78— 

the bead to the gradnnllj extended and draped hand of 
the actor. The beat of a drum and tlio whistle of a 
bamboo Ante form the accompaniment to the dumb show 
acting. 

The 3rd and 4tli of January are conspicuous days of 
the New Year. They are tlie "goinrj out days'* (de- 
some, no, shi) of the fire brigft<Ics. There are about firty 
brigades in T6ki6, each numbering 50 to 70 men. The 
men rally at an appointed place and form a procession to 
carry their new standard (inattoi), ladders, lanterns, etc. 
This procession panses nt intervals when the men sleady 
the ladder with their long fire hooks, whilst an agile mem- 
ber of the band mounts I he erect huhler and performs 
gynastics at the top ; his performance concluded, he dis- 
mounts and the march is conlinned, the men, as before, 
yelling joyously at the highest pilch of their voiced. 



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ON THE FSE OF "PELOW-AVORDS" 

AND PLAYS UPON WORDS IX 

JAPANESE POETRY. 

BY 

BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN, Esq. 

Read be/ore the Asiatic Society of Japan on the 
2^th January, 1877. 



The subject which I beg leave to introduce this eveu- 
ing to the notice of the Society is one wiiich, notwilh- 
stamling its coniicciion with the most delightful of ull 
arts, ciiiiuot, I fear, but incur the charge of dulnoss. Dull 
and dry, however, as the technicalities of Japanese versi- 
fication may be, I hope to show at the close of this paper 
I hat they are yet deserving of your attention, and that 
what might at iirst sight appear to have no possible in- 
terest save for the critical student of a bygone literature, 
may, after ull, prove of practical value, even at the pre- 
sent day, to a large and influential portion of the foreign 
community. 

Japauese Poetry, though scarcely, as yet, well explored, 
cannot exactly be called an unknown region ; and it may, 
perhaps, be permitted me to take for granted that most of 
the members of this Society are, at least, so far acquaint- 
ed with it as to know that (except in the case of a very 
few and very unsuccessful imitations of Chinese models) 
tho prosody of this couatry knows nothing either of 



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—80— 

rhyme, assonance, alliteration, accentual stress, quantity, 
or parallelism. Of what it has not got, — or, to speak 
more correclly, of the reasons why it has not got any of 
these peculiarities, some one or olher of which, at least, 
has seemed necessary to all (ho olher nations of which wo 
have any kno\vieil«^o for the proper distinguinhing of 
poetry from prose, it docs not full within the scope of this 
paper to speak, — the pecnliariiics which it has, in con- 
tradistinction to the prosodies of other countries, forming 
a more fruitful snhject of enquiry. We find, then, 
hesides the well-known cadenoc formed hy alternate lines 
of live and seven s}'lla1)le<, — that the chief characteristic 
of the classical poetry of flapan is the use of the so-called 
Mahira-Kotoba, or *' Pillow-Words," and of Plays 
upon Words, — the ** Pillow- Words '* being more abundant 
in the earlier, and the Plays u]>on Words in the later 
portion of the classic age. (By the earlier period, I mean 
the centuries preceding the compilation of the Manyosliu 
in or about A.D. 7o3.) It will he convenient to take these 
two branches of the subject in the chronological order 
thus indicated, and to commence by the " Pillow- Words." 
What, then, is a "Pillow-Word" ? Its name indicates 
tolerably clearly its meaning : it is a word, itself dcsiituto 
of life, on which the succeeding signiticative word, as it 
were, rests its head. The term Kamuri-Kotoha, i. e. 
•* hat-word,*' which is preferred to that of "Pillow- Word '* 
by the great scholar Mabuchi, sels forth the nature of 
this class of expressions in an equally intelligible manner. 
"But what,'' it may be objected, "can be the possil>le use 
" in a sentence of words which are, you say, destitute of 
"life, by which you mean, I suppose, destitute of meun- 
" ing ? '* To iind a tlirect answer to this question would 
be rather embarrassing ; but, perhaps, an illnstratioji 
drawn from our own English usage may help to elucidate 
the matter. When we speak of " the gallant Captain," 
" the learned Professor," ** Ilis Holiness the Pope," "His 
Majesty the King," do we really mean to say that, after 
due deliberation, we consider those persons to be, res- 
peotivelyi gallaut| learned^ holy and migestio ? Or^ agaiui 



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are all '•honourable members " of Parliament or Congress 
men filled with liigh notions of honour anil deserving to 
be hononred by ns ? Wliat, then, do such expressions 
mean ? The simple:4t reply is that they mean nothing at 
all, — that we use them for no other reason than that 
other people have used (hem before us, and Hint it has 
become the custom to use them. Rut they ought to mean 
something, and not only so, hut they did once mean some- 
thing. In olden times, none hut the gallant and courageous 
were chosen as the loaders of hossts ; none but those re- 
puted to be filled with all Chri:^Jian grace and holiness were 
ever raised to the Papal throne. In our days, the thi7ig has, 
to a certain extent, vanished, while the word (for words 
are more long-lived than things) remains. This is the 
gist of the matter, the "pillow-words'* which we are 
discussing being, as a rule, simply epithets that were for- 
merly applied quite naturally and appropriately to various 
ohjects, places and actions, hut which in most cases, by the 
process of phonetic decay, hy being used in connection 
with expressions having but a very distant aflinity to the 
expression they originally served to define, or by applica- 
tion to words whose only connection with the original 
word is that it commences with the same syllable as the 
latter, have suffered such changes either in their own 
substance or in the connection in which they are used, as 
to have become almost unrecognisable, and, practically, 
devoid of meaning. Take, foi instance, the " pillow- word" 
hisakata no, written with the characters ^ ^ ^ (en- 
during and hardj, and constantly found in poetry before 
the word " sky." The characters seem appropriate enough 
to form an epithet to be applied to the heavens ; but, as 
a matter of fact, they rest on a mistaken etymology. 
The word hisakata should be written hlsagata, and is a 
contraction of hisago no kntachi (the shape of a gourd), 
— an expression which, though scarcely graceful according 
to European ideas, is yet very graphically descriptive of 
the apparent form of the firmament. Soon, however, the 
original meaning was so completely forgotten, that, down 
to the present day, hisakata no is used as a " pillow- word," 



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ha- 
rlot only for the heavens, but for a whole number of things 
connected with the heavens, — even for the light, a pheno- 
menon which has certainly no connection with a gourd, 
and for tlie Imperial residence, which may, indeed Iiave 
been heavenly in its splendour, but is hardly likely to 
have been built after the pattern of a pumpkin. Tbis 
system of what might be called "ex officio epithets" has 
received enormous extension ; and herein, and in its ap- 
plication as a poetical ornament, lies the peculiarity. Some 
of the ** pillow-words " are used before one other word 
only, others before w^hole classes, as in the case oUiisakata 
no given above. Some are of rare occurence ; but the 
Japanese scholar or versifier remembers all those in com- 
mon use just as we remember our irregular verbs or the 
vagaries of our English orthography, — viz. simply by 
remembering them* Even in prose, " pillow-words ** may 
occasionally be met with ; but it is only in an extremely 
ornate style of prose, such as is, for instance, to be found 
in prefaces to collections of poems. 

To pass on to particulars, it may be stated that the 
words of which we are treating always occur in the five- 
syllable, never in the seven-syllable lines of a poem. Those 
which themselves extend to the length of five-syllables in 
the immense majority of cases take no postposition, as, for 
instance, the word kusamaknra applied to journeys, or 
chihayahurtt, now applied to all divinities indiscriminate- 
ly, but properly belonging only to bad gods, or to bad 
and powerful men. Some few of four syllables like- 
wise take no postposition, as soramitsu, the " pillow- word " 
for the province of Yamato ; while a very small number 
indeed may be found followed by one of the postpositions 
1/a, 711 and wo, Amatohn ya, wagimoko ni, fusiimaji wo 
may serve as examples. But by far the greatest number 
of four-syllable *' pillow-words " take the postpositiou wo 
(of). Hisakata no explained above, and dozens of others 
will at once recur to the student's memory. "Pillow- 
words " of less than four syllables are extremely rare. 

So much for the outward form. In regard to the deri- 
vation and inward meaning, the " pillow- words " would 



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—88— 

seem to have been considered bj Mabuoh! as falling into 
five separate clnsses. But a European will find the fol- 
lowing four-fold division more convenient: 

L Descriptive words or phni903 of the nature of an 
adjective or of a simile, that have suffered no phonetic 
change and are still employed in their origiual connec- 
tion. The "pillow ** for the verb " to yearn '* may serve 
as an instance. It is nakitkonnsuy and means : ** in the 
manner of a weeping infanf,'* which is a pretty phrase to 
describe yearning. A slightly more difficult example is 
offered by sakigusa no, the " pillow *' for mitsu (three) 
and naka (middle), where the origin of the connection 
lies in the fact that the sakigusa plant is a lily, whose 
stem always divides at the top into three flower-bearing 
stalks, and when three things are in a row, one of them 
must of course he in the Tf\iddle. Other sub-divisions of 
this class are formed by "pillow-words'* founded on the 
lucus a non lucendo principle, or furnishing examples 
of substantives which are, by an inverted process, employ- 
ad to qualify adjectives. 

II. Words or phrases originally similar to those com- 
prised in the first class, but now differing from them, inas- 
much as letter-changes or application to words other than 
those they originally served to define have obscured their 
meaning. The already quoted word hlsakata no belongs 
to this category ; and another instance is furnished by 
shikitahe no, where the change is, not in the term itself, 
but in its application. Signifying "made of finely woven 
stuff," it was at fii*st naturally used as an epithet for 
clothes, and especially for sleeping apparel. Later on, 
however, the true meaning was so completely neglected, 
that the phrase was applied first to the bed in which the 
sleeping apparel is worn, and next to the house in which 
the bed is situated, and even to the Japanese pillow, 
which is, as any of us who have travelled in the country 
may know to our cost, made of any thing rather than soft 
stuff. 

III. Words or phrases alluding to some historical or 
mythological occurrence. For instance, hayabito no. 



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--84— 

which servei u a ^^ pillow ** to the provinoa of Satsamfty 
is explained by the best authorities (though some com- 
mentators, it is true, contend for another interpretation, 
but also an historical one) as owing its origin to the fact 
tliat, in the earliest ages of Japanese history, the hnyct-hito, 
f.e. tlie soldiers who kept guard around the Mikado*s |*al- 
ace, were always Satsuma men. Soramitsuy one of the 
** pillows " for the province of Yaraato, has a luvthologi- 
cal origin, while tachibana wo, used before the surname 
Morib6, reminds us of the introduction of the orange into 
this country in the reign of Suijiu Tenno. Under this 
heading may bo classed a few ancient names of places, 
which have sunk down into the condition of mere **' pillow- 
words " one for another. 

IV. — Punning words or phrases. The ambiguous posi- 
tion of this class, placed, as it is, between the "pillow- 
words " on the one hand and the more regular plays 
upon words (to be presently discussed) on the other, 
has given rise to many differences of opinion among 
those best qualified to pronounce on such a matter ; and 
numbers of expressions that are admitted into the cate- 
gory of" pillow-words *' by one authority are rejected by 
another. Without entering into this discussion which is 
essentially a barren one, it may be sufficient (always 
following Mabuchi, as a mere foreigner may be well con- 
tent to do) to quote, as an example of the punning 
"pillow-words," koromode no, which means sleeve and is 
used before the name ef the province of Hitachi, because 
the first two syllables of the latter (hida) s'lgmfy /"olds, — 
the sleeves worn iu ancient times being narrow and so 
long that they had to be folded or turned up when a man 
wanted to do any work. Momotnradzu (literally, less 
than iO()j is similarly used as a "pillow '* for phrases or 
names of places beginning with the syllables yaso (ah old 
word for 80) or t, considered as an abbreviation of iso (an 
old word for 50). The first, second and fourth classes 
compi-ise the great majority of the words which we luive 
been considering; but it maybe remarked that not a few of 
them belong to two classes at ouce. Thus Jeanhaz^ no 



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^85— 

ovd0 its eonndctlon with tlie unme of the province of U6, 
ill tlie fipj^t place to a piece of mythology and in the second 
to a play upon words. A consideration of all the peculi- 
arities of the " pillow-wordd '* would, however, require a 
long treatise, and it may be as well here to leave this 
portion of the snhject, merely pausing to state that on 
it, as on so many other l>ranchos of the native 
erudition, the celebrated M;ibnchi is recognised as the 
greatest nuthority. His " Considerations on the Ilat- 
Words/' — a work in ten volumes, — ap|>eared in the year 
1757; and a continuution of the same, in seven volumes, 
was published in 1801 by his follower, Uheda Akinari. 
The total number of " pillow-words ** explained by these 
two authors is 667. Other minor works have long been 
in current use; and some of them, which are mere alpha- 
betical lists of significative expressions each accompanied 
by its proper "pillow-word," may be said to fill in this 
country the place occupied in Europe and in China by 
rhyming dictionaries. 

I now pass on to the consideration of plays upon words, 
which have been noted as the second peculiarity charac- 
teristic of Japanese versification. The native literati are 
silent on the subject, probably because it has appeared to 
them so simple as to call for no special comment ; and 
here, too, it may be disposed of in half the space devoted 
to the elucidation of the more obscure category of the 
"pillow-words.'* There are three classes of plays upon 
words : 

I. — What is called by the Japanese a "preface" or 

" preparation,*' and what we might perhaps term a 

" punning introduction.** The 18th ode of the well-known 

HiyaJcH'ttin Is-shu collection affords a good example. 

It runs thus : 

Sumi no yd no 
Kishi ni yoru nami 
Voru 8ah6 ya 
Ytim6 no kayohi-ji 
Hito-me yokuran. 

In rendering this ode into English, we must translate the 
last three lines only, whose sense is : " Even at night, 



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—86— 

on the thoronpfhfare of my dreams, I will avoid the eyes 
of men." The first two line?, literally rendered, would 
run thus: "The waves breakinor on the shores of the 
Bay of Snmi." But their sole use is, by mennsofthe 
verb yor?i, which here signifies "the breaking of 
the waves," to make a pnnninoj introduction for the 
word yonif which means " tbe nicrht-time *': so far 
as the real subject of the little poem is concerned, 
<hey are entirely meaninjjless. The student of the Man- 
Toshu will perhaps bere call to mind a very remarkable 
instance of the use of " punninor introductions,*' w^bich 
occurs in the 13th volume of that collection in a poem 
commencing: Komorihu no Hatsns^ vo kaha, where no 
less than tbe first ten lines have no connection whatever 
with tbe elecry that follows, and serve simply and solely 
as a " punninor introduction." 

II. Plays upon words similar to the ordinary European 

pun. Into this class, if we follow Mabuchi, will fall many 

expressions commonly regarded as " pillow words." The 

following is an example : 

^faUu ^ nd no, 

Matsu koto tohomi, Ac, Ac. 

which may be nearly literally rendered into English, pun 
and all, by tbe line : 

Like to the^j/ne-trees, I must stand and;>iwe. 

III. A more complicated species of pun, occurring when 
a word with two meanings is used only once as a sort of 
pivot on which two wheels turn. In this case, the fii-st 
part of the poetical phrase has no logical end, and the 
latter part no logical beginning. Of tbe three kinds 
of plays upon words, this is certainly the most character- 
istic ; and none has been in greater favour from the ninth 
century down to the present day, when, amidst the I'apid 
decay of almost everything else of native origin, tbe pecu- 
liar poetry of Japan, which had already emerged in all its 
pristine vigour from the inundation of the Chinese learn- 
ing, bids fair to weather the more destructive storms of 
the on-coming civilisation of the West The following 



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stanza from the Kohinshu will give an example of what 

might be termed " pivot-puns :" 

Shikitah6 no 
Makui-a no shita ni 
Umi ha aredo 
Hito wo mlrumc ha 
Ohid/u 7.0 arikeru. 

Piiniph rased into English (and thereby unavoidahly made 
to sound grotesque in the exlreme), the slanza would 
run ihus : 

On the salt ocean of my tears for thee 

My pillow floats : could I my darling ] ^ ^_ 

Weed never ^oweth in this billowy sea. 

Tlie poetess means to tell us that she is is debarred from 
communication with her lover. 

Were this paper addressed to any other persons than 
the Members of the Asiatic Society of Japan, most of 
whom probably possess some knowledge of the literature 
of this country, it would perhaps, d. propos of the above 
liu^s, which cannot but excite derision when rendered 
into so utterly alieu a tongue as English, be well to remind 
them that our canons of taste are uot necessarily canons 
of universal appHcatiou, and, in particular, that there is 
nolhing ill the niture of things constraining us to asso- 
ciate plays upon words with the ridiculous. Each liter- 
ature must be a law unto itself, and I should be surprised 
if any of those who have devoted themselves to the study 
of the productions of the Japanese Muse were not to give 
their unqualified assent to the opinion that the plays upon 
wordo|^f which all the later poetry is full, add iufinitely 
to its grace, its vigour and its terseness. The lyrical 
portions of the iVi^, or classical opera, are particularly 
rich in this species of adornment, — the sentence, which 
passes before one like a series of dissolving views, being 
often broken up in so complicated a manner as to defy 
any attempt at a logical interpretation. But, after all, 
delight, not instruction, is the end and aim of all true 
poetry, and the poet has amply fulfilled his mission if he 
leaves our minds dazzled with the resources of his art, and 
our ears riuglng with the most harmouioua cadences. 



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If I may detain the Society a few moments longer, I 
would suggest that any person possessing a sufficient ac- 
quaintance with any of the kindred Altaic tongues might 
open out a curious field of enquiry hy collecting together 
information on the question of the existence in their poetical 
literatures of like peculiarities. Tiie labours of Kdmusat 
and others have demonstrated the similarity, almost amount- 
ing to identity, of grammatical structure pervading all the 
languages of Tartar origin ; and it is hut natural to suppose 
that nations speaking similar languages will use those lan- 
guages in a similar way. In the mean time, some may, per- 
haps, be tempted to think that the continued use of hundreds 
of words after they have partially or completely ceased to 
|>osses8 any meaning is specially cliaracteristic of the Ja- 
panese cast of mind, conspicuous as it has ever been for 
its love of precedent and imitation. Into snch specula- 
tions it would, however, on the present occasion, he 
beside the purpose to enter ; and I wonid only, iu fullil- 
ment of the promise with which this paper commenced, — 
the setting forth, namely, of immediate practical utility 
to follow from the considerations with which it has been 
occupied, — make one more observation, addressing it more 
especially to those whose profession it is to i)()pularise in 
this country the sacred books of the West. A carefnl 
study of the ancient poetry of Japan, and therefore, of 
course, of the prosody which determines its outward form, 
must precede any successful attempt at a translation into 
Japanese of the most splendid of all poetical literatures, — 
the Hebrew Psalms. At least, I am assured by some of 
those natives best qualified to form an opinion on such 
a subject, that a metrical version in the manner of the 
longer odes of the Manyoshu would alone be satisfactory 
to Japanese ears. Of the ditiicnlties attending such a 
translation, and of the necessity which would often occnr 
of sacrificing the letter to the spirit, there can be no 
doubt. At the same time, patient and persevering 
study should render the desired end not impossible of 
attainment. 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



A General Meetiiii? of this Society was held on Wednesday, 
tlie 24111 January 1877, in the Society's room, Kai Sei Gakko, 
Tokio, Dr. Syle, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Tiie Recording Secretary read the minutes of last meeting, 
which were approved, and he thereafter announced that at last 
Goiiiicil Mt;eting llin following gentlemen were duly elected 
members of the Society : — Messrs. Hodges, H. B.M. Consulate, 
Yokohama; J. von Schaeffer, Austrian Legation; and £. Kinch, 
of the Japanese Agricultural Department. Dr. Murray, Kiiga 
Yashiki, was elected a member of Council in place of the Hon. 
A. Mori, whose absence from the country prevented his taking 
an active part in the Society's work. The Library Committee 
re|H>rted some additions to their journals. 

The Chairman referred to the reappearance among them 
after his return from America of Dr. Murray, who was while 
ibere the accredited representative of this society to corres- 
ponding Societies, and bore to them its greetings. Dr. Murray, 
in response said that it had given him great satisfaction to meet, 
whenever possible, the learned Societies of the United States, 
and to convey to them the greetings of the Asiatic Society of 
Japan. He added that he found all greatly interested in matters 
pertaining to Japan and eager to obtain information regarding 
its moral and material history and development. At Washing- 
ton he rnquently attended the meetings of the Philosophical 
Society of which the venerable Professor Henry was the Pre- 
sident ; in New York he visited the Geographical Society, 
whoMe President, Judge Daly, and the principal leading mem- 
hem evinced the deepest interest in the Japanese people. He 
had the honour, also, of visiting the American Academy of 
.Science, the Franklin Institute, the Society of Civil Euginoering, 
the Society of Mining Engineers of the United States, and the- 
Academy of Fine Arts, at Philadelphia ; the Museums of New 
York, Boston, Cambridge, etc. ; from all of which he received, 
iis the representative of this Society, and of the Japanese De- 
(Hirtmeut of Education, repeated marks of courtesy and kind- 
ness. He conveyed to the Society the hearty congratulations 
and best wishes for its prosperity of its friends and correspon- 
dents in America. 

In response to an allusion made by the Chairman, Dr. Murray 
spoke of a paper on the early study of the Mutch language in 
Japan by young Mr. Mitsukuri. This paper, he said, was pre- 
pared for publication in one of the Japanese journals, but the 
subject was of such great interest and so peculiarly adapted to 
the purposes of the Society, that it would be a matter of regret 
if it could not form a part of its proceedings. He hoped that 
ftmuigemeuto might sUU bo xnado to have this paper read be* 



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—90— 

fore the Society. It possessed an additional interest from the 
fact that the young author was quite recently a student in the 
Kai Sei Gaklco, and was now puisuiui^ his studies in America. 
Ho was a desceuvlaiit of a lou^ hue of distiui^uiahed scholars, 
and the ahi.ity and literary .skill displayed in the paper gave 
eviilence tliat tlie line would !><; outinu.^i. The early intro- 
duction of the study of l!i:i4lish into J.ipau would douhtless 
present ui.iuy anal »;^'«)us dilHoulties and incidouts. Too niuoh 
liouour coul 1 not h.) pail to th.> .' irly i^lE jris <»f sucli men a.s 
Fukusawa, Nakatuura, auil the Mitsukuris, for their brave 
struj^i^les in overcoming tlies,- tliilieulties. The want of proper 
dictionaries autl other h*'lps lu i le th i lab otu* very arduous. 
It was said tliat auioiii^st liLty sch:>lars, who in the early tlays 
were engatjod in studying the laiii,'uai,'e and eudeavouriu;; to 
make trauslatit)ns of books, there; u'l^i but ojie Webster's Dic- 
tionary, and that they wer i c):u;>;llel to utilize the hour.s of 
night as well as ofdiy, that eieli in turn ni;i,dit have the use of 
it. Tne history of thisiutro luotion of the study of the EugH.sh 
language into Japan would make a most, interesting paper 
for the proceedini^s of this Society. 

The Corresponding Secretary was Ih^n called upon to read 
a paper contributed by Mrs. Chaplin- Ay rton oi\ the Jap- 
anese New Year Celebrations. 

The Chairman, after returning the thanks of the Society 
to the writer, remarked that the points of resemblance be- 
tween the Kow Year amusement.s of Japan and those of 
China were numerous, especially in reijard tt) what one mi«4ht 
call symbol-puns, that is. }»lays n|»(m words such as Idle 
This word meant cnjoynicnt, Itllnrilf/, and at a marriage 
feast the idea was called up by the picture of a stag {loh 
which symbolized vhjoar), and also by green tea, lok cJi'iy 
(the green rep^'esenting /irahnci^ii). On similar occa.Nicns 
a dish of ground nuts was placed on the table to symbol iae 
longevity, their name, tsaiKj-tfUUf/^ meaning also continuous 
growth or long-life. Another prevalent custom of the Chi- 
nese New Year was for a company of the emph>3c's of a 
house of business to furnish theniselves with a clarionet, a 
drum, a gong, castanets, and a trombone, and with these to 
make night, as well as day, hideous by reason of the din they 
kept up to the distia banco of the whole neighbonihood : 
this noisy operation was suj)posed to induce good-luck. 

Mr. Chamberlain was now called upon to read his pa^)er 
"On the use of 'Pillow-Words' and 'Plays upon Words' in 
Japauese poetry." 

The Chairman, after returning the thanks of the Society 
to JVIr. Chamberlain for his xevy interesting and erudite 
paper, apoh)gizcd for recinring to China as the source of 
his illustrations; but as that was the field with which he 
was best acquainteil, he hoped the Society would excuse \m 
dt)ing so. The stiffness and artificiality of Chinese |>cetry 
resulted in a great degree from their laws of rhythm which 
required certain sequences of tones^ not accent. The almost 
uuiyersal metre was o£ eight syllables to each Uu^t with &. 



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uniform eiiMnral pam© afier the fourth, producing a dreary 
montony. There was nlso a metre of five sylhibles and 
another of seven, hut Ihe hitter was seKlom heard except in 
tlie doggerel lines cumposi il or inifjrovised by comic singers. 
Nearly (hirty years ago, the Chaiiinan said, he ha<l gone into 
the snhject in association with iho late Rcv. Dr. Medhnrst, 
for the purpose of seeing whether the Chinese existing 
metres and laws of versificalion could bo made available for * 
psalmody ; bnfc the conclusion was that little advantage, but 
rather, on the contrary, mui:h embarrassment would result 
from attempting to follow ihem. 

In reply to some questions from Professors Grigsby and 
Smith, ilr. Chamberlain stated that the line dividing " pillow- 
words" of the first class from simple adjectives or similes, 
though, doubtless, sometimes a line one, was yet in almost all 
cases one which a little consitleration would render apparent. 
For instance, the '' pilh)W-word " iKiltdotuisH, which had been 
taken as an illustration, though suffering no phonetic decay, 
and though still applied to the expression it originally served 
to embellish, did certainly contain the slight element of ob- 
scurity necessary t<> constitute a ** pillow-word.'* This was to 
\ye ftJund in the syllables 7/«.sm, which generally signify '*to do" 
or "to make," but which are here equivalent to f/otoku (like), 
a fact which could not be known without enquiry, for many 
might at first sight be tempted to think that the word ^^ goto- 
ku " was simply suppressed after " nasu.'^ 

This same element of obscurity prevented the ''pillow- 
words'* from corresponding, aa Professor Grigsby had suggest- 
ed, to the Homeric epithets. 

Mr. Chamberlain was unable to give the date of the first 
use of the term " pillow-word," or of the earliest treatise ex- 
planatory of their nature ; but he informed the Socie- 
ty that the ** pillow-words" themselves (whether already 
so termed or not) had been in use ever since the remotest ages 
of Japanese literature. The earliest thirty-one syllable ode, 
attributed to the god Suga-uo-Mikoto, commences with the 
*' pillow-word" yakiuiiriKitntsii. 

Prof. Grigsby having enquired whether the ingenious and 
complicated explanations given by the commentators might 
not often be mere inventions of these same conmientators, who 
attributed to the " pillow-words" more than they originally 
meant, Mr. Clunuberlain replie<l that this might be the case 
with some few, but only with a few; and he then proceeded 
to quote and explain some ujore of these expressions, where, 
however far-fetched the interpretation might appear, there 
could be no doubt of its correctness. The way in which the 
true original meaning of many " ]tillow-words" was arrived 
at was by a reference to the Jindaihi and Nihonid, where 
they might be seen in a more primitive shape or in a more 
natural connection. 

IMr. Chamberlain also incidentally drew attention to the 
striking contrast existing between the earlier and the later 
poems of the classic age. In the Manydshu we seemed to 



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bfaaihean aUo^tthsr frdtr air, aai to bd neKrer Europe tban 
ill any ot the poeai^ o imposed siiioe tlie 8tli century. In 
c >nclu ji«)ii Iij bji(^ed to bd excused if any of his explan.itiouH 
had Heemed va^iie, for the sulijejt wan oiirt of which Vii^iie- 
nasH formed nii>ro or less the e'wenee and the charm. 

Ill aiiHwer to Dr. Murray, who a^ked wiiother ouiihony inii^lit 
ii'>t he tlie deteriniuin^ cause of the uno of ** pillow- w.ud:*," 
Mr. Ciiainl)erlrtiii said t!iis mij^iit to a curtaiu exU'ut b^ so, an 1 
that he had pointed to thid in hi*«pa|>er b}' considering *' pilhiw- 
wordn^and *' playa upon word**" as oooupyiiij^ iu Japanese 
poetry tlie place of rliynie an I otlier AVesr.eru poetical orna- 
nientn. It would, however, in tlie melliflnou.i claHHioiI Imgna^e 
of Japan, be hard to find one word which was less euphonious 
than another. In that tongue, so different from the semi- 
Chinese jargon of the present day, every syllable was a delight 
to listen to. 

D. n. MARSHAT.L, 
Recording Secretary. 



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—98- 

ASIATIO SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



The usual monthly meeting of the Society was held on 
Wednesday, the 14th February, at the Grand Hotel, Yokohama, 
with Sir Harry Parkes, the President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting held in Tokio on the 
24tb January, which were published in the Japan Mail of the 
3rd February, were, upon motion duly made and seconded, 
taken as read. Mr. House gave notice of his intention to bring 
before the next meeting the question of admitting pnblic re- 
porters. At the last meeting in Yokohama two gentlemeu 
attended from two of the local papers, but were informed that 
the practice of the Society did not permit their presence as 
reporters, though with all possible courtesy they were invited 
to remain as visitors. He considered that the Society could 
only gain by having its meetings more widely reported, and he 
would take the steps provided in the by-laws to recommend at 
the first opportunity the admission of reporters 

On the invitation of the President Mr. House stated that the 
paper he had sent in to the Society on " The Early Study of 
Dutch in Japan " was the production of a young Japanese 
student of about eighteen years or age, who had been a pupil 
of his own, and who was now studying in the United States. 
The author, Mr. K. Mitsukuri, was one of a family that had 
made itself a name in Japanese literary circles. The father 
was eminent in Dutch learning, an elder brother after 
matriculating with honours at tlie Loudon University has 
taken a good place at Cambridge, and a cousin bearing the 
same name was one of the most distinguished of the French 
translatoi's. In spite of the extreme youth of the author he 
felt that the paper was one he could confidently recommend 
to the notice of the Society. 

Mr. Mit8ukuri*s paper on " The early study of Dutch in 
Japan " was then read by the Recording Secretary. 

On its conclusion the President inquired whether the com- 
position of the paper was entii-ely ]\lr. Mutsukuri's own work, 
and Mr. House assured the meeting that it was verbatim et 
literatim as he had received it from Mr. Mitsukuri. He had 
been requested to make some additions to it, notably to in- 
sert, in the list of scholars mentioned, the name of the author's 
father, but he had persistently refused to make any change 
whatever, in order that it might be published exactly as it left 
the hands of the youthful author. 

The President remarked that Mr. House's explanation added 
materially to the interest of the paper, as apart from the 
valuable information it supplied, and the graphic picture 
which it drew of the Japan of olden days, the excellent 
English in which it was written proved the capacity of the 
Japanese student to obtain a complete mastery of a foreign 
language. This mastery, he believed, had been so seldom 
Acquired, that some doubts were entertained as to the ability 



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—04— 

of the Japanese for linguistic studies, The paper showed, 
however, that if the Japanese did not usually advance in the 
acquisition of modern languages beyond a certain point, the 
circumatance was not attributable to any want of capacity, 
but to other causes. 

Mr. House was of opinion that it might be in some degree 
attributed to the fact, that the studies of the Japanese pupils 
at the present time were directed more to special subjects, 
on which information was to be gained through the medium 
of a foreign language, than to the accurate acquirement of the 
language itself. They were thus satisfied with such a modicum 
of knowledge as enabled them to gather the sense of a book, 
or to understand the gist of a Professor's lecture, but that 
few, if any, cultivated the art of expressing themselves ap- 
propriately either on paper or by word of mouth. 

Mr. J. C. Hall remarked that the original work, Ran- 
galea Koto-hajime^ of which the paper just read was a rapid 
epitome, was in two thin volumes written iu a simple 
style, printed in exceedingly clear type, and for these 
reasons was the first book to which his teachers directed 
his attention on his commencing the study of Japanese. The 
dates mentioned exactly corresponded with those given in Mr. 
8atow*s i)aper on " Pure Shint6", as the periods at which 
special attention was directed to foreign productions and 
foreign learning. He thought, however, that the author was in 
error in his remarks on the extraordinary ignorance displayed 
by the Japanese interpreters attached to the Dutch factory at 
Pesima. 

After some conversation on that subject the President 
observed that the writer's information must have been 
at fault on that point, as we had the evidence of the early 
Dutch writers themselves on this sulgect, and knew that 
all the valuable information relative to Japan with which they 
had supplied the world had been obtained through the medium 
of the Nagasaki interpreters, who must consequently have pos- 
sessed a considerable knowledge of Dutch. Kaempfer, who 
visited Japan as early as lOUO, expressly mentions that he ob- 
tained all his information though Japanese interpretation. 
Probably, however, the Shognn's Government endeavoui^ed 
to keep to themselves all the information obtained from time 
to time through the Dutch, and were not willing to allow the 
benefit of such knowledge to be shared by other than their 
own officers. 

In conclusion the President begged Mr. House to convey to 
Mr. Mitsukuri the thanks of the Society for the pajHjr and 
to share himself in those thanks for having so kindly 
placed the paper at the disposal of the Society. He trusted 
that other Japanese students of the stamp of Mr. ^Mitsukuri 
would favour the Society with similar papers, which he 
needed not to say would be most welcome, as the Society cor- 
dially desired to invite Japanese co-operation whether in 
the form of membership or of literary contributions. 

The meeting then separated. 



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—OS- 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



A GeiuTul Moetin^ of tliis Society was held ou Wednesday, 
llie 28Lh February, 1877, in the Society's room, Kai Sei Gakko, 
Tukio, Sir Harry S. Parkes, the PreMdtiit, in the Chair. Afier 
the usual reading of tlie minutes tlie Uccerding Secretary an- 
nounced tliat at the previous Council Meeting the loHowing 
UentUTntn weie didy elected inemheis u( the Society : — Pro- 
fi'.vKor JoviiiJi l\»iuli r oC jIk; I'np- r:al Collrgo of Eiiuiiirt'ring, 
Mr. W. D. Cox of the Japane.so Agriruliural Department, 
^Ir. G. C. Pearson of Yokohama, and Mr. li. AV. Dwars of 
Osaka. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Iho Germau 
Asiatic Society to the eifect that, owing to a change in its 
consiitution, it was now in a position to return tlie invitation 
given by this Society to its members. The German Asiatic 
Society therefore now cordially invited the members of this 
Society to attend its ordinary meetings. The Library Com- 
mittee reported the receipt of several useful periodicals, as well 
as some Japanese flint arrow-heads, which were preseuted lo 
the Museum by Herr von Siebold. 

The Presiilent now called on Mr. Longford to read his paper 
on '* A summary of ihe Japanese Penal Code." 

Air. Longford said that owing to the length of his paper he 
should be necessitated to select such portions as he thought 
would best give the Society an idea of the nature ot ihe hunj- 
mary. 

The President invited discussion ou the paper. He regretted 
that time did not permit Mr. Longford to reail more of it, as he 
littd only been able to give the meeting his analysis of three of 
the thirteen chapters into which the two codes are divided. 
These i>ortion8, however, sufficiently attested the interest attach- 
ing to the subject and the labour which Mr. Longford had 
devoted to it. 

Professor Grigsby, who was lately engaged in the same work 
as Mr. Longford and knew well the labour it entailed, thought 
that the society was much indebted to Air. Longford, and, 
after askiug information on some points, he interested the 
meeting by reading literal translations of some of the laws in 
the codes referred to. 

Mr. J. C. Hall thought that a contrast of the Japanese penal 
code with the criminal law of England, or any ot the western 
nations, was not so instructive as a comparison that might bo 
drawn between it and some of the archaic codes known to us, 
say that of the Anglo-Saxons, in which many of the same pe- 
culiarities, the recoguitiou of social aud olficial ranks, the money 



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—06— 

commutations and assessments varying according to the cir- 
cumstances of the case and the rank of the offender, the penal 
enforcement of moral duties, and the coiis^ideration shown to 
the authority of the heads of families, wtrc nearly as prominent 
as in the Japanese code. Many of the etiactments mentioned 
in the summary just read, and hy the preceding speaker, struck 
us with a sense of the ludicrous, hut in reality tliere was nodiing 
absurd in them whatever; they were well adapted to the «tai,'e 
of social development of the p< oplc for whom they were made. 
It would be a i)rofound ii.isiake to inin^ine that in point of 
social development the Japantse were on a level wilh the na- 
tions of the VVest. In this conntry the family i.s still the poli- 
tical unit, not the individnal ; and the comminution of the 
social groups has procrtdrd hut a small way. Tn many \iHnires 
the descent of all the inhabitants from a common ancestor is 
still a living tradition, and up till the recent sweeping decree 
by which the tenure of land throughout the Empire was altered, 
the institution of owner-ship and tillage in common, 
with the shifting of severaltieM and all its other incidents, 
BO ingeniously traced among th*^ primitive Aryan com- 
munities by the researches of Sir Henry Maine, was conspicuous 
and open to observation. How comjuict was the family 
organization, how great the authority of the head of the 
household would be seen by a reference to the division of the 
code headed ko-kon ritsu, or domestic law. What were the 
original customs of the Japanese people, and how far they 
differed from those of China would be a question exceedingly 
difiBcult to determine ; but it is certain that in form and sub- 
stance the Japanese penal code was a transcript of that of 
China. It would, however, be a mistake to sup^iose that the 
introduction of this body of penal law into this conntry was of 
so late a dale as the Ming period. Xo doubt, boih ihe Minjj 
and the 'IVing codes were, as had been slated, largely made 
use of by the commission of learned and able nien who drew 
up the first of the two existing codes ; but so early as the eighth 
century the bulk of the same set of rules had been adopted 
from the code of the Tang dynasty, to which in form and ar- 
rangement the existing Japanese code was most closely allied. 

Professor W. E. Ayrton asked for information on some 
points, and said that, as regards the whipping in court to which 
Mr. Longford had referred, no better evidence of its existence 
could be adduced than the prominent position which he had 
observed was given to the cat-of-nine tails at every petty ma- 
gistrate's table. At the same time he thought from remarks 
made to him by the ctmrt officials that they were fully alive to 
the degradation accompanying the extraction of evidence by 
torture, but that they considered, and in this Mr. Ayrton agreed 
"with them, that in a country like Japan, where perjury had not 
been made a most serious crime, ili would be very difficult to 
carry on justice if this fear of torture were to be suddenly re- 
moved. He had observed on visiting the convict settlement at 
Taukuda-jima (a small island at the mouth of the Ogawa) the 
fippearancQ of happiuesa and freedom posMsaed by the priBOQ« 



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—97— 

ers. This island, which was formerly used by the Shogun as a 
place of security in which to seclude those whom he deemed 
troublesome, had, under the new code of laws, been turned into 
an exact copy of the English convict settlements. Here each 
man worked at his own trade, and in addition to receiving, on 
his leaving the prison, a iK)rtion ef the money so earned, was 
allowed, unless sentenced for life, to go out to work for hire in 
the city of TokiO. The work-yards at Tsukuda-jima were very 
slightly palisaded, and this, combined with the small distance 
from the mainland, made escaping apparently very easy. The 
restraint was, however, a moral one, for a convict re-canglit after 
a second attempt to escape was punished by death. A great con- 
trast to Tsnkida-jima was the central jail "Shu-goku." Here 
wereobserved prisoners awaiting trial for months,and sometimes, 
as in the case of political offenders, for years, crowded together 
in string womien barred cages, and allowed no exercise except 
in a passage just outside their cages. The desirability of some 
sort of Habeas Corpus Act, the existence of which had, he 
believed, not been referred to by Mr. Longford, was here ren- 
dered apparent. At the same time a Government like the 
Japanese having, of course, in the administration of justice, to 
deal with difficulties quite unknown to foreigners, could hardly 
be expected to have a system more free than that possessed by 
some European countries. The office of executioner, Mr. 
Ayrton was also told, was hereditary and that the test of this 
functionary's skill, if donbt existed, was his ability to cut a dead 
body in two vrith one blow across the loins. Also that no 
prisoner was executed until he had first confessed his crime, 
and unless he were sufficiently spirited to support himself 
unassisted while his head was being cut off. 

Mr. Longford stated in reply to Professor Ayrton, that not 
only was no barrister allowed to assist a criminal at his trial, 
but no person whatsoever was allowed to be present in court 
except the jailer in whose charge the prisoner was, and a witness 
while actually giving his evidence. The trial always com- 
menced with an examination of the prisoner himself, and, if 
this examination resulted in the extortion of an admission 
of guilt from him, he might be condemned, but if it did not, 
witnesses were called and examined, and, if the evidence 
adduced by them were sufficient to establish the fact of the 
prisoner's (fuilt, he might then he condemned in despite of 
any assertions of innocence on his part. Formerly of course 
his sealed confession was absolutely necessary, but during 
the course of last year the law which made it so was annulled. 
The officer by whom the examination was conducted was not, 
as Mr. Ayrton supposed, a judge, but an inquisitor, whose only 
duty was to ascertain the whole facts of the case either from the 
prisoner or the witnesses, and having done so, to embody 
them in a clear and concise statement of the case which he 
laid before the judge. The latter then pronounced the 
verdict and sentence on the strength of this state- 
ment, without, as a rule, himself ever having seen the 
prisoner at all. In the trial of oiyil Caaesi on the other hand| 



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—OS- 
Japanese courts were as open as English, and the parties 
were not only allowed the assistance of barristers, but their 
appearance without such was strongly discouraged by the 
judicial officials. As to Professor Ayrton's remarks on the 
convict dep6t atTsukuda-jima, he could endorse from personal 
observation all that that gentleman had said as to the clean, 
healthy, and well -cared- for appearance that the convicts 
presented, and tlie admirable system of management by which 
their labour was utilized to the benefit both of the Govern- 
ment and the convicts them.selves. The other prison 
described by Professor Ayrton he bad also visited, and 
had found it to be much as that gentleman described, but 
it was only used for criminals awaiting trial, and though in- 
stances had no doubt occurred in which lliey had been dffain- 
ed for a long time, they were very isf)lated. With regard to 
the remarks made by Professor Grigwby, ho had only to point 
out an error which that gentleman Imd committed in stating 
that no discretionary power was vest^'d in tlie Japanese judges, 
in the matter of the amount of punishment, to be inflicted 
on criminals brought before them. Professor Grigsby based 
this remark upon his knowledge of the two penal codes, 
neither of which, it was quite true, contained any provision 
by which a discretionary power of tliis kind was given to the * 
judges. The punishment to be inflicted for every ofience is dis- 
tinctly stated in the law applicable to it, and a judge was, until 
receutl}^ bound to sentence a criminal to the punishment 
thus provided for any offence of wliich he might be convicted, 
no matter how extenuating migbt. liave been tlio attendant 
circumstances. However, by a Government notification is- 
sued in the latter part of the year 1874, the power was con- 
ferred on tlie judges of making certain mitigations in the 
statute punishments, whenever on due consideration it appear- 
ed to tbem that the crime had been committed under circum- 
stances which made the offender deserving of clemency, such, 
for example, as those of temptation or provocation, and this 
power is now very freely made use of. A very glaring 
instance of the injustice that might arise from the want of 
such a power was afi'orded shortly before the issue of that 
notification, by the sentence pass(>d on a Cliinamau in the 
employment of a foreign firm at Yokohama, who in a mo- 
ment of ill temper kicked a Japanese coolie and unintention- 
ally cause his death. For doing so he was properly convicted of 
the ofience styled "killing in an afi'ray," which includes all 
cases where death is caused by a Wow deliberately given, 
whether in an aflfray or otlierwise, but without anj' intention 
of causing death, and senteiiced to the penalty provided for 
it in the codes — naniely, peiml servitude for life. This punish- 
ment was out of all proportion to the gravity of the oflence, 
but it was perfectly legal, and no reni.ssitm or mitigation 
could therefore be made in it. The notification was, luiwever, 
issued shortly afterwards, and the recurrence of a like injustice 
thus prevented for the future. 

The President remarked that no one who was acquainted 



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with fche Btato of law in Japan prior to the establishment 
of the Mikado's Govemineiit, could fail to see that the ad- 
vance made by tliat Goveriimeut in crimiual legislation wrh 
very great, and was highly creditable to them. The existing 
codes were doubtless based upon tlie Chinese law, but they 
contained considerable improvements upon that law, and were 
much more merciful and humane. Many of the principles 
of Chinese law were still retained, and the endeavour made 
to attach a fixed punishment to every conceivable offence, 
or to every degree of crime was the cause of an amount of 
rigidity both in the Japanese law and in the practice founded 
on it, which was not in consonance with our ideas. But 
he was not prepared to say that this code, as far as it went, 
was nusuited to the Japanese people in their present condi- 
tion, and in endeavouring to improve the laws the Govern- 
ment had not to engage in abstract law-making, but had to 
consider what would best meet the state and wants of the 
people. Improvements in law-making must be gradual in 
order to be durable, and it would seldom answer for one 
nation to copy off hand the codes of other nations who were 
differently situated. That, as far as he understood, had not 
been done in the codes wliicb were now being discuss- 
ed. The domestic law, although differing widely from our 
own system, as previous speakers had pointed out, was 
probably one of the branches of the existing Japanese code 
which could not be lighlly abandoned. The administration 
of the law which had been treated of in the section on 
Imprisonment and Judgment offered another wide field for 
consideration, and showed that an efficient judicial system did 
not rest only upon the laws themselves, but also on the manner 
in which the laws were applied. It was evident that the Japan- 
ese criminal judges discharged their functions in a very dif- 
ferent way from those of our own courts ; the mode in which 
testimony was taken, the exclusion of counsel and of the pub- 
lic from the court was entirely opposed to our practice, 
and so also was the singular method of not leaving the 
decision of the case to the judicial officer who conducted the 
trial, but to another judge or luiKitionary at a distance, ap- 
parently of higher rank, who had to decide upon the statement 
or summary of the evidence drawn up by the examining officer, 
and not upon the evidence itself. The latter would naturally 
endeavour to furnish his superior with a clear connected story, 
which would not, of course, be evidence at all according to our 
ideas. As Mr. Longford had pointed out, the functions of the 
officer conducting tlie trial appeared to be rather those of an 
inquisitor than a judge, as far at least as we understand the 
duties of a judge. The mode of taking testimony was another 
very important subject, and the fact that torture had not yet 
been entirely eliminated from Japanese procedure, pointed* to 
the difficulties which surround that subject. He thought the 
Society would not be able to do justice to Mr. Longford's 
paper, on the important topic of which it treated, until it had 
been fully read, or, as he would suggest, until it had been 



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printed and was in the hands of members. After this had 
been done, the discussion could be continued at another meet- 
ing, if tlie Society so desired. 

The Meeting approved of this suggestion, and the proceedings 
terminated. 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



A regular meeting was held at the Grand Hotel, on Wed- 
n*»8day the 14th instant, Sir Harry S. Parkee, the President 
of the Society, in the chair. 

The minutes of tlie previous meeting held at T6kiC on 
the 28th February having been, upon motion duly made 
and seconded, taken as read, the Secretary announced that 
■ he had received from Dr. Geerts two copies of his pamphlet 
on *'Tho Mineral Waters of Japan." Dr. Stuart Eldridge then 
road his paper *' Noti's on the Crania of the Bootans of For- 
mosa," illustrating it with specimens and also with a seriee 
of diagrams on a screen, by aid of a large magic lantern. 

The President remarked that Dr. Eldridge's paper possessed 
peculiar interest on account of the novelty of the subject, 
which related not only to the Bootans but to all the aborig- 
ines of Formosa. Of these there are two divisions — those 
who have been brought under the influence of Chinese 
civilization, and those who are still in a savage condition. 
The Boot4ins form one of a cluster of eighteen small tribes 
— if tiibes they should be called — belonging to the latter 
division and occupying the extreme south of Formosa. Cra- 
niology will he of inatorial assistance in determining from 
whence the Formosan aborigines came, and Dr. Eldridge, 
he believed, was the first contributor of evidence of that 
nature. Language was of course another important guide, 
and the researches yet made into the dialects of the For- 
mosan aborigines revealed an intimate connection with the 
Malayan language. The civilized aborigines are fast losing 
their own language and are replacing it by Chinese. En- 
quiry into the languages of the savage tribes is in its in- 
fancy, but Mr. Bullock and Mr. Steere agree in tracing a 
distinct affinity to the Malay, while Mr. Thomson believes 
that they not only resemble the Malay but also the lan- 
guages of the Phillipines, New Guinea and New Zealand. 
There is a considerable difference in the dialects of the 
uncivilized aborigines, but Mr. Steere remarks that they all 
observe the same custom of tattooing some part of their 
body and of cutting off i.nd preserving the heads of their 
enemies. 

The President felt that the Society was much obliged to 
Dr. Eldridge for his paper, and he hoped that he would 
accept the thanks of the meeting for the trouble he had 
taken to explain the subject by moans of his interesting 
diagrams. 

The meeting then separated. 



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JAPANESE FISHERIES. 

BY 

GEO. ELLIOTT GREGORY, Esq. 

Read before the Asiatic Societij of Japan, on the 

2Sth March, 1877. 



PART I. 



A tliorongh consideration of the subject of the fisheries 
of this country, even in its more important hearinors alone 
wouUl, of course, assume far larger proportions tlian it 
would be possil>Ie to bring to the notice of the Socie- 
ty In the form of a paper. I shall, therefore, only lay 
before you brief descriptions of such of the principal 
modes of taking fish as will serve for types of the rest, 
aocompanied by such other facts as I have been able to 
glean, and so give, if possible, a general idea of this industry 
in Japan, employing as it does an army of fishers and 
supplying to the nation the article of food second only in 
importance. 

Many of the implements used in fishing in fresh water 
differing materially from those with which fish are taken 
in the sea, I shall group each sepaiately, and for con- 
venience of reference I will first present them, under the 
heads A. and B., in the tabular form appended, embodying 
particulars as to the kinds of fish taken, baits, localities and 
seasoiu;. Commencing then, with the fisheries in lakes, 
rivers and preserves, I have chosen for description five of 
the difi*erent kinds of tackle used in fresh water angling 
as those shewing the principal variations of form and use. 
The first of these, the hoi-fsuri-zaoy (table A. L) is 
a rod of bamboo divided into five pieces or joints 
which fit one into another. The socket ends of these 
are bound with silk to prevent splitting, and both 
ends are lacquered. Of the joints the first is about 
five feet long and from one inch to one inch and a half 



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in diameter ; the third about four feet, and the fonrtli 
and fifth eacli about tlireo feet six iuclien, all dimiuish- 
ing proportionately in diameter and making a total 
length of about twenty-one feet. When the rod i.-^ 
not in use three of the joints are eontaincd in the other 
two. 

The line is made of silk, dyed a dark red brown, with 
a dye called /r a Art *A/^w, — from kaki^ the persimmon, and 
$hihu, the sap or juice of trees or fruits — and is passed 
through a horse-hair loop at the tip of the rod and 
attached about five feet further down. The float is largo 
and round, and above ib are placed ten or fifteen small 
pieces of wood which may be sli<l along the line and serve 
to keep it from sinking. The hook is attached to the 
line by about one foot of horse-hair. 

The rod being too heavy to be lield by hand is support- 
ed upon a forked stick driven into the ground. The fish 
is played and lauded with a net. 

If the koi zao should appear of unwieldy length, as a 
get off we have the haze zao (table A. IVJ a rod, 
likewise of bamboo, of a total length of about three feet 
six inches only. It is divided into three pieces fitting one 
into the other, of which the first is about ten inches long 
andthrce-qunters of an inch in diameter at the thicker end ; 
the second about sixteen inches iu length and much thin- 
ner ; and the third a mere twig. The line is attached to 
the rod either by a cogged brass reel set into the first 
joint or by a cleat fixed on to the outside, and, running 
up the centre, issues at the tip through a metal ferrule. 

The hook is attached to the line by a gut about three 
feet long and is sunk by a small spherical leaden sink. 
No float is used. 

The ka-bavi* (table A. X) is a simple bamboo rod. 

• I am told that European flies do not succeed in Jjipiiuesc rivcns, 
Aiid have heard, as a reason, assigned by a gentleman, himself an 
angler, that the feathere of which the wings are made, being too soft 
and pliant to resist the pressure of the rapid streams of this country, 
collapse and thus cause the artiiicial fly to lose all similitude to the 
real insect. This would seem to be the case inasmuch as the wings of 
the Japanese flies are made of bristles and give to them, when out of the 
water, a very rough and rigid appearance aa compared with that present* 
•d by flies of Buropean make. 



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The line is used with a float but without any sink and the 
bait, tis its name ka implies, is an artificial fly. 

The next, nagashi-barl ((able A. XI), is a piece of 
common string about four feet in length, furnished at one 
end with a small, barbless brass hook and attached by 
the other to a very pliant bamboo switch, which is 
stuck into the miid at the bottom of a stream near the 
bank. The bait is a small live fish into which the hook 
is inserted near the tail in such a manner that the point 
shall protrude from the back and be fully exposed. The 
bait is thns at liberty to swim about until taken. Weic 
the rod or switch not very pliant, the fish when canght 
would break the line in its endeavours to escape. 

The last which it will be neccssniy to dcf^cribe is the 
dzudzugo (table A. IX.), a rod and line used without 
float, sink or hook. The bait, consisting of a large bunch 
of worms attached to the end of the line, is allowed to 
sink until the fish (eels) have fastened themselves to it ; 
these are then drawn gently to the surface of the water 
and landed with a net. 

The te-dzuri, or hand line (table B.), is the same as 
those of Europe, except that it is always used from boats. 
When more than one are put out from the some boat, small 
pieces of whale-bone bent at right angles abont three inches 
from the tip, and bearing tiny brass bells are stuck into 
the gunwale of the boat, the line is passed over these in 
notches and the bells ring when the fish bite. 

The fiawa, or simple line (table C), is a hempen line 
varying in length up to about one thousand feet. At dis- 
tances of six feet along its whole length are attached 
other lines about three feet long finiiished with hooks. 

We now come to nets, descriptions of six of which will, 
I think, cover all the different kinds that have yet come 
under my observation. That which is most commonly to 
be seen is the nchi or to awi, or casting net (table D. 
I). It is a circular piece of silk net-woik, varying in 
diameter; around the circumference are attached pieces of 
lead to cause it to spread out flat when cast aud to sink 



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rapidly. From its centre springs a thin cord by which it 
is withdrawn from tlie water. The manner of casting 
this net is as follows : — The line being fastened ronnd the 
left wrist of the fisherman by a noose at its end, is with a 
pai-t of the net, as it hangs from its centre, laid in folds 
across the palm of the open left hand ; upon these folds the 
remaining portion to within about tln*ee feet of the lends 
is hung in loops and the whole then grasped loosely. A 
part of the edge of the net is then opened out and hung 
behind over the left elbow and being continued forward 
under the arm, is taken in the right hand. What still 
remains is divided as it hangs from the left hand into five 
equal folds, four of which are held, one between each of 
the fingers of the right hand. The fisherman now turns 
his back in the direction in which he wishes to cast the 
net ; throws it away over his right shoulder, at the same 
time turning himself half round and allowing the folds to 
escape freely from his left hand. The net falls flat upon 
the water, and, sinking rapidly, encloses any fish which 
may happen to be beneath it. It is then carefully drawn 
towards the fisherman until the further part of the cir- 
cumference has met the nearer part and the fish are 
entangled in the meshes when it is raised. Ground bait of 
\)i\\U of boiled wlicat is used with this net. 

The next is the yotsu-de ami (table D. II). This net 
is square, and is stretched by its four corners from the 
ends of two light poles bent in the form of a bow crossed 
at right angles, and fiistened together at their centres ; 
.this cross of four arms or yoteu te is then attached by its 
centre to the end of another and stouter pole, which is 
itself again balanced upon a short upright post fixed 
either upon the side of a boat or driven into the 
ground. The net is lowered into the water, and after 
having remained a short time beneath the surface is quick- 
ly raised, if a large net, by means of pulleys attached to 
the inner end of the balancing pole, if a small one, by 
hand, and whatever fish may have been passing over it 
are taken. When used at nighty bamboo torches are burnt 
to allure the fish. 



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The kake ami (table D. Ill) is a strip of netting of 
which the length and breatlfch vary according to the water 
in which it is used. One side of this strip is fninidhed, 
at distances of about two inches along its entire length, 
with small pieces of wood sufficient together to sustain its 
weight in the water. The opposite side is in like manner 
furnished with smalt earthenware sinks which cause the 
whole net with its floats to descend to the bottom, where it 
remains in an upright position. It is then stretched from 
the opposite banks of a river, when the fish swimming up 
or down run their heads into its meshes, and pass nig be- 
yond the gills or pectoral fins can neither advance nor re- 
cede. 

The sukui ami (table D. IV) is formed thus : Two 
bamboos about ten feet in length being crossed and fastened 
within a few inches of their butts so as to form the letter 
y, a silken net of corresponding form and of which the 
sides are respectively about six feet and three feet in 
length is spread between tliemi and attached to them by 
means of loops slipped over their tips and slid along. The 
dip of the net in the centre is about two feet. 

This net is used either from bouts or by a man wading i 
it is plunged into the water and taken put agaiu with a 
scooping action, whence its name sukuu 

We next come to the oshi ami (table D. VII), in form 
a cylinder of netting about ten feet high by about the 
same in circumference. Within it are placed three bam- 
boos suited in length to the depth of the water ; the upper 
ends of these are bound together and their lower endjs are 
made fast to the Inside of the base of the net at three 
cqui-distant points. The upper end of the net is drawn 
loosely together in folds around the bamboos, immediately 
below where they cross each other, and its base is extended 
in the form of a triangle so that the whole becomes a hol- 
low pyramid of net. When the rising of air bubbles to 
the surface of the water shews that fish are moving among 
the weeds at the bottom, the fishermen place the net over 
the spot and, pushing it gently down, enclose them ; the 
folds at the top are then loosened so as to allow the fish in 



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their straggles to escape to draw the net down and en- 
tangle themselves in its meshes, which being done, the 
bamboos are closed and the whole withdrawn. 

The masu ami (table D. VIII.) is a net in the form of a 
bag about sixteen feet in circumfereuce by about twenty- 
five feet in depth. Almost one half of the circumfereuce 
is floated by means of pieces of wood, and the remainder 
is caused to sink by weights. To each side of the mouth 
of the net is attached a thiu bamboo by which it is drag- 
ged by flshermen in two boats, which are rowed up the 
the stream parallel with each other and stern first. This 
net is used in very shallow streams and the fish are taken 
as they go down to the sea. 

We now come to Wfeirs, called by the Japanese t/ana, 
of these there are two kiuds^ the one solid and the other 
formed of netting. The former, or i/ana proper (table F. I.) 
is thus constructed : In the centre of a river is built a wall 
from twelve feet to fifteen feet broad, and from each of the 
ends of this wall to the two opposite banks a close bambco 
fence is creeled. From the lower side of the wall, about 
two feet benealh the top, a bamboo platform about twenty- 
four feet in length extends down the stream. The water 
rises at the wall and rushes over with great rapidity. Fish 
going down to the sea are stopped by the fence, and get- 
ting into the stream in the centre are carried over the wall 
and left dry upon the platform, from which they are 
quickly removed by pei-sons who watch from a hut on the 
bank. 

The latter, i/ana ami (table F. II and III) are nets 
which are substituted for the wall and platform. There 
are two kinds of these nets marked in the table (a and 
b). They are stretched ncross the stream at places 
where it is very narrow. The fish going down the river, 
are of course stopped; and with one kind are caught as 
they hover around, in a net much the same as the yotsu, 
de ami ; whilst with the other kind they are allowed to 
fix themselves in the meshes of the net itself, as in the 
kake amif and are taken by men who dive for them. 



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These divei^s thrust a piece of bamhoo ihrough the eyee to 
render their removal more easy. 

Tlie traps or baskets in use among the Japanese fishers 
are many and ingenious ; the following are some of the 
principal ones. 

The yen (table E.) is a kind of maze constructed of 
bamboo poles driven into the ground at the bottom of 
lakes and preserves. Tiie fish enter, pass on, and finally 
losing themselves, find escape impossible. They thus 
remain swimming around in the smaller compartments 
until they are removed with hand nets. 

The tsuke-fhihn (table G. VI.) is a trap formed of' 
seven or eij^ht poles driven into the bott(»m in a circle, 
the inleri(n' space filled up willi branches ; the fish enter 
these and are removed with them. 

Taka Isulsu (table G. VII.) is an eel-trap consisting 
of three pieces of bamboo about two inches in diameter and 
from three feet to four feet long. The joints having been 
cut out so as to allow a free passage from end to end, the 
tubes are laid lengthwise, two side by side, and the third 
upon them, bound together and susj)ended in the water by 
a cord. The fish take shelter in them and are withdrawn 
quietly before they are able to escape. 

The koi do (table G. II.) is an oval bamboo cage or 
basket. At one end is a semi-circular opening l»y whirh 
the fish enter ; this is furnished with a row of bamboo 
Fj)ikes bound together with thread and directed inwards ; 
their points fall to the bottom of the cage, allowing 
the fish to lifl them readily from withont but rendering 
escape from within impossible. The bait composed 
of small balls is deposited upon mud at the bottom 
of the trap, and is thus prevented from being washed 
away by the stream. 

The namadzu do (table G. IV) is a slightly conical 
bamboo basket about ten feet in length by two feet in 
diameter at its larger end. It is covered with coarse 
mats made of rice straw, and being loosely fitted with 
dried branches and twigs, is sunk to the bottom of tlie 



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water daring the winter months^ when the flsh take refuge 
in it. 

Two kinds of spears have oome under my notice. OnOi 
the yasu (table K.), is a fork, the prongs of wliioh are 
six in number, barbed at the points on one side, about six 
inches in length and two inches apart. It is fixed to a 
bamboo pole, the length of which varies according as it is 
used frooQ a boat or by a iniin wading. It is thrast rapid- 
ly and continuously to the bottom until it transfixes a fish, 
With it are tiiken flat-fish at the mouths of rivere, 

The other, the unagi haki (table J.), is used for 
taking eels and is thus formed : To the end of a pole is 
fixed a piece of iron, like the haft of a harpoon, about 
eighteen inches long ; this is tipped with steel flatened 
and sharpened; its end is bent buck and brought forward 
again so as to form a hook at right angles to the shaft ; 
this hook is about one and a half inches long by one inch 
in breadth, and into the inner side of its bend are welded 
one or two sharp spikes of the same length. This spear 
is used either from a boat or by a man wading ; when 
the former, the gunwale of the boat forms a fulcrum, and 
when the latter, the fisherman's foot serves this purpose. 
The hook is plunged into the mud at the bottom of the 
water, carried a short distance forward and raised. If it 
meets with an eel, the fish is immediately transfixed on 
one of the spikes and shaken ofiT into the boat before it has 
time to wriggle itself free. 

Besides these, there are dredges for taking shell-fish. 
These I shall not describe here as they are especially in 
use in salt water, and will therefore more properly be class- 
ed among the implements used in sea fishing. 

There is still another way of taking fish, viz ; Utsukau 
or fishing with the cormorant ; this I have not yet had an 
opportunity of witnessing myself, but I am able to lay 
l>efore you a translation which I made some years ago 
from a German translation of a Japanese account handed 
to me by Mr. Machida. 



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Catching Fish with Cormobants. 

Oil the islaud of Susasliimai situated in Owara, to tlie 
south of Morasaki, are numerous inlets and small rivei-s 
which, during the winter, abound with different kinds of 
small fish. These places are frequented by corraorant« 
which prey upon the fish. From ancient times people have 
lived on the island and made it their business to catch 
these birds. This they do by placing wooden images of 
the birds in spots frequented by them and covering the 
surrounding branches and twigs with bird-lime, on set- 
tling upon which they stick fast. After having in this 
manner caught one cormorant, they place it among the 
bushes, instead of the image, and thus oatch more. The 
birds so caught are conveyed to Owari. 

Use of the Cormorant. 

These birds are now sold to people employed in 
fishing with cormorants. Large, young birds are the most 
valuable, as old ones fish slowly, are quickly fatigued and 
soon become ill and useless. For ten days after their 
purchase they are kept in such a manner as to make them 
as quickly as possible accustomed to people. Near the 
Nagara river are seven houses, the occupants of which are 
employed in fishing with cormorants. In each of these 
houses are kept, on an average, sixteen birds. From the 
1st of the 4th month until the end of the 8th month fish- 
ing in the river Nagara is carried on every night. The 
fishermen go out in long boats which at their bows are 
furnished with fire baskets or cressets. The fish havhig 
been attracted by the light from the fires in these, the birds 
are sent into the water. 

The cormorant, after having caught a fish, is di-awu 
into the boat, and, the fish being taken from it, it is sent 
inio the water again. Large ayu fish weigh as much as 
three quarters of a pound and the cormorant often swallows 
' five or six fish of this weight. Tlius in an hour's time 
one boat often takes two hundred fish. Very much, how- 
ever, depends upon the skill of the fisherman, the tying 



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up of the necks And bodies of the Urds so that they be 
neither too tight nor too loose, and upon the care taken in 
giving the birds the proper quantity of food. 

Training the Cormorants. 

From the commencement of the 9th month (Oct 3rd) 
nntil the commencement of the 4th month (May 7th) of 
the following years the birds are fattened. As above- 
mentioned the houses in which cormorants are kept amount 
toseveuy possessing a total of about one hundred and twelve 
birds. These are trained in the following manner. All 
the one hundred and twelve birds are sent off together on 
the river Nagara ; the fishermen encouraging them to 
fish by uttering cries of Aika! Aika! The birds dive 
and catch and eat fish of all sizes, (at this time their necks 
and bodies are not tied up), after having eaten enough they 
are driven together by help of the boats, none ever escaping. 
Each of the ownei-s then picks out his own birds from the 
flock, recognizing them by their heads, and takes them 
into his boat. Should it happen that a bird strays, the 
fisherman recalls it by crying Ko, io, io ! at the same 
time holding up a fish which he gives to it on its return. 
The birds are fed but once a day and in the manner just 
described. Trained birds have a cord tied round their 
necks to prevent them from swallowing the fish entirely, 
but they are able to swallow small fish notwithstanding. It 
is not necessary, if they have been out some time, to give 
them any other food. In the night after having finished 
fishing in the river, should any of the birds evidently still 
be hungry they are fed with fish. After this all the birds 
are taken to their quarters, when it is necessary, however, 
to tie a piece of cord (made of sti*aw) rouud their necks 
to prevent them from vomiting the fish they have taken 
for food. Every day at about ten o'clock the birds are 
placed four together in baskets and conveyed to the river 
to drink. 

In summer to protect the birds from the mosquitoes, 
which would otherwise trouble them very much, their 
quarters ai*e suiTouuded with moequito nets. 



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Manner op piibparing the Atu Pish, caught at 

MiNo ON the RrvER Nagara, avith Kasu or 

Rice from which Sake or Wine has 

BEEN extracted. 

The Aju fish taken at Mino on the Nagara is an article 
everywhere greatly esteemed. Those taken in August 
and September are especially palatable. The fish caught 
as desciibed above are sorted according to their size, those 
being considered the best which are from six inches to seven 
inches long and are very fleshy. After having been sorted 
they are suited by sprinkling over them good salt. To 
ten of the larger fish six or seven handfuls of salt are 
used ; they remain thus for about thirty days during 
which time, however, the salt is changed. The fish are 
then laid in fresh water which has been filtered through 
thin silk, and are allowed to remain there for about 
ten hours, after which they are removed, slightly dried 
and placed between rice from which sake has been ex- 
pressed. 

To the above must be added the following manner of 
preparing the pressed rice : This residuum must be cleansed 
from all impurities, slightly wetted Avith miriii, or sweet 
rice wine, and well kneaded. This preparation is called snke 
kasiL On the bottom of a wooden pail is put a layer of 
kasu about one inch in depth, this is covered wiih a sheet 
of paper on which is put another layer of kasu from three 
to four inches deep. On these two layers is placed a third 
of salted fish and upon that again another layer of kasu. 
Twelve of such layers may be contained in one pail. The 
pail is made of a light soft wood called Sawara wood, its 
sides are half an inch in thickness, its diameter is about 
one foot ^we inches inches and its height the same. The 
lid is made of the same wood and fits exactly. 

There is a second mode in which, instead of the resi* 
duum, pressed rice and sweet ««/*•/ are used. The fish are 
prepared in the same manner as in the former. This rice 
and sweet sake are called koji and are prepared as fol- 
lows : Good white rice is washed in clean water and then 



>1 



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m WATER FlSm^G.— Continued. 



risH Taken. 



Cobitis rubripinnis 
Cyprinus baematopterua 
Si I urns Japouicus 
Kind of turtle 



Carassius langsdorffii 
Cyprinns haematopterus 



Sbrimp and crayfidh 
Crab 

Carassius langsdoi^flii 
Cypriuus haematopterus 
Carassius Jangsdoi-ftii 
Silurus Japouicus . 
An gu ilia Japonica 
Silurus Japouicus 
Anguilla Japonica 

Silurus Japouicus 
Perca labrax Jap. 



Carassius Iangsdoi*£fii 
Kiud of prawu 



Anguilla Japonica 
Cobitis rubripinnis 
Anguilla Japonica 
Platessa varigata, etc. 
Platycepbalus guttatus, etc. 



Localities. 



Mountain streams all over Jaj 
Lakes of Nippou 
do. 
do. 
Yecbiu, Yecbida, Hida and 

Hitachi 
Lakes of Nippon 
do. 

Rivers of Nippon 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 



Rivers and lakes of Nippon 


Rivers of Nippon 




do. 




Rivers and lakes of N 


ippon 


Lakes of Nippon 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 




Rivers and Lakes 




Lakes and canals 




do. 




Rivers and Lakes 




Mouths of Rivers 




do. 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 





Bait. 


Season. 






During the rainy season or 


»an 


•••••• 


about May j 
All the year 

do. 

do. 1 
During the winter ' 

mouths 
All the year 

do. 

Autumn 
do. 
do. 




Husks of rice, baked 


All the year 

do. 1' 




do. 


do. 




do. 


do. 




Bruised shellfish 


May and June 




None 


December and January 




Bruised shellfish 


All the year 




None 


November and January 




Bruised shellfish 


All the year . 




Husks of rice, roasted 


During winter 




do. 


do. 




do. 


do. 




do. 


do. 




do. 



do. 

Spring to 
Autumn 
All the year 

1 
...... 1 

I 



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— 113— 

pnt into a square box or tray, the bottom of which is made 
of thill sticks of bamboo. Several of these boxes are 
placed open one upon another and the whole put on a pot 
of boiling water, by which means the contents are cooked 
by steam. After this the rice is allowed to cool and set 
to ferment, during which process a kind of white mould 
forms. Two or three days afterwards the rice is dried in 
the open air, mixed with an equal quantity of sweet rice 
wine or mirin and well kneaded, when it is fit for use. 
It is employed in the same manner as the kasu above 
described. 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 

A General Meeting was held in the Society's room, Kai Sei 
Gakko, on the 28th March, 1877, Sir Hairy 8. Paikw*, tho Pre- 
sident of the Society, in the chair. 

The miuutes of the laAt meeting having been read and 
approved, the Secretary announced that at Itutt Council Meet- 
ing the following genilemen were duly elected members of the 
Society : — Eev. H. Maundreil of Nagasaki, Rev. C. S. Kbey of 
T6ki6, Dr. John A. McBiide and Mr. James Beghie, both of 
the Japanese Agricultural Department : also that Dr. Eldridge 
was nuauimoiiAly elected aH a member of council, in place of 
Mr. Howell, who had left the country. 

The Library Committee re|>orted receipt of several very 
interesting peiiodioab, more especially that of the Madrid 
Geographical Society, which was evidently showing great 
activity in its researches. The Committee also complained that 
they could not yet discover the whereabouts of several missing 
books belonging to the library. 

The Secretary, in the unavoidable absence of the author, 
read the paper for the day, ** Ou Japanese Fisheries."* 

In recommending the paper to the consideration of the 
meeting, the President observed that Mr. Gregory had only 
treated of the implements used in fresh-water fishing, and had 
reserved his account of the apparatus used iu sea fishing 1« at 
further details of a technical character should add inconve- 
niently to the length of the paper. He was glad to add that 
Mr. Gregory bad it in view to furnish another paper on the 
•fisheries of Japan, which presented a wide and eminently 
practical field of enquiry. Fishing to the Japanese was as 
important a matter as cattle-breeding or sheep-farming was to 
ourselves. The extent to which fishing was carried on by the 
Japanese and Chinese as compared with other nations, both 



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—114— 

Orientnl and Occidental, waa remarkable, and doubUesa sorae- 
tbiug might be learned from their wide ex|>erience in this 
industry. As to the implements used in fresh-water fishing 
he believed that the casting net of the Japanese showed re- 
markable skillf both in point of construction and the way in 
which it was handled, and ho also had heard that the fishing 
roils of Japan were held in estimation by foreign anglers. 

Prof. Wyckoff said that while living in Fukui he had fre- 
quently seen a curious method of fishing for at, without bait. 
The apparatus consisted of a long, light bamboo pole, and an 
ordinary line, to the end of which short cord, bearing six or 
eight hooks at intervals of about ten inches from one another, 
was fastened. This contrivance was employed only in swift, 
and comparatively shallow waters, and was used as follows: 
The fi:jherman waded out into the stream, and cast his line 
into the water above him, then carried his rod slowly down 
stream, the line of coui-se being carried down by the current. 
After the line has been carried below him, it was drawn in, 
and if empty again thrown out above. When shoals were pass- 
ing two or three fish were sometimes caught at a single cast, 
but it was not usually an expeditious method. 

Prof. Wyckoff had often seen the casting- net used, and 
quiete agreed with what was stated in the paper. He thought, 
however, that ** throwing over the right shoulder," was the 
theoretical, rather than the practical method of casting. His 
own observation had been, that the person stood with the 
right side toward the s(M>t where the net was to be cast. It 
was a matter of considerable skill to throw the net in such a 
way that it would spread to its greatest extent, and cover the 
largest possible space. The fisherman sometimes threw his 
net at random, but often watched to discover the presence of 
fish, by bubbles rising to the surface of the water, and then 
cast. 

Prof. Marshall said that the KaJci SkibUy which was men- 
tioned in the paper as nsed in making fishing-rods, was a very 
interesting substance and well worth the trouble of a chemical 
investigation. It had come under his notice reveral times, and 
he knew more especially of its strengthening and stringent 
properties. Paper waa made very tough by the Japanese by 
ai>plying this kaki shibu to it. Dr. Faulds said that the kaki 
shibu was a valuable substance in medical economy, and he 
thought it would be owing to its antiseptic properties that it 
was used in the manufacture of fishing tackle. He further 
added that when mixed with suini (fine charcoal) a valuable 
paste was formed for blackening boards, and for this purpose 
he thought that such paste could be very advantageously in- 
troduced into schools. 

In closing the discussion the President observed that. 
Japan was the only country he was acquainted with 
where whels were caught in nets, and he referred to the 
description of catching whales in this peculiar way which was 
given in the 3rd volume of the Transactions of the Society, 



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—115— 

and to the high value set upon whale-flefth as food by the 
Japanese. He alhided to the use of fire, which was so general 
in Japanese fishinj^, both in fresh and salt water, as a very 
attractive and serviceable contrivance. Referring to tlie im- 
portance of the saliiion-fisberies of Japan he mentioned that 
the average annual catch of one river in Yezo, the Ishikari, 
had born estimated by Captain BInkiston at 1,200,000 fiHh,and 
the sufficiency of tlie method pursuod mij;ht he judged from 
the fact, given by the same authority, that as many as 10,000 
fish are occasionally cuuj^ht at jono heave. l\Iuch of the benefit 
of this important fishing was lost to the Japanese because their 
method of curing the fish w»is so very imperfect. To foreign 
eyes, at least, Japanese salted salmon was not inviting. If 
it were better cured it might become an important article 
of export The President concluded by expressing the obli- 
gations of the St>ciety to Mr Gregory for liis paper and the 
hope that the subject would shortly be continued. 



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—116- 



THE SPECIFIC INDUCmE CAPACITY 

OF GASSES. 

BY 

JOHN PERRY AND W. E. AYRTON, 

Professors in the Imperial College of Engineering, TOkiO, Japan. 

Read at an Extraordinary Meeting of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan ^ April 18//^, 1877. 



It was formerly supposed that because a gas offered 
less and less resistance to the passage of an electric spark 
as its density was diminished, therefore a very rare gas 
would offer an extremely small resistance. The invent i(>n 
of the Sprengcl Pump enabled the fallacy of this con- 
clusion to be apparently proved, and it is now well known 
that no visible spark can bo sent between two platinum 
points very near together in a perfect Sprengel vacuum 
even by means of a powerful Ruhrakorff coil. 

As regards the specific inductive capacity of gases, the 
only series of experiments with which we are acquainted 
is that of Faraday. The means in his power, however, 
of obtaining a perfect vacuum, and of measuring induction, 
were far infoiior to those which now exist, and we must 
not conclude that the result obtained by him "the speci- 
fic inductive capacity of all gases at all pressures is 
constant" either expresses an exact physical law or forms 
any criterion of what is to be expected in a perfect 
Sprengcl vacuum. The theoretical conclusion, therefore, 
deduced in our paper on " The Viscosity of Dielectrics," 



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—117— 

that since a perfect Sprengel vacuum Las the greatest 
known Resistance it may be found to have the smallest 
Specific Inductive Capacity it is very desirable to test 
carefully, althongli tins conclusion, at first sight, appears 
to bo in direct opposition to the resulls oblJiined by so 
Ciireful an experimental philosopher as Faraday. 

That no visible spark can be sent by a powerful 
Ruhmkorff coil between two platinum points very ncrr 
together in a Sprengel vacuum might be due to the vacuous 
space offering not an extremely great resistance but instead 
only a very small resistance ; for it is well known that no 
optical or heating effect is produced by an induction coil 
unless there is a decided break in the continuity of the 
secondary circuit. To examine this a hermetically sealed 
Alvergniat's tube was selected, in which the platinum 
points were about half a millimetre apart and between 
'which no spark was producible by a Ruhmkorff coil, which 
through ordinary air gave sparks 8 centimetres long. The 
outside of the glass was chemically cleaned and the in- 
sulation of the tube tested by means of an electrometer. 
The platinum wires terminating outside in little brass 
rings, the tube was suspended by one of these rings S 
(Figure 1) from the insulated electrode of a delicate 
quadrant electrometer. iS^ being to earth, and a cbargo 
being given to S, it was found that the insulation of the 
space P P^ was very great ; hence it is the extremely 
great and not the extremely small resistance of the 
vacuous space which prevents the production of a spark. 

To test if there was any induction between P and P^ 
(this is always taken for granted, but we have thought it 
well to make au actual test) the tube S S^ (Figure 1) was 
left suspended by S to the insulated electrode of the 
electrometer, the whole being completely surrounded by 
the metal case A B C D G H connected to earth, and 
with the other electrode of the electrometer. A stiff wire 
W from P^ S^ projects through a hole in the case, with- 
out touching the case, so that by means of W any charge 
may be given to P*. To prevent induction outside the 
tube between the brass caps S, S^ there is a sheet of 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



—118— 

metal A B C D which acts as a screen dividing the metal 
case into two compartmeutj?, tlio hole E F, in this screen, 
being very liltle larger than the tube. The phitinnm 
wire P, the cap S, and the electrode were, therefore, 
shielded from all indnclion except through the vacmiin 
from the platinum wire P^ A leaden cup L L contained 
strong sulphuric acid to keep the space under cover quite 
dry so as to prevent surface conduclion along the lube 
between the brass caps. On charging the wire W there 
was a motion of the spot of light which returned nearly 
to zero again on discharging the wire. This showed that 
there was induction through the mass of the glass or else 
through the vacuum. As, however, with this apparatus 
we could not determine how much was duo to each of 
these causes we proceeded to make the nppaia'us shown 
in figure 2. Although devised for experiments on the 
Sprengel vacuum, we have only up to the present time 
used it to measure the specific inductive capacities of 
gases at different pressures. The apparatus about to be 
described lias, during our investigation, undergone a 
variety of modifications ; we shall, however, describe it as 
it is now, and indicate some of the changes experience 
has taught us to make. ABCD, EFGH (Figure 2) 
is a brass box 22^ x 19^ x 6 centimetres, composed of 
brass plates 3J millimetres thick and strengthened with 
ribs. Eleven brass plates 18 centimetres square are fixed 
and kept at 3 millimetres apart, . as shown in the figure, 
by means of ebonite racks, shown in section in I J, fitted 
into the two ends of the box. - At the bottom of the box 
the plates rest on a strip of ebonite K L, which, as well as 
the racks, was cheiuieally cleaned and parafTmed before 
being fitted into the box. The plates 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 are 
all connected with each other and with the brass box by 
soldered copper wires ; 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 are connected witli 
each other and with a long platinum wire W W by solder- 
ed copper wires. Tliese two series of plates form our 
condenser. The platinum wire passes through a glass 
tube 3o^ centimetres long, chemically cleaned and paraf* 
fined; and very carefully cemented into a brass tube which 



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1 



—119— 

forms a part of the top of the brass box. At T^ this glass 
tube is bermetieally sealed and it is at (his point only 
that the platinum wire touches the tube. M N is a njotiil 
cap con tain in;^ cap cement, so as to render the joint be- 
tween the brass and the f^lass quite air tij^bt. V Q is 
anotber metiil cap conlaining cap cement, (o prevent 
motion of the top of the platinum wire breaking the 
hermetically sealed joint in tlie glass lnl)0. R 11 R is 
an iron lube soldcrctl quite tight into the brass box, 
and open at its lower end for connection with the Sprengcl 
or other air-pump. The special form given to this iron 
tube was to prevent any irregularity in the working of 
the Sprengcl pump sending the mercury into the con- 
denser, nn accident which occurred in the early part of 
the experiments, when the iron tube had a diflerent 
shape, and which necessitated the taking to pieces of the 
brass box to remove the mercury. 

The three couditions to be fulfilled in the construction 
of this apparatus were : — 

1.— The plates 2, 4, 6, 8, ]0 should be perfectly in- 
Bulatfid from the plates 1, 3, o, 7, 9, 11 niul from the box. 
2. — The condenser should be quite air tight. 

3. — The relative pos-itions of the plates should not be 
in the least allered by any yielding of the box, etc., on 
exhausting the air. 

Simple as it might at first sight appear to be to satisfy 
these three couditions, it has nevertheless taken us several 
mouths to fulfil them all simuhaneously. Sometimes 
(possibly from want of care on the part of the workmen) 
the final soldering up of the box spoilt the insulation of 
the ebonite inside, at other times the insulation would be 
good, but a small air leakage would be produced by the 
sight distortion of the box produced on exhausting the 
air ; various contrivances tried for leading out the plati- 
num wire by means of a tightly filling ebonite collar 
quite failed ; after many trials, conditions (1) and (2) 
were satisfied wheu it was found that condition (3) was 
not, for in order to get a condenser with as large a 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



—120— 

capacity as possible it was the set of plates 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 
11 tliat wore originally the insulated set and connected 
with the platinum wire W W W, while 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 were 
connected with the brass box, the box itself thus formiui^ 
a part of the condenser; but it was found that after many 
trials the sides of the box aj^proachcd the plales 1 and 11 
a very little on exhaustion, thus increasing the capacity of 
the arrangement. However, by connecting 1 and 11 with 
the brass box as described above and making 2, 4, G, 8, 
10 the insulated series, this difiiculty was removed. 

Passing over one or two unforluiiale fractures of the 
long glass tube, we ultimately succeeded in getting the 
arrangement quite satisfactoiy, at any rate for the best 
vacuums that couhl be obtained with a huge continuous- 
acting Bianchi's air-pump (and we have not gone beyond 
this at present). The insulation too is also so good that 
there is no appreciable loss of charge in about one minute, 
when the difference of potentials between the coalings is 
two or three volts. 

The mode of accurately measuring the capacity of our 
condenser when filled with air or other gases at different 
pressures had next to be considered. The first method 
we employed was as follows : — 

A current from a battery of some 200 DanielTs. cells 
joined in series was sent constantly through a large re- 
sistance U V (Figure 3). One coaling of our condenser 
was connected with one coating of a ^ Micro-Farad con- 
denser, made by Messrs. Warden (of paraffined mica it is 
believed), and with one point S of the resistance coils. 
Two wires U and V attached to the two ends of the coil 
were used to charge the other coatings of these condensers 
respectively. The point of attachment of the wire S to 
the coil was moved until it was found that when the two 
condensers were discharged into one another after the 
removal of U and V there was no remanent charge. Then 
if X be the capacity of our condenser 

-7- , resistance of V S . „ , 
X = i X rlsiitaH^e^f U S ^icro-farads. 



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—121— 

The remanent charge was measured by discharging 
tlie condensers through a Thomson's very delicate reflect- 
ing galvanometer, adjusted so that one volt through a 
resistance of 120 megohms gave 130 divisions on the scale 
at one metre distance. As it was found very difficult to 
adjust S so that there was absolutely no remanent charge, 
we adjusted it until the deflection on discharging was 
small, then keeping the ratio of V S to U S constant, t» say, 
we made 15 observation of the remanent charge, obtaininjr 
a mean rcaJing of, say, n scale divisions. Now, with an- 
other ratio of V S to U S, say n, we made lo more ol)ser- 
valions, obtaining a mean reading of, say, h scale divisions. 
Then since n snd h arc small 

X _ A X J — micro- farads. 

The disadvantage of this method was, that since the capa- 
city of our condenser with very small compared with one 
third of a micro-farad, the diflference of potentials between 
V imd S was very small even when 200 cells were employ- 
ed. To overcome this objection we adopted an improved, 
and somewhat novel, method of testing. The wire S was 
attached nearer the centre of the coil, the ^ micro-farad 
condenser charged with the wire V and insulated, the air- 
condenser was charged with the wire U insulated and dis- 
charged into the ^ micro-farad condenser, separated and 
again charged with the wire U and again discharged into 
the ^ micro- farad condenser (which of course had not again 
been charged with the wire V), the air condenser was a 
third time charged with the wire U and again discharged 
into the ^ micro-farad condenser, etc. By adjusting S pro- 
perly and by charging the air-condenser say ten times, and 
ten times discharging it into the ^ micro-farad condenser, 
the remanent discharge could be made nought. Or rather, 
having adjusted until the remanent charge after such 
an operation was very small, we were able, by taking the 
means of a number of observations to find what adjust- 
ment of S would have made the remanent charge exactly 
nought by a calculation similar to that given above. 
This being done, it may easily be shown that the value of 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



—122— 

^ may be found bj eliminating nine unknown qaantities 
from ten equations. A disadvantnge of this method is 
that some very small portion of the charge of ^ micro -fai*ad 
condenser may be lost on account of not perfect insulation, 
since some short time must elapse between the firnt and 
the tenth discharge of ihc air-conden.ser into it. A more 
serious and unexpected difficulty, however, was found to 
arise from an extremely slight absorption of charge that 
took place in the ^ micro-farad condenser, and after many 
experiments we were compelled to abandon this meth(Ml 
also, as unlikely to furnish accurate measurements of the 
extremely small difference in the specific inductive capacity 
of gases, the existence of wliich Farailny had not been even 
able to detect. From the experiments, however, made in 
the manner above described, it appeared that a vacuum 
had a less specific inductive capacity tlian air, but the 
method was not sufficiently exact to determine the exact 
amount of this difference. 

It was, therefore, necessary to use for our standard con- 
denser an air condenser of which the capacity would 
remain quite constant. W (Figure 4) is a stiff bi-ass plate 
3 millimetres thick 42*6 centimetres wide, and 42*6 centi- 
metres long, strengthened at the back with brass ribs ; this 
is supported on three clean and paraffined ebonite levelling 
screws, pointed at the bottom, and resting on a very firm 
stone pillar Y ; Z is a piece of hard wood, coated on its 
upper surface with tin full and forming the earth coating 
of this standard condenser. The whole is covered in 
with a metallic box not shown in the drawing, and which 
is connected with Z. By raising or lowering the levelling 
screws the capacity can be diminished or increased. The 
whole, therefore, forms an air condeuser of adjustable 
capacity, but which may be expected to keep a perfectly 
constant capacity as long as the levelling screws are un- 
touched. The wooden tin foil covered plate Z was used 
in preference to a stiff brass plate from motives of econo- 
my. Our measuremcntsi however, became so exact that 
the yieldings of the tin foil, although very slight, could 
bo detected t in future investigations^ thereforei we intend 



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—123— 

to substitute a stiff brass plate. We shall call the con- 
denser just described the open air condeusfr, or simply 
" the open," to distinguish it from the closed air tight 
condenser, shown in figure 2, previously described, and 
which we shall call " the closed." 

The method of comparing their capacities was as fol- 
lows: — The uninsulated coatings of the two condensers 
were coiniected with the outside of a very delicate 
quadrant electromeler, with one pair of quadrants, and 
wiih ihe earth. A battery of 87 DanielTs cells arranged 
in scries was employed to send a constant current through 
n resistance coil of 10,000 ohms, the two ends of which 
were connected with a rever^sing key, by means of which 
eitlier of these ends could be connected with the earlh or 
with the insulated coatings of either one of the condensers. 
The object of the reversing key was to einible us to 
charge the condensers siiccessively with the tchole batlery, 
the one receiving a positive charge in its insulated coal- 
ing, and the other a negative charge. The condensers 
then being connected with one another their remanent 
charge wag measured by measuring its polential willi I he 
electrometer. The use of keeping the battery constantly 
connected with (he resistance coil was so that its electro- 
motive force could be measured in scale divisions, by 
observing the deflection corresponding with the one 
hundredth part. 

Full precautious were taken to ensure, first good insu- 
lation of all parts of the keys employed, secondly protec- 
tion from induction by our bodies, &c., on the leading 
wires, metal portions of the keys, &c. Between every jmir 
of observations both condensers were always short cir- 
cuited for 30 seconds. The interval between two succes- 
sive series of observations was about 3 minutes, but as the 
substances experimented on, dry air, vacuum, &c., were 
taken in turn, the interval between two sets of experiments 
on the same substance may have been considerable. The 
specific inductive capacity of dry air having always been 
regarded as unity, we took this as our standard substance. 
A set of experiments on dry air was, thereforei made imme* 



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—124— 

diately he/ore and after a series of experiments on any 
other substance. 

Ill the fonowing tables the deflcclions given are each the 
mean of ten observations, with the except ion of the fii"st 
number, which la the mean of eight observations. A posi- 
tive deflection means the closed has a greater capacity 
than the opeu; or 

v». 

and a negative deflection 

The ratio of C to O given in column 3 of the following 
table is calculated as follows : — 

Let d be the deflection of the electrometer correspond- 
ing wilh a difference of potentials equal to one hnndredlh 
of the electromotive force of the battery, let/; be the meau 
deflection given in column 2 for any one of the substances 
dry air, vacuum etc<, then 

C 100 (^ + 2) 
100 d—p' 

All the gases used in all the experiments were very 
carefully dried before introduction into the condenser. 

Potential qf Jie- q 

VieUCrtc. "Xl^/Tr -T ^-«'-**- 
Observatiuna, 

Air -19-5 0-9981 

Vacnun. -29-97 9970 | P^-^ -^SlL^^^- 

Air -23-13 09977 

V— -3514 0-9965 ji'--^-JSSL[r 

Air -2200 9978 

^-»- -SS-^" 0-9962 j ^^^^^//Se^ 

The chauge of pressure produced in the experiments 
with the vacuum was due to a slight leakage in the con- 
necting tubes, barometer gauge, etc. 

One one-hundredth of the battery gave a deflection of 
the electrometer needle equal to 202*1 scale divisions. 



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—125— 

To give an idea of the accuracy of the method we give 
as a specimen in the following table the ten observations 
in full of which-38-74 recorded above is the mean. 

Vacuum 



oero. 


Reading, 




DeJUctioH, 


74-5 


33-9 




-40-6 


741 


28-8 




-45-3 


741 


19 




-551 


741 


39 




-35 


741 


41 




-331 


741 


41-6 




-32-6 


74-6 


45-6 




-29 1 


75-5 


34-5 




-41-0 


76-0 


43 




-33-0 


76-6 


34 


Mei 


-42-6 




in -3874 




c 20210- 


38-74 





o 20210 + 38-74 
= 0-99617 
The probable error of one of these observations, as cal- 
culated by the method of least squares, is 5*19. The pro- 
bable error of the result (38*74) is 1*6, or about 4 per 
cent. Similarly the mean error of each set often observa- 
tions may be taken as about 4 per cent. Now as the 
battery did not alter appreciably during one day's ex- 
periments we have merely got to consider how much the 
ratio of Cto will be aifected by an error of 4 per cent 
in the mean of one set of ten observations. Using 40*3 
instead of 38-74 we find 

- = 0-99602 
o 

instead of 0-99617 obtained by using 38-74 showing a pro- 
bable error of only 0*00015 in the ratio. 

Observations continued. 
March 4th, 1877. 
The open condenser readjusted : 

Potential of He- q 

Obseit'ations. 

Air +43-36 1-0043 

Vacuum +21-53 1 -0021 Pressure about 20 milli- 

metres. 

One one-hundredth of the battery gave a deflection 201*0, 



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—126— 

March 5th. 1877. 
The open condenser slightly readjusted. 

Air +13-88 1-0013 

IT /j^- /\ e\tu\A \ Pressure 20 millime- 

/ tres, slowly increasing. 

Air +20-70 1-0019 

1^ . F7 no 1 .AAA/^ \ Pressure varvinjr from 

^'«="'"" +703 ^^>^\ 24 to 95 millimetres. 

Carbonic di- 
oxide +23-90 1-0022 Dilutedwith a little air. 

Carbonic di- 
oxide +17-60 10016 Diluted with a little air. 

Air +11-52 1-0011 

Air +25-79 1-0025 

Carbonic di- 
oxide +33-15 1-0032 Diluted with a little air. 

Carbonic di- 
oxide +39-90 1-0038 Diluted with a little air. 

Air +39-00 10037 

As the exact amount of air in the carbonic dioxide of 
the previous experiments was unknown, we repeated the 
experiments with purer gas. 

Air +19-18 10018 

Carbonic di- 
oxide +27-01 1-0026 

Carbonic di- 
oxide +13-64 1-0013 

Air + 4-35 1*0004 



March 7th, 1877. 

The open condenser readjusted. Slight leakage in india- 
rubber connecting tubes partially remedied. 

One one-hundredth of the electromotive force of the 
battery gnve 209-75. 

Dry air + 450 10005 

Hydrogen + 9-41 1-0009 Diluted with air. 

Hydrogen +25*17 10024 Diluted with air. 

Air +22*98 1*0022 

Coal gas +2-2-86 1*0028 

Coal gas +36*9 1*0035 

Air +34-23 1*0032 



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—127— 

One hundredth of the electromotive force of the battery 
gave 206 and after some time 210. 
Air +14-76 I'OOU 

Vacnnm + 1608 1 0015 I Pressure varying from 

{ 5 to 74 millimetres. 

Air +40-67 10039 

Hydrogen +41*96 10040 Moderately pure. 

Air +5204 1*0050 

Sulphuric di- 
oxide +7513 1-0072 

Air +47-89 1-0046 

March lltb, 1877. 

One one-huudredth of the electromotive force of the bat- 
tery gave a deflection on the electrometer scale of 210*5. 
The open condenser slightly re-adjusted. 

Potential of Re- p 

Dielectric. muntfU charge. „ » 

Meanono "T Jiemarts. 

Observations. 

Air -22-64 0-9978 

Hydrogen —29-65 0*9972 Moderately pure. 

Air -2901 09973 

Vacuum -56-17 09947 \ ^''^^^ur^ ^^?^ ^ ^}^^^- 

\ metres, mcreasinir. 
Air -53-93 09949 

Hydrogen —46 20 0*9956 Moderately pure. 

Air -39-99 0-9&62 

Waited about ten minutes. 

Hydrogen -46 82 0*9955 

Air -4912 0*9954 

Sulphuric di- 
oxide +10-15 1-0009 

Air .,.. -37-83 09964 

One one-huudredth of the electromotive force of the 
batteiy gave a deflection on the electrometer scale of 205. 

By dividing the value of — for any one of the substan- 
ces by its corresponding value for diy air, we obtain the 
specific inductive capacity of the substance, that of air 
being called unity. As in all cases (with a few exceptions 
quite at the beginning) a set of experiments for dry air 



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—128— 

WAS made at about equal iutervals of time before aud after 
the set of experiments correspondiug with any other sub- 
stance, the division we have employed in each ease in ob- 
taining the following table was the arithmetic mean of the 

two values of obtained with dry air. This eliminates 
n 

the error that would otherwise be produced by the slow 
alteration that occurs during each set of experiments in 

c 

the value of - for drv air. 

o 

In the last column in the following table we have given 
approximately the weight which in our opinion ought to 
to be given to each result. 



VacHum. 


Jfinj-lfh. 


Jfi/tJro«/iu, 


Cml-ffns, 


SuJphunc 
Dioxide. 


U\iqht of 


0'9984 
0-9980 
9985 










3 

1 




10003 
10004 
1-OOOS 










2 


0-9988 




1-0003 
0-9997 


1-0004 


10024 



2 
2 
2 
2 


0-9986 




0-9996 

10000 
0-9998 




10050 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



The close njijrccment of the results for the vacuum and 
of those for hydrogen show that when the natuic of the 
dielectric is nearly the same in all the trials the probiible 
error is very small. Thus the probable error of the mean 
0-9998 for hydrogen is O-OOOOo as calculated (by the 
method of least squares) from the four observations on 
which dependence can be placed, the first result for hy- 
drogen being useless, as we knew that the hydrogen was 



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dilated with air. The probable eiror of each of the above 
four observalions, as calculated from them alone, is O'OOOl, 
and this is not very different from 0*00015 previously 
found for the probable eiror of ten single observations for 
a vacuura. It would sconi, therefore, that the errors are 
not so much due to differences in tlie purity of the hy- 
drogen employed as to other unavoidable errors in the 
apparatus. 

Taking the proper means by using the weights given in 
the last column of the previous table, we find 

Specific 
Sttbstanof. Induct ire Rtmarks, 

Capncitij. 

Air 10000 Taken as standard. 

Vacuum 0'9985 The vacuum was always less in 

specific inductive capacity than 
air, even single observations 
showing a less capacity. 

Carbonic Dioxide... 1 '0008 When air was allowed to mix with 

the carbonic dioxide the spocitic 
inductive capacity more and 
more approached 1*0000. 

Hydrogen 0*9998 

Coal Gas 1*0004 

Sulphuric Dioxide. . 1 • 0037 

Thus there seems to bo a connection between conden- 
sability, diffusivily, viscosity, high index of refraction, and 
specific inductive capacity of a gas. 

The method of measuring the specific inductive capa- 
city which we have employed is susceptible of any amount 
of accuracy, depending on the battery power used. If we 
can succeed in the plan wo have been endeavouring to 
arrange, of using an electrical machine with our delicate 
electrometer, wo shall bo able to measure the specific 
inductive capacity with still greater accuracy. For a 
vacuum, however, in consequence of the facility with 
which electricity of high potential escapes an electrical 
machine will probably give less accurate results than 
a battery. 

We have to express our thanks to one of our students, 
Mr. Kawaguchi, for assistance rendered by him in the 
early portion of this investigation, and to another student, 
Mr. Nishikata, for aid given us towards the conclusion. 



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—130— 

Induction in a Sprengel vacnnm which was the original 
object of our investigation, and for which onr appn nit us 
was specinllj designed, will form, we hope,tho subject of 
a subsequent pjiper, 



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—131— 



THE IMPORTANCE OF A GENERAL SYSTEM 

OF SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS 

OF ATMOSPIIEEIC ELECTUICITY. 



W. E. AYRTON and JOHN PERRY, 

Professors in the lmi)crial College of Eiigiuccriiig, TOki(>, Japan. 

Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan, 
on the 25th April, 1877. 



The great practical value of^itnultanooiis moleorologlcul 
ob8ef'vatioii2j i^ the assiotaiice they afford ua in enabling 
fairly accnralO predictions of I ho weather to be made some 
hours in advance. It is unnccc»f<ary for us to enter fully 
into what is being done, nnd what hns been done in this 
direction. The wenlhcr maps that are issued tliroe times 
a day by the United States War Department accompanied 
by, 1st. the table of records of observations, 2nd. the 
synopsis of these reports, 3rd. the table of probable rain 
and wind, 4lh. the list oF facts verifying or disproving 
the probabilities issued with the previous map, are evi- 
dences of the great labour that is bestowed on meteorology 
by the United States Sigual Office, and of the great 
utility of this work. 

But all these observations are derived from instruments 
like the barometer, thermomelor, etc., wbich are only 
affected by the air or other bodies in their immediate 
neighbourhood. A disturbance produced iu the higher 
regioua of the atmosphere cauuot possibly afieot a barome* 



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—132— 

tor or thermometer until this wave of disturbance has 
travelled down to the lower air strata, whereas electrical 
and magnetic instruments are instantaneously sensitive to 
disturbances produced at (rrcat distances : the Pneu- 
matic Despatch and the Electric Telegraph may, in their 
difference of speeds^, be taken as fairly analogous with the 
sluffffish barometer and the ever-watchful electrometer. 

DO 

Now Dr. Veeder has this evening pointed out to us what 
great effects on the weather are produced by such distur- 
bances in the higher regions, and why, therefore, in conse- 
quence the United States Government observers are 
specially instructed to observe, and record, the motion of 
the clouds in the upper regions. These instructions, 
however, they, of course, are utterly unable to carry out 
when the lower regions are also cloudy. Dr. Veeder has 
also drawn our attention forcibly to the fact that even 
surface winds, although they affect the weather, produce 
no changes in the barometer. 

Now since the value of all storm warnings increases 
with the time by which they precede the danger, the day 
may come when electrical and magnetic observations may 
not only aid, but actually supplant, barometric obsor- 
vations. 

But if an electrometer arranged to measure atmospheric 
electricity be always varying in its indications, then it 
may be objected at the outset that we cannot make any 
use of such observations, for where are the laws which 
connect wind and rain with the electric potential of the 
atmosphere. As well, however, fifly years ago might it 
have been objected that, as storms were very complicated 
phenomena and as their connection wiih atmospheric pres- 
sure, temperature, etc., was very vague, it was quite idle to 
make systematic meteorological observations. Had such 
objections, however, been allowed to carry weight then, 
the regular reports of the United States Signal Otfiee and 
of other similar offices (which reports, we think, we are 
right in regarding as among the triumphs of modern 
science) would have had no existence. But we may go 
even farther than this. Not only has experience hitherto 



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—133— 

always showu the wisdom of making regular observations 
even when their practical value could hardly have been 
foreseen, but in the cjvse ofatmosphericelcctricity, or rather 
in the case of its allied subject, natural curients in tele- 
graph lines, one of our greatest meteorologisia, the liile 
Admiral Fitzroy, has testified to their viilue in his fore- 
casts of the weather. Mr. Cromwell Varley, the well 
known electrician, having noticed that on several occjusions 
earth currents wore folloAved by a change of weather, 
communicated this fact to Admiral Fitzroy, who found 
such information of so much assistance to him in predict- 
ing the coming of storms, that he requested to have it re- 
gularly supplied. "On some occasions " says, Mr. Varley, 
" Admiral Fitzroy could see the approach of a storm 
" days before the barometer or thermometer indicated 
"anything of the kind." 

As the time has now arrived when it appears to us to 
be becoming the duty of all civilized peoples to cooperate 
in a general system of simultaneous observations of at- 
mospheric electricity, it may be well to consider — first, what 
observations have been made, and what has been learnt 
from them ; secondly, what is the proper way to make such 
observations. 

Our pres^ent knowledge of this subject may be summed 
up nearly in the words of Sir Wm. Thomson in his ad- 
dress as President to the Society of Telegraph Engineers. 
Suppose for a moment that there were no electricity 
whatever in the air — that the air war* absolutely devoid 
of all electric manifestation, and that a charge of electricity 
were given to the whole earth. For this no great amount 
would be necessary. Such amounts as we deal with in 
our great submarine cables would, if given to the earth as 
a whole, produce a very considerable electrification of its 
whole surface. We know the comparison between the 
electro-static capacity of one of the Atlantic ciiblee, with 
the water round its gutta-percha for outer coating — 
and the earth, with air and infinite space for Us 
outer coating. For since the earth's radius is about 630 
million ceutimetresi its capacity is about 630 micro-farads^ 



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—134— 

or about that of 1,600 miles of cable. Well now, 
if all space were iiou-coiiducting — and experiments 
on vacuum tubes seem ralber to support the possi- 
bility of tbat being the correct view — if all space were 
non-conducting, onr atmosphere being a non-conductor, and 
the rarer nnd rarer air above u.s being a non-conductor, 
and the so-called vacuous space, or tlie interplanelary 
space beyond that (which we caiuiot admit to bo really 
vacuous), being a non-conductor also, then a charge e(»nld 
1)0 given to the earth as a whole, if I here were the olher 
body to come and go away again, just as a charge could 
be given to a pilhball electrified in the air of this room. 
Then, I say, all the phenomena brought to light by at- 
mospheric eleclromelers, which we observe on a fine day, 
would be observed just as they are. The ordinary 
observations on atmospheric tleolrioily are precisely the 
same as if the earth were electrified negatively and the 
air had no electricity in it whatever. In rainy weather, 
however, the i>otential of the atmosphere referred to tbat 
of the earth is sometimes positive and sometimes negative. 
Observations made every whcio in the northern heiuis- 
phere tend to show that the potential is greater in summer 
than in winter, but the months of nuixima and minima tip- 
jiOJir toditifcrat diflferent places. Observations madeatKcw 
and at Windsor in Nova Scotia show dit*tinctly two maxima 
in the year, those at Brusbels and Kreuzuach only one. 
Both the Kew and Brussels observations show in adili- 
tion two maxima daily ai 8 a.m. and 10 p.m. in July, 
at 10 a.m. and 7 p.m. in January, and at about 9 a.m. and 
9 p.m. in the spring and autumn. Although, therefore, nil 
the tests made at different parts of the earth's surface in 
fair weather (except some of doubtful meaning mailo at 
the Peak of TeneriflTe in the early days of the study of this 
question) have shown the earth's surface to be uegatively 
electrified, the amounts of the electiieity existing at the 
same time at different places will be very different; and 
this difference manifests itself in a manner often extreme- 
ly disagreeable to the Telegraph Engineer — lu natural 
Hue currents. 



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The country in winch these natural line currents have 
been most carefnlly sludietl is undoubtedly British India, 
since the unifonn system of land line testing employed in 
the Government Telegraphs throughout that country 
causes the accurate measurement of these currents to be 
daily carriad out. From the results of 10,000 such mea- 
surements it is seen that in India the direction of the 
current is far more constant than its magnitude, and on 
tiie whole there appeal's to be a marked preponderance 
of currents of positive electricity flowing from the east to 
the west, that is with the sun ; and such a current the 
laws of electro-magnetism tell us would be consistent 
with the earth's magnetism. 

Observations made on the Atlantic Cables tend to show 
that when there are no unusual disturbances the earth 
currents at one end have two positive maxima and two 
negative maxima daily. Submarine cables, however, even 
when long are far less distuibed by terrestrial currents 
than land lines, which may possibly be due to the sea having 
a far greater electric conductivity than the land. 

Since the early days of telegraphy a large number of 
observations of natural currents have been made at the 
principal London Office in Telegraph Street, the results of 
which were communicated to the Astronomer Royal. These 
tests seemed to show that natural currents in land lines 
were the continuations of the submarine currents which 
were arrested by the comparative uon- conductivity of the 
land, for on Mr. Varley's endeavouring to find the neutral, 
or equipotential line, for the currents on the east coast of 
England, he found it to coincide approximately with the 
sbore line. 

Attempts have been made by private people to observe 
terrestrial currents on short telegraph lines of a few hun- 
dred yards which they have erected for this purpose. All 
such effortp, however, have been compai*atively useless, for 
the following reason: — The copper earth-plates which are 
buried at the two ends of a telegraph line will, on account 
of their slighty different electric state, depending on the 
amount of moist ure^ oxidation, etc, almost invaiiably pro- 



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—136— 

duce a cnrrent Thli current on a long telegi'aph line will 
be insignificant compared with the current due to atmos- 
pheric causes, but on a short line it will often completely 
overcome, and mask, the latter. For observatories, there- 
fore, an experimental lino should be at least 6 or 7 miles 
long, and two such should be erected at right angles to one 
another so that an idea of the true direction of the current 
may be formed. Long telegraph lines, however, may even 
be expected to give better results when a proper instru- 
ment, such as will be described further on, is employed for 
the systematic registration of the natui'al currents. 

During auroras these currents become extremely strong, 
sometimes as great as can be produced by the employment of 
a battery of 2,000 Daniell's cells, and occasionally even ex- 
ceeding this. Of such currents the most extensive set of 
simultaneous observations that have been made was during 
the remarkable aurora of February 4th, 1872 ; but as ou 
that occasion these observations were not the result of 
any general system of measurement but owed their origin 
to the fact that the currents became so strong as to inter- 
fere with the working of all the telegraph lines throughout 
the world, it cannot bo expected that any large amount of 
information can be derived from the mass of records made 
on that day. At first sight it might be presumed that the 
times at which the strong currents made their appearance 
on the different lines would determine the nite at which 
the phenomena propagated itself over the earth's surface, 
but if it be remembered that the delicate instruments 
employed at observatories would be affected long before 
those used in land-line-tolegraph oflUces, and that the re- 
ceiving instruments used on submarine cables, although 
much more sensitive than the land lino instruments, arc 
i>y Mr. Varley's plan of using condensers so arranged as 
to be extremely little affected by natural currents, it will 
be seen that the recorded time of these appearances of the 
strong currents on the different lines is useless for scien- 
tific purposes ; also it must not be forgotten that, as the 
stoppage of a telegraph line represents so much loss of 
»oney, the signallers at the commencement of imperfect 



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—137— 

writing are nil busily engaged in attempting to restore 
commmiicfttion niul Imve no time for making scientiAo 
entries in nolo books. One point, however, can be learnk 
from tiio observiiiioiH nuuie on Febrnury 4tli, 1872, and 
(liat is tliis. First I he general direction of tlie positive cur- 
rents was from ea-^t to west, tlnit is willi the sun ; secondly, 
along lilies running north and south the currents were 
comparatively weak. 

It is well known that auroras are accompanied by mag- 
netic disturbances, and as Sir E. Sabine has pointed out 
the years of maximum sun spots are those of greatest 
disturbances in terrestrial magnetism : we may, therefore, 
conjecture that atmospheric electricity and sun spots will 
be found connected. 

There seems to be no doubt now that earthquakes are 
preceded, or accompanied by, unusual strong natural cur- 
rents in telegraph linos. As far as we are aware attention 
was first drawn to this by one of the writers of this paper 
in a communication made to the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
in June 1871, in connection with the Indian earthquake 
of February 16ih of i hat year. The Indian earthquake 
again of December loth, 1872, was preceded with such 
strong earth currents during the evening of December 
14th in the land linos from Valentia to London that, in order 
to send messages it was necessary to loop the lines by 
means of which the current in the one line was made to 
neutralize that in the other. The Egyptian earthquake 
of January 12th, 1873, was preceded for some days by 
equally strong natural currents. This earthquake was 
also accompanied by an eruption of the volcano Shaptar 
JcikuH in Iceland, which lasted from January 9th to Janu- 
ary the 12lh, an<l it is interrcsting to notice, as Mr. Gmves 
of the Atlantic Cable Co. has pointed out, that a direct 
line drawn from Cairo to Iceland crosses the telegraph 
wires from Vnleutia to London. Again the Italian earth- 
quake of March 17th, 1875, was accompanied by great 
disturbances on the land lines of Italy. One case publish- 
ed by Mr. Varley in 1873 of a momentary current 
observed by him in 1864 in a cable coiled up in 



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—138— 

in a tank, simultaneonsly with a slight earthqnake 
shock in England mn.st, of coui*se, not he included in 
the ahove iisf, as here llie momentary current was pro- 
duced by tlie actual tilting of the cable tauk and not by 
a great difference between the earth's potential at two 
remote places. Such a current as that observed by Mr. 
Varley is generally noticed during the laying of a sub- 
marine cable each time (he ship pitches in consequence of 
the cable being thus moved backwards and forwards across 
the earth's magnetic lines of force. When the systematic 
testing of natural cnrrents is introduced into the Ja|wn- 
ese telegraphs and this, judging from the progress matie 
in that department during the last few years, we hope to 
see at no very distant date, then the scientific world may 
expect to receive such a fund of information on the con- 
nection of these currents with earthquakes as will remove 
this subject from the realms of conjecture and place it in 
the region of certainty. 

In what has preceded we have briefly indicated our 
reasons f«»r concluding with a fair amount of certainty 
that(l) atmospheric electricity, (2) auroras, (3) caiih- 
quakes, (4) magnetic disturbances, (o) natural currents in 
telgraphic linos, (6) sun spots, and (7) wind storms, are all 
linked together, and we feel that if this is shown nothing 
more is needed to iudnce thinking people to interest them- 
selves in the subject of this paper. 

As regards the methods of measuring the atmospheric 
potential we have not much to add. Sir Wm. Thomson's 
qnndrant electiometer, combined with his water dropping 
eollector, forms a very delicate measuring apparatus for 
observatories, and can easily be made self recording ; his 
portable electromeler and burning match may be used in- 
stead by travellers, or when neilher very delicate obser- 
vntions nor automatic records can bo taken. Full in- 
slruclions for the use of this latter instrument were sup- 
plied in the manual furnished to the officers who accom- 
panied the late Arctic expedition, and can be obtained hy 
any one desjring to use the instri^ment. 



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Concerning nainrnl line currents a mass of information 
could be collected if telegraph operators evei*y where would, 
wh( u no messages were being sent or received, make 
frequent observations of a moderately high resistance 
tangent galvanometer placed between the line and the 
ordinary receiving instrument, or between the receiving 
instrnment and the earth plalo. Although this would 
entail but very little extra work on the signallers, it is 
possible, nevertheless, that considerable difficulty might be 
experienced in inducing private Telegraph Companies to 
issue rules giving such duties to their em])loyes. Go- 
vernment administrations, however, might, in view of the 
very importaut information to be gained, be prevailed 
upon to issue such regulations, and it is the duty of 
scientific men to urge the matter. But better results 
would probably in all cases be obtained if the Royal Society, 
the British Association, and other similar scientific societies, 
would furnish telegraph offices with self recording instru- 
ments, guaranteeing, of course, that their use would not 
interfere with the ordinary working of the telegraph line. 
Such an instrument might be cheaply made, and we would 
suggest the following as a possible form : — Between the 
telegraph line anil the receiving instrument let there be 
inserted, on every line in all important offices, a long wire 
forming a coil about 15 centimetres internal diameter with 
its plane parallel to the magnetic meridian. Turning on 
a pivot fixed at the centre of this coil is a thick short 
magnet about 2 centimetres long, or a system of magnets, 
caiTy ing a brass disc about 12 centimetres in diameter and of 
such thickness that the time of oscillation is about 5 seconds. 
A strip of photographic sensitized paper, such that it re- 
quires about 5 minutes to be decidedly blackened under 
such diffused light, whether sunlight or lamplight, as may 
be available, and about 12 centimetres broad is moved 
along underneath and parallel to the disc at the rate 
about 10 centimetres per hour, and so that the centre 
line of the paper passes under the centre of the brass 
disc. A round hole 2 millimetres in diameter with be- 
y^Jled edges n^r the circumference of the disc^ allows 



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-140- 

dlffaaed light to blacken a small portion of the sensltlMd 
])apor. Tlie mngnitnde of I he stendy nndiml currenf 
will, therefore, be alwnys registered, while rapid vari- 
ations of the current produced by the sigmilliiig will have 
no effect in consequence of (lie hirf;o moment of inertia of 
the disc. Tl»e rolleis on wliicli tlie jmper is wound might 
be moved l»y n voiy simple clock going for, siiy, 15hoiirp, 
but which would be regularly wound up ovcjy morning 
and evening at which time the signaller would make a 
pencil mark on the paper. These marks would he of j^reat 
assistance in measuring time along the paper when it wns 
examined, and would also check any great irregulnrity in 
the going of the roller clock. The sensitized paper ready 
wound on the rollers would be supplied in closed tin boxes, 
each box containing sufficient paper for one monlirs use. 
The box would be put in position underneath the disc, the 
projecting axle of the roller being connected with the 
clock by means of a catch, and a sliding tightly fitting 
door op ned in the top of the box to allow the liglit which 
passes through the bole in the galvanometer disc to fall on 
the paper. At the end of the month the slide would be 
cloFed and the box returned to the persoii who had charge 
of the investigation, who would then fix the jdiotograph, 
and refill the roller with fresh pajier. Removing one 
box from underneath the galvanometer and substituting 
another would not, of course, stop the working of the 
line, even for a second, since the line and galvanometer 
connections are not interfered with. 

It might he ohjected that not only would sudden changes 
in the current produced by signalling leave no record on 
the paper, but sudden variations in the natural current 
would al80 pass by unrecorded; undoubtedly if the chani»cs 
in the natural currents were comparable with the making 
and breaking of the signalling current both as regards 
rate and intensity of change this would be the case, and 
ii. is difficult to see how any instrument could be devised 
in which it would be otherwise. But this objection is 
not a serious one, since such sudden changes are only pro- 
duced during a magnetic storm, and it is not from such 



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-141- 

observationfi that much iuformation can (at any rate at ilie 
commeucemeut of the study of the subject) be gained. 

We have not on this short paper referred to the medical 
value of systematic observations of atmospberic electricity, 
but we are informed by well known Doctors tbat they 
believe tbe electric state of iho air has no small effect on 
the general bealth of tbe public. 

It may be well to remark that any suitable simph recording arrange- 
ment would be exceedingly valuable if applied to a Thomson's improved 
ship's-compass . Such an arrangement working, say, in the captain's 
cabin, would give a complete record of the course of the ship during a 
voyage. 



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SOME METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
IN JAPAN. 

BY THE 

Rkvd. Dr. VEEDER. 

Bead before the Asiatic Society of Japan, 
on the 25th of April, 1877. 



The importance of Japan an a field for meteorological 
research can scarcely be over-rated. Consisting of a series 
of islands surronnded by (he waters of tlie hirgest ocean 
on the globe, and possessing no interior regions more than 
fifty railas from the sea, its climate is essentially an oceanic 
one. Its oceiuiic character is, however, greatly moditied 
by the vicinity of the largest continent on the globe, from 
which it is separated by distances varying from 100 miles 
— from the island of Kiushiu to the peninsnla of Corea — 
to nearly 500 miles, from the province of Echi go across 
the Sea of Japan to the coast of Manchuria. The ning- 
nitnde of these distances makes the insular position of 
Japan differ sufficiently from tbat of Great Britniii to 
make a comparison of the effects of the vicinity of the 
continent upon the meteorological phenomena of tliese 
islands to the east of tlie united continents of Asia and 
Europe, and of those islands to the west of the same cou- 
tinent, worthy of the most careful study. 

Such a comparative study would be made still more 
instructive by the fact that while the larger part of the 



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inrfluse of the Brltlih Isles is oomparatlTely leveli the 
highest peaks scarcely exceeding 4,000 feet in height, and 
the mountain ranges being of no great extent, Japan is 
essentially a mountainous country, covered with long 
ranges of mountains varying in height from 4,000 feet to 
7,000 feet, in which isolated peaks and vast masses are 
found from 10,000 feet to 12,365 feet in altitude. It is 
well knowu that elevated mountain ranges exert a great 
influence upon continental climates, and it is interesting 
to observe the extent in which even the oceanic climate 
of Japan is modified by her systems of mountains. 

Another important feature of the meteorological position 
of Japan is her situation in the ref^ion of variable wind.'«. 
These islands extend through 15° of latitude and 14° of 
longitude in that region, and form a series of land eleva- 
tiouB reaching from the average north-eastern limits of the 
periodical (monsoon) winds, through a distance of 1,300 
miles towards the north-east. From time to time the mon- 
soons reach their shores and mountains, and occasionally 
the dreaded typhoons visit their so nth -eastern borders, and 
make their destructive power felt even in the capital. 
To this influence (d* the atmospheric currents should bo 
added the exceedingly important influence of the great 
oceanic currents. The well-known warm Kuro Siwa 
current flowing parallel to the south-east coasts, and 
the cold currents coming down from the north 
into the sea of Japan on the west have much to do wiih 
the remarkable differences which are known to exist be- 
tween the climates of the south-eastern and western coasts 
of Japan. And, in fine, if we take into account the islands 
and groups of islands north and south of the Japane.-^e 
Empire, we have a grand chain of islands extending from 
the Kuriles near Kamtschatka on the north, through the 
Loochoos, Formosa and Philippines to the East Indies, so 
that could the vast belt of islands be dotted over with 
meteorological stations, connected by submarine telegraphs 
with each other and with similar stations on the Asiatic 
continent, knowledge of inestimable value to man, and 
unattainable elsewhere, could be acquired, shedding clear 



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llght Oil the mofit difficult and Important questions con* 
nected with the scieuce of meteorology. 

The worth of such a vast system of ohservations well 
carried out, has been shown in Greac Britain and in the 
United States. In the latter country, during several yeai's 
past simultaneous observations taken three times daily at 
seventy-five different stations, situated at fVom 50 to 3,000 
miles apart, and reported at once by telegmph at Washing- 
ton, have enabled tiie central office not only to forecast the 
weatlier, but in seventy -six cases out of every liundred, 
to give warning of impending storms, thus saving thou- 
sands of lives and millions of property. Isolated and indi- 
vidual observations have very little value as a means of 
forecasting weather. They may have, however, a high 
scientific value in such a country as Japan. And I take 
great pleasure in referring here to the extremely valuable 
and accurate series of observations made under the direc- 
tion of Mr. H. B. Joyner, C.E., F. R. G. S., at the Imperial 
Meteorological Observatory in T6fei6. The experience 
of the director, the skill of his trained observers, and 
the perfection of the costly instruments employed, are a 
guarantee that the work is well done^ and the result 
worthy of the deepest study. 

I propose to lay before you some of the results of some 
of my own observations in this fields pailicularly those 
results which are represented graphically by the curves 
of barometric pressure, and of thermometric, psychro- 
metric, and anemometric changes accompanying this 
paper. 

The observations which I wish to discuss by the aid of 
of these curves cover an interval of 124 days from March 
1st, 1876, to July 3rd, 1876. 

The instruments used were a standard Negretti and 
Zambra barometer with a column ^ inch in diameter, a 
standard wet and dry bulb psychrometer, a Robinson ane- 
mometer, a weather vane and a rain guage. The baro- 
meter cistern was 21 feet above the level of the sea. 

Looking now at the curves themselves, and attending 



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—145— 

'to the description of them given in the margins, it will be 
perceived that: — 

1. — The uppermost continaous curve gives the amount 
of cloudiness on a scale of from to 10. 

2. — The detached heavy vertical linos underneath this 
curve, with a dotted curve to the left of each, give the 
amount of rain on a scale of 2 centimeters to one inch of 
rain, while the dotted lines indicate the time and dura- 
tion of I he rainfall. 

3. — The second continuous curve gives the harometric 
pressure reduced to 32° Far., and on a scale of 20 centi- 
meters to one inch pressure. 

4. — The third curve gives the force of aqueous vapour 
on the same scale as that of the barometric curve. 

5. — The fourth curve gives the relative of humidity, or 
the degree of saturation on a scale of 1 centimeter to live 
per cent of saturation. 

6. — The fifth curve indicates the changes of the ther- 
mometer on a scale of 1 centimeter to o degrees. The 
dotted lines indicate the means both of the three daily 
observations and of the maximum and minimum thermo- 
meter. 

7. — The lowermost curve gives the daily totals of wind, 
on a scale 1 centimeter to 60 miles. 

• 8. — Above the lower curve the detached straight lines 
drawn at different angles to points in the horizontal line 
show the velocity and direction of the wind at the times of 
the daily observations. 

Noticing first the more obvious peculiarities of these 
curves, the barometric curve first claims our attention on 
account of the appearance of a certain regularity in its 
elevations and depressions, giving the form of mountainous 
waves with sharp high crests and deep troughs. Ex- 
amining these with a view of ascertaining whether they 
indicate anything like a periodicity, or regularity in the 
oscillations of the barometer, we ohtain the following 
results. 

Counting only those elevations and depressions of the 
bwometrio ooluma which exceed thi*ee»teuths of an inch| 



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we find that during 117 days the following numbers of' 
each occurred at the intervals named. 

Elevations indicated by the crests of the curve : — 
1 at an interval of 3 days from the preceding one 



2 




„ 4 


3 




» 5 


6 




„ 6 


1 




» 8 


2 




„ 9 


1 




„ 12 


1 




,„ 15 



Making 17 elevations at avei*nge intervals of 6*8 days. 
Depressions indicated by the troughs of the curve : — 
2 at an interval of 4 days from the preceding depression. 



4 


ff 


99 


5 


»» 


M 


» 


>• 


5 


if 


»9 


6 


»> 


» 


>> 


#» 


2 


99 


99 


8 


» 


}} 


y» 


f» 


1 


99 


f» 


12 


»f 


99 


yi 


M 


1 


yy 


99 


13 


>» 


l> 


»y 


»> 


1 


>» 


»9 


14 


» 


» 


M 


W 



Making 16 depressions at average intervals of 7 days. 

While we can discover no exact periodicity in the oscil- 
lations here indicated we can clearly see a tendency to nn 
approximate periodicity. The average of all the intervals 
id 6*9 days, and the separate intervals of 6 days ai;e 
much the most numerous, while the longer intervals of 
12, 13, 14, and 15 days show a tendency to break up into 
smaller intervals of from 6 to 7 days. 

The thermometric curves show in many places remark- 
able correspondences with the barometric curve, giving in 
several instances precisely the same intervals between 
snccessive crests and troughs. And what is still more 
noticeable is the fact that the relation is in many cases an 
inverse one, that is, when the barometric curve rises the 
thermometric curve falls, the crests of the one correspond- 
ing with the troughs of the other. This is especially to be 
noticed in the curves for the 61; days from March Ist to 
April 24th. Here we see almost an exact opposition in the 
chief oscillatory motious during the first 21 days. On the 



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3rd of March and on the 21 st, moderate depressions of 
the barometer correspond to equally moderate elevations 
of the thermometer, and on the 15th a great depression of 
the barometer is seen to be coincident in time with a great 
rise of the thermometer. Similar coincidences appear else- 
where, but they are not sufliciently numerons to justify 
the deduction of a general law that when the barometer 
falls the thermometer rises. 

Turning now to the curves of the force of aqueous 
vnpour, which arealsoapproximntely* curves of quantities 
of aqueous vapour, we discover in most parts a remarkable 
parallelism to the curves of temperature. At a few points 
however we see that the oscillations are in opposite direc- 
tions, showing that the quantity of vapour did not 
invariably increase with the temperature. 

A similar parallelism is seen between the curves of 
relative humidity and of temperature. The means of these 
curves as indicated by the dotted lines are in most cases 
nearly parallel. 

I may here observe that this parallelism between the 
curves of temperature and of vapoar, and the manner in 
which they differ from the barometric curve, are in 
accordance with well known principles of physics and ai'e 
what we should expect in tin oceanic climate. As the 
temperature of the ocean and the moist land rises in any 
region^ the quantity of vapour drawn forth by the increasing 
heat also increases. But this vapour is only f as heavy 
as dry air, and as it rises in increasing quantities into the 
up|)er strata it unites with the heat of the sun in increasing 
the volume of the atmosphere and causing an overflow 
into the surrounding drier and denser strata, and thus 
diminishes the weight of the atmosphere over the region. 
The parallelism of the curves of relative humidity and 

* The formula expressing the relation between the weight of a 
given volume of aqueous vapour, and its tension and temperature 
taken in connection with Glaisher's Factors, shows that for open 
air temperatures between 32" and 80** with dew point temperatures 
from 0** to 40" below the open air temperatures, the approximations 
to strict proportionality between the tensions and the quantities 
of vapour range from 79 per cent to 100 per oent. of othot propor- 
tioiuuity. 



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—148— 

temperature is not a necessary deduction from the results 
of experimental research iu physical laboratories. Tbat 
\s, it does not follow that in the open air an increase of 
temperature will, as a rule, produce quantities of aqueous 
vapour, which will increase as rapidly as the capacity of 
the atmosphere for vapour increases with the iucreasing 
heat. In fact their curves show us in a striking manner 
that, in the warmer part of every day, as at 1^ p.m., the 
relative humidity falls in a remarkable manner, and at 
night it rises again, so that the daily oscillations of the 
curve are opposite to those of the thermometric curve 
And yet upon the whole the means of the two curves rise 
and fall together. And this would appear to be a neces- 
sary part of that wise system by which the rain-cloud 
regions of the atmosphere become gradually iilled to re- 
pletion with vapour and at length empty their beneficent 
showers upon the thirsty earth. 

We turn now to the winds which may be viewed in 
mnny cases as potent secondary causes of the barometric, 
thermometric and other changes indicated by these curves. 
Strictly speaking all winds are the effects of differences of 
atmospheric pressure caused primarily by the sun's heat, 
yet when vast bodies of the atmosphere have once been set 
iu motion from one part of the earth's surface to another, 
carrying with them warmth, moisture and diminished 
density, or the opposite qnalilies, they necessarily exert a 
controlling influence over the indications of the barometer, 
thermometer and psych remoter. 

In order to discover the relation between the winds 
and the curves we are examining, we begin with counting 
the number and direction of the winds coincident with 
the chief depressions and elevations of the barometer. 
We find that there were seven southerly to three norther- 
ly winds coincident with low barometers, and seventeen 
northerly winds to five southerly winds coincident with 
high barometers. It thus appears that here, as in similar 
latitudes elsewhere, the barometric column as a general rule 
rises with north winds and fails with south winds. 

It appeai*8 to me tbat the exoeptions to this general 



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-149— 

rule may be due to the fact that the winds in these cases 
were probably of a local and restricted character. The 
winds which afiect the barometer are not regional winds 
confined to the lower strata of the atmosphere, but winds 
that come from great distances and imply motion of nearly 
the whole mass of the atmosphere. A warm £Outh wind 
coming from the tropics laden with vapours lighter than 
dry air diminishes the weight of the atmosphere, and 
wherever it goes, there the barometric column falls. But 
a south wind may be merely a local sea breeze spring- 
ing up at midday in consequence of the land becoming 
more heated than the adjacent waters. Of this examples 
occurred on May 3rd, May 26th, June 17th and 18th and 
other days on which south winds were coincident with 
high barometric readings. The mornings and evenings 
of these days were calm, while from 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. a 
strong south wind blew. And this wind must have been 
merely a sea breeze, having its starting point not far out 
at sea, and producing but little effect upon the great mass 
of the atmosphere. My observations in other i)arts of 
Japan afford confirmation of this view. In a journey 
along the north-west coast in July 1875 in company with 
one of the Hon. Secretaries of the Asiatic Society, I 
frequently noticed strong north or north-west afternoon 
winds', and on my return to Tokio I found oa examining 
Mr. Knipping's valuable records of his meteorological 
observations, that during the same hours on the same days, 
winds were blowing at T6ki6 in the opposite directions, 
namely from the south or south-west. 

As this is a point of great importance, I will here refer 
to the remarkable local or regional winds of California, 
which blow with great regularity from 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. 
almost every day from April to October. A careful obser- 
vation of these winds during eleven years, has shown me 
that while their velocity is considerable and the distance 
to which they penetrate into the interior is great, their 
influence is confined to the lower strata of the air, and 
they affect the barometer very little. Observations on the 
summit of Mt, Tamalpais near San FrancisoOi 2^500 fee( 



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—166- 

high, show that these winds do not generally reach that 
height. As an illustration of their force I may mention 
that in the valleys north of tlie hay of San Francisco, 
trees are all inclined towards the north-east, and in the 
valleys south of the same hay the trees are inclined 
towards the the south-east, showing that the winds pas- 
sing in through the Golden Gate at San Francisco, as 
though the narrow part of a funnel, and over the lower 
hills south of the Golden Gate, spread out in hoth direc- 
tions north-east and south-east, carrying with them refresh- 
ing coolness and welcome moisture far into the interior. 
And yet these nre merely sea hreeze?, not even ruffling 
the serenity of the upper air, or diminishing its literal 
gravity. 

In like manner the exceptionnl occurrence of northerly 
winds along with haronielric depressions fteems to he due 
to local causes such as a gi*eater heating of the coast than 
of the interior in time of an elevated south wind which 
depresses the barometer, nnd at the same time permits a 
low surface current to set in from the north. But in the 
absence of all observHtions in the interior at the time of 
these except ionsl north winds, wo cannot form any sure 
judgment as to (heir origin. 

We thus see the great Imporlance of such a number of 
simultaneous observations at suitable points, as will mnke 
known the true character of a given wind, and tell us 
whether i( is a local winil, a hmd or sea breeze or a move- 
ment of the great mass of the air. The barometer may 
lend its invaluable aid in answering this question. But 
we must also attentively observe the motions of the upper 
currents as indicpted by the movements of the upper 
clouds. 

Just here Japan becomes an exceedingly interesting 
field of research. Not only are ch>uds visible in her 
skies most of the time, but their differences of form, 
character and elevation iire such aa to give the observer 
almost unequalled facilities for studying the motions of 
the upper currents of the atmosphere. Such a pheno« 
menon as two winds blowing in nearly opposite dirootions 



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at once, one in the upper regions of the atmosphere and 
the other in the lower is very common, and I have 
observed many instances of clouds moving at the same 
time in three dilferent directions at three different heights. 
The importance of careful observations at suitable places 
and at different elevations may be inferred from the fact 
that the observers connected with the United States signal 
service are required to note and report by telegraph the 
direction and velocity of the motion of the upper clouds, 
these observatious being of great use in determining the 
probable changes of the weather. 

The curves offeree of aqueous vapour and of relative 
humidity by which the state of the atmosphere with res- 
pect to moisture is indictited, present many points of in- 
terest. One of the mo9t interesting of these occurs near the 
close of April. . Here we have from the 2l8t to the 22nd 
an increase of temperature and of aqueous vapour toge- 
ther. The quantity of vapour does not, however, increase 
quite in the same proportion as the temperature ; for we 
see a depression in one part of the curve of relative hu- 
midity, showing that the quantity of vapour did not keep 
pace with the increase of the capacity of the air for vapour. 
On the 27th a change ocelli's ; the thermomotric curve is 
seen to drop rapidly : but we observe that a heavy fall of 
rain has occurred on the 26th, as if the cup of the clouds 
had b en filled to overflowing, and was now partially 
emptied. Evidently some cause has lowered the tempera- 
ture and diminished the capacity of the air for aqueous 
vapour, thus producing condensation of the vapour and the 
precipitation of rain. But here we notice that immediately 
after the rainfall the pressure curve begins to rise rapidly, 
and at the same time the heat curve continues to drop, 
and with it both of the vapour curves, and during some days 
we have low thermometer with high barometer, accom- 
panied by small differences between the maximum and 
minimum readings of the thermometers. If we look for 
the cause of these phenomena, we notice that the cold 
north winds have been at play since the rainfall ceased, 
produoing their appropriate effects ou all the ourves* If 



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—152— 

We seelc to conjecture iivbat caused the precipitation of 
rain before the north wind began to blow we may suppose 
1 bat an upper current of cold nortb wind began to blow 
in tbe upper r^in cloud region, condensing tbe vapour there 
collected, before tbe wind was felt below. Tbis surmise 
finds support in wbat we observe on tbe 19tb, 20lb and 
21st of May. Here we finds tbnt afler a prolonged and 
gradual rise in tbe curve of aqueous vapour, beginning on 
tbe 29tli of April, a sudden depression occui*s connected 
as before with depressions of tbe curves of relative 
humidity and of temperature. 

But we see also that a strong north wind began to blow 
at tbe beginning of the rain fall. May we not belijve 
tliis cold wind to be tbe cause of tbis precipilation of rain 
and that it produced tins effect by reducing the tempera- 
ture of the lower rain-cloud region below-the temperature 
of saturation, without at the same time aflTecting tbe 
barometer ; and that the reason why it did not at first edect 
the barometer was became it was at first a local wind 
confined to the lower strata of the almosphei-e ? We 
find that after the rain was over the north wind continued 
^o blow, while the barometer rose rapidly. This looks as 
if the air, being partially dried af^er the rain and therefore 
denser than before, was now, like an empty vessel into 
which water is poured, in a condition to receive accessions 
to Its mass by the movement from above of dry cold a r 
from the north. In this way what was at first a surface 
wind might have become a movement of the whole mass 
of the atmosphere. Another noticeable iristance, in which 
a north wind precedes a rainfall at a time of low barometer 
and is followed by a depression in the curves, is seen on 
June 20th. It is noteworlhy in this case that the rise 
of the barometer is very gradual afler this date instead 
of being abrupt as in the preceding instances. And this 
is what we might expect, because we observe that no 
north winds of any strength blew during more than 10 
or 12 days after June 20th, It is, however, by no means 
a general rule that rainfalls occur only in time of low 
barometer preceded or followed by north winds* 



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On the 2Qd and 4th of May nearly 2^ inohds of rain 
fell at a time of bigli barometer. During tbe rainfall and 
after it, there was a bteady rise of tbe curves of aqueous 
vapour and relative humidity, while during only one day 
was there a slight fall of tbe tbermometer. During tbe 
rain a gentle nortb-east wind was followed by a strong 
soutb-east wind. Now it is to be noticed on tbe curve of 
aqueous vapour that this rainfall did not rob tbe lower 
strata of tbe atmospbere of their moisture. Is it not fair 
to conjecture that this rain, falling as it did from higher 
rain clouds was due to condensation produced by high 
currents of wind from tbe north, currents not felt on tbe 
surface, and that these currents also caused tbe barometric 
column to maintain its height until tbe rain was nearly 
over ? And when we consider that clouds at diflTerent 
elevations are frequently seen moving in almost 
opposite directions for hours in succession, we can easily 
understand how it could happen that a north wind could 
produce precipitation of higher clouds while a south wind 
was blowing on the surface below. Had there been an 
observer on tbe top of Fujiyama at tbe date last referred 
to, there is good reason for thinking that be might have 
recorded a north wind, while at its base a wind was blow- 
ing from tbe south. 

I might extend these illustrations further by discussing 
tbe curves which I have drawn for March and April, 1875 
and 1877. An examination of these would tend to confirm 
the views already expressed. 

In conclusion I only add, that we see even in the light 
of these few observations by one observer in one locality 
that such observations have some value in confirraing 
settled meterological principles, and starting questions of 
great interest, and that therefore efforts should be made to 
multiply such observations in different parts of the Em- 
pire. And every friend of science will earnestly wish that 
tbe day may not be far distant when the Governments of 
Japan and China shall, in the interests of science, com- 
merce and agriculture, establish and put into operation a 
grand system of simultaneous observations similar to those 
now in operation in some of the countries of tbe west, 



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•154- 



ASIA11C SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



An ordinary meeting was held in the Society's Library, Tdkid 
Dai Gakko, on the 26th April, 1877, Sir Harry S. Parkes, the 
President of the Society, in the chair. 

The uiinutes of the last meeting having been read and ap- 
proved, the Secretary announced that at last council meeting 
the following gentlemen were duly elected members of the 
Society : — Dr. Donitz, President of the German Asiatic Society 
of Japan, Professor Chaplin of the T6ki6 Dai Gakko, Pr. 
Andei*son, Dr. Willis, Lieut. James of the Kaigunsho, Mr. T. 
Tomita, and Rev. Julius Soper. A contribution fi-om Mr. 
Joyner *' On observations taken at the Imperial Meteorological 
Observatory in T6kid" was acknowledged : also it was agreed 
that such nieetinira as were held last week, called * A meeting 
of the Physiad Section,' should be held from time U) time by 
order of the Council and be called extraordinary meetings. 

The Library Committee reported receipt of the Proceedings 
of many Societies, and also of the Daily Bulletin of the Signal 
Service, U.S.A., for 1873. 

The papers read were 

1. — Some Meteorological Observations in Japan, by Rev. 
Dr. Veeder of the T6ki6 Dai Gakko. 

2. — The Importance of a General System of Simultaneous 
Ol>servationH of Atmospheric Electricity, by Professors W. E. 
Ayrton and John Perry, of the Kobu Dai Gakko. 

After some discussion the President, in thanking the authors 
of the papers on behalf of the Society, said he need only refer 
to the Daily Bulletin of the Signal Service U. S. A., to show 
the importance of the work in which they were ouKaged. This 
bulletin contained three meteorological maps forench day, and the 
comparisonofthecolumns of Probable and Actual Eventsshowed 
what incalculable benefits to mankind had been already obtain- 
ed through the labours of meteorologists. lie eanjesLly hoped 
that the publication by the Society of the work of the few 
labourers in the Meteorological field here would help to induce 
the Governments of China and Japan to establish a chain of 
Meteorological Observatories similar to what has been already 
done in America. 



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r-166- 



CHAXYBEATE SPEING. 



Osaka, Shiakudjo, 3rd February, 1877. 

To Pbopessob Atbton, 

The Corr, Secretary of the 

Asiatic Society. 

Dear Sib, — ^In tlie moath of December lasfc year, I 
paid a visit to Arima, in order to determine the qaariHty 
of free Carbon io Acid in the water of the hot chalybeate 
spring, about which I wrote you before. There are a 
few more springs in and ai*onnd Arima, more or less im- 
portant, which at the request of the Government I also 
examined. The situation of the hot spring and ita baths 
are well known to visitors and by the description of Mr. 
Geerts and othci's. I may add, however, that the build- 
ings with their bathing-places and all the surroundings 
are not proportionate to the value of the water. This is 
really to be regrotted, and I am sure that if the accom- 
modation at these baths was better many more visitors 
would avail themselves of their use. 

The spring is situated about 350 metres above the 
level of the sea and takes it« source in the town of Arima 
itself. During the six dnys I stayed there the water was 
always turbid, and when poured into a glass quickly de- 
posited a hrown-i-ed, flocky powder of protoxide and 
sesquioxide of iron. No odour of sulphuretted hydrogen 
could be perceived, noi* wjis I able to prove its presence 
in a large quantity of the water by means of lead-paper. 
According to the testimony of some Arima officials, who 
were very kind in assisting us in every way, the water is 
always clear daring the summer season. 



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—166— 

At thd w&rmest place, about ^ metre nndev the enrfSAoe, 
tlie tempi rature was 38,3^ Cels. = 101° Falir. The 
epecifio gravity at temp, of 23° Cels. = 73,4° Falir., 
was 1,0118 (in Angnst, 1875, I foond at the same temp. 
1,0115). 

The tarbid state of the water made me aheady sup- 
pose that no free carbonic acid was present, a supposition 
which the analysis afterwards confirmed. 

The quantity of whole and half bound carbonic acid 
amounted to 2 x 0,0048 grm. COo a litre. 

It is therefore proved that the water did not contain 
free carbonic acid in December 1876, and even less car- 
bonic acid was present than is necessary for dissolving 
the carbonates of iron and manganese, as bicarbonates, 
according to the analysis of the summer water. 

Finally the specific gi'avity of the summer and winter 
waters proves that the whole amount of solid substances 
must be almost equal in both. 

Cold Spring of Arima called **Teppo Sui." 
This spring is found in the neighbourhood of Arima at 
the height of about 400 metres above the level of the sea. 
The water springs up in a square basin made of rough 
stoucF, having a superficial area of about 1 square metre. 
A wooden dwelling, like a small temple, built over the 
basin, prevents the rain from falling into it. 

The temperature of the spring was found on the 14th 
December, 1870, to be 1G,8° Cels. = 02,2° Fahr., while 
the thermometer in the open air indicated the temp, of 0^ 
Cels. = 42,8^ Fahr. Now and then some bubbles of gas 
were to be seen, which were dissolved afterwards by the 
water. According to the statements of the residents 
those bubbles are much more numerous in the summer 
time. 

Properties, — The water is colourless and clear, but a few 
days after being quietly kept in an uncovered glass, it 
deposits a little i*ed sediment of proto-and sesquiozide of 
iron. It reddens litmus-tincture and tastes sourish, not 
salty. The presence of a small quantity of sulphuretted 
hydrogen was proved both by iiie smell as well as by 



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means of lead*paper. It effervesces by heating, and after 
boiling for a long time a little sediment of carbonate of 
lime, etc., is deposited. The specific gravity is almost 1. 
The solid matters were determinated three time viz. 
in the summer water of 1875, in the spring of 1876 and 
in the winter water of 1876, and amount on an average 
for 10 litres, after being dried at 120° Cels. 1,362 grm., 
0,03 grm. of which are lost through a moderate ignition* 
The residue gives with water an alkaline liquid. The 
quantitative analysis of the salts, below mentioned, is that 
of the summer water of 1875 and of the spring water of 
1876, sent to the Osaka laboratory. The determination 
of the fi*ee, half and whole bound carbonic acid took place 
in December 1876 at the spring itself. 

The solid matters contained in 10 litres of this water 
are as follows : 

Bicarbonate of Soda 1,210 grm. 

Chloride of Sodium 0,038 „ 

Chloride of Potassium .0,076 „ 

Sulphate of Lime 0,077 „ 

Bicarbonate of Lime 0,266 „ 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia 0,043 „ 

Oxide of Ahiminium A small quantity. 

Bicarbonate of Protoxide of Iron 0,125 grm. 

Bicarbonate of Protoxide of Manganese... 0,02 1 „ 
Silicic acid and indissoluble Silicates .....0,065 „ 
Organic matter A small quantity. 

The fi-ee carbonic acid amounted at 16,8° Cels. = 62,2* 
Fahr., and the barometer of 730 m.m. in one volume of 
the water 0,689 volume of CO. 2 

The amount of half and which bound carbonic acid was 
found to be a little below the calculation drawn from the 
above-mentioned analysis. 

I was told that foreign visitora like to take the watei's 
as a cooling beverage. 

I remain, dear Sir, with due respect, 
Your obedient servant, 

B, W. DWAES. 



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—168— 



NOTES ON THE CRANIA OF THE BOTANS 
OF FORMOSA. 

BY 

STUART ELDRIDGE, M.D. 

Bead before the Attintic Society of Japan^ on 
the 14/A March, 1877. 



The subject proper of ray paper this evening is so un- 
interesting, save to the few who are engaged in the study 
of compamfcive ethnology, that in hope of somewhat re- 
<Ieeming its dry detail 1 have resolve<l to preface it with 
a short sketch of craniology in general, showing very 
l)rief1y what this science is, what its objects are, and the 
methods of research employed. Craniology is one of nu- 
merous sciences, as physiology, general anatomy, archae- 
ology, and philology, which together form the great science 
of ethnology, or the study of the relation of individual 
men to races, of races to each other, and of both indivi- 
duals and races to surrounding nature. 

Although men are all formed upon the same general 
plan, yet there are no two individuals exactly alike either 
in internal or external structure, and this applies as well 
to the bony brain case as to other parts. Of any given 
number of skulls no two will be found perfectly to cor- 
respond, but an examination of many crania has shown 
that the forms of the head are susceptible of arrangement 
into a comparatively small number of groups, which will 



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agree in their general characteristics, however much 
tliey may differ ft-om each other individaally. 

All skulls may he classed either as short-heads or long- 
heads, hrachykephali or dolichokephali, the short-heads 
including those which approach most closely to spherical 
form, while the long-heads are those deviating from the 
sphere to the greatest extent, both being considered with 
reference to the relation between their transverse and 
a ntero- posterior diameters. A mathematical rule has 
been laid down for the detertniiiution of the place of any 
given skull as long or short. Skulls of which the long* 
est diameter from front to back bears a proportion 
to the greatest diameter from side to side of 100 to 80 or 
above, are classed as short or brachykephalic ; those in 
which these proportions are as 100 to less than 80 arc 
classed ii« long, or dolichokephalic. Now of the skulls of 
any well defined race so large a proportion will be found 
to belong to the same class, that all known races of men 
may be relegated to one or the other of these two classes 
of short-heads and long-heads* Thus, to the short heads 
belong among others Slavs, Finns, Persians and Turks, 
the various Mongolian races, aud some of the American 
tribes. To the long heads belong most European races, as 
Gauls, Kelts, Britons aud Teutons, the negro races^ Aus* 
tralians aud some other Pacific Islanders, classed as uigri- 
tos, and some of the American peoplesi 

A comparison of short heads and long heads in their 
respective classes will show, howeveri that while they agree 
more or less closely as respects their proportionate diame- 
ters> they differ widely in other rtispectsi Thus, compare 
the skull of an average Englishman with that of any Aus- 
tmiian, both classed as long-heads. The difference in every 
other point is so great that it seems a mistake to classify 
them together. Notice more especially the retreating 
aud low forehead and projecting muzzle of the Australian, 
the profile as well as the front view of the two are so 
unlike, that a child could scarcely mistake the one for the 
other. Similar differences^ though of less extent, will 
be found ou oompariug the skulls of the Bhgrt«he«ul rftoe»i 



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—160— 

Accordingly both bracbykepbali and doHcbokepbali aro 
divided iuto sub-classes, the promiueut jawed or progna^ 
thous, and straight jawed or orthoguathous. Of ihe^e 
classes the Australian is a type of the prognathous and 
the average European of the orthognathous. For the de- 
termination of the extent of prognathism or the contrary, 
the so called facial angle is sometimes made use of. The 
examination is made by measuring the angle formed by 
two straight lines, one extending from the middle of the 
opening of the ear to the floor of the nose, the other 
drawn from the most prominent part of tha forehead to 
the front of the upper jaw. The angle thus taken varies 
between 70 and 80 degrees, sometimes exceeding these 
limits. Other things being equal, the greater the facial 
angle the more intellectual the appearance of the man. 
The ancients in some of their most admired statues exag- 
gerated the angle to nearly 100 degrees. But there are 
other and important points of difference, in skulls, of which 
no note is taken in the classifications above mentioned, as, 
for instance) the height and contour of the superior sur- 
faoe^ and the proportion between the facial part of the 
skull and the brain case proper. Compare the front view 
of the Mongolian, European and Australian skulls ; notice 
the beautiful oval outline of the European; the low, depress- 
ed and square contour of the Austraruin ; and the broad 
base and pointed top of the Mongolian. These differences in 
structure are equally visible when the skulls aro viewed fi'otn 
below. From these distinctions arises another classification 
which is perhaps more generally useful than any other, 
viz , thai of oval, pyramidal and prognathous, the latter 
class including only those skulls of which prognathism is 
the chief characteristic, as in the Australian or Negro. 
Now considering skulls as belonging to one of these three 
classes, the oval, pyramidal, and prognathous, it is found 
that the skull form bears a constant relation to the habits 
and surroundings of the race to which its possessor belong* 
ed. The prognathous skull is chiefly found among savage 
tribes, existing by the chase, or by the accidental yield of 
the eartbi and| even whore this form of akuU exisU ia % 



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race th« majority of whose crania belong to a higher type, 
it will generally be found that the iodividual or his 
ancestors not far back, have lived under circumstances of 
special poverty or degradation. The pyramidal is the 
typical form of skull among uomad races, herdsmen and 
plain dwellers, or northern tribes living by fisbingand tbe 
reindeer. Certainly some of the possessors of pyramidal 
skulls are no longer nomads, but there is much evidence 
in favour of the theory that these tribes, now located and 
possessing a higber civilization, are descended from nomadic 
tribes who at some early day wandered over the great plains 
of Asia, as the Red Indians of America do to-day between 
tbe Mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains. 

The oval form of skull, of which the European, or, as 
it was formerly termed, the Caucasian, is tbe best type, is 
separated from tbe preceding forms by tbe^absence of 
their distinguishing characteristics, rather than by the 
possession of any very distinctive traits of its own. It is 
found among races posssessing the highest civilization ; 
men existing by systematic agriculture and the use of 
arts demanding intellectual culture. 

There is no doubt that a change in tbe habits of any 
people will, in the course of ages, modify the prevailing 
cranial form of tbe race. Thus the Turks are no doubt 
descended from tbe same stock as the still nomadic pyra- 
midaUskulled tribes of Central Asia, yet centuries of 
civilization and residence in one locality have modified 
their skull form into a close resemblance to the ordinary 
European type. On the other hand there is evidence 
that, reversing the circum^itances, a retrogressive cbange 
may lake place. Degrade a people into slavery, break up 
their civilization, transform them from city dwellers into 
nomads, and, in course of time, their skulls will exhibit 
a change toward prognathism or pyramidal ism in pro- 
portion to the alteration or degradation of their circum- 
stances. 

In measuring or otherwise examining unknown forms 
of skull, the possibility of artificial distortion should al- 
wif • be bora in miadi Many tribes^ both anoiont Aud 



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moderDy have been in ilie habit of greatly modifying 
the form of their childreiis' skulls by loug coutiuued pres- 
8ure, sometimes} with very curious results. This treatment, 
however y generally leaves such traces as to prevent the 
confouuding of natui'ai and artificial departures from the 
normal type. 

But, ill addition to the study of the proportions of the 
external parts of the skull, crauiology iucludes the esti- 
mation of the volume of the coutaiiied brain, and, other 
things being equal, there is no doubt that the volume of 
the bmin affords to a great extent a measure of intellectual 
capacity, though there are exceptions to this rule as to 
most others. The measurement of the brain case is 
taken either by filling the cranial cavity with shot of a 
uniform diameter, from the weight of which the cubic 
contents caif easily be determined, or by taking a cast of 
the interior of the skull in plaster or wax. It is found by 
repeated observations of this character that a constant 
relation exists between the size of the brain and the status 
of the race from which the skull is derived. 

Thus of 88 skulls of continental Europeans^ English 
and Anglo-Americans, taken indiscriminately, the mean 
cubic contents were 93.5 inches. 

Of 38 Chinese, Malay, Esquimaux and Finns (pyrami- 
dal form) the mean was 86 inches. 

Of 164 skulls of North American Indians the mean was 
£l4 inchesi 

Of 64 native Africans the mean was 88.7. 

Of 8 Australians the mean teas ^5i 
Individual cases etceed these limits widely. 

Now I shall not attempt to determine with certainty 
the place of the Botan, according to any classification^ 
To do 80 requires opportunity for extensive comparison, 
together with special experience and training for the 
work> which I have no claim to possess. My impression, 
however, is that the Botan race is a mixed one, probably 
a hybrid between a nigrito race and a Mongolian people. 
I think, comparing the Botan skull with other formsi 
that it approximates to the type of both these raoes wi(h« 



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oufc dofleljr resembling either. All that I have attempted 
in the following note is such a study and measurement of 
the skulls in my possession as shall furnish data to some 
expert craniologist, by which he may compare and locate 
the specimens. Measurements to be of value for purposes 
of comparison must include such and so many as almost 
to enable the student to erect from the data given a model 
of the cranium measured. It appears tome that the scheme 
of Huxley is the best yet brought forward for systematic 
measurement, and I have accordingly adopted it. 

It is hardly necessary to remind residents of Japan that 
the Botans or Motaiis are one of the so-called aboriginal 
and savage tribes of southern Formosa ; nor, that they 
were, within a shoii; time, chastised by the Japanese for 
the murder of certain Liu Kiu castaways. Little is known 
of these people ; all that I have been able to gather con- 
cerning them may be briefly sumniarized as follows : — 

They are a race of rather fine physical development, of 
medium height, courageous, frank, and impressible like 
most savages ; straight haired, complexion very various 
but always of a brown tint, never black; having some 
knowledge of agriculture, cultivating tobacco, root crops 
and rice ; possessing, as domesticated animals, bufialoes, 
pigs, dogs and poultry ; living under a patriarchal organi- 
zation ; fond of the chase ; having some slight knowledge 
of certain arts, and a rude form of religion the cult us of 
which is, at least to some extent, in the hands of priest- 
esses, who are highly reverenced. 

The skulls upon which this paper is founded are four 
in number, of which only one is perfect, the other three 
having apparently served for experiments as to the hard- 
ness and sharpness of Japanese swords. I have numbered 
the skulls 1, 2, 3 and 4.* 

No. 1 is perfect. 

No. 2 has lost the left zygoma, a portion of the frontal, 
a portion of the temporal, the body of the ethmoid and 
nearly half of the facial bones. 

No. 3 has lost about half of the frontal bone and is ex- 
tensively fractured. 

* The accompanying figures are in each case numbered as above. 



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Na 4 hai bad the tipper margin of both parietali 
beaten in, and has lost all of the facial bones. 

These are no signs of artificial distortion in any of the 
sknlls. 

In all the skulls, when held at arm's length, the malar 
hones are visible upon either side. 

All five dolichokephalic. 

No. I is slightly prognathous in form. Nos. 2 and 3 
are decidedly ortlmgnathous, and the prognathism of No. 
1 seems due rather to alveolar projection only, than to 
general prognathism. In all the skulls the facial hones 
are largely developed, more especially the malars. This 
development of the face is more marked in Nos. 2 nnd 3 
than in No. 1, and these skulls accordingly approach more 
closely to the pyramidal form, than does No. 1. In all, 
the upper edges of the zygomata are somewhat convex. 

In all, the temporal ridges are strongly marked. 

The orbits of Nos. 1 and 3 are somewhat square in out- 
line, while in No. 2 the orbit is elliptical, the axis directed 
downward and outward. The various processes for attach- 
ment of ligaments and muscles are strongly developed in 
all. The tuhercle for the attachment of the ligamentnm 
nuchfe is in No. 1 exceedingly prominent. The mastoid 
processes are in all of about average development. 

The axes of the glenoid fossae of No. 1, if prolonged 
inward, would intersect at the anterior margins of the oc- 
cipital foramen. Those of No. 2 would intersect about .50 
of an inch in front of a like point. These of No. 3 and 4 
would meet about .38 of an inch in front of the foramen 
occipitum. 

The occipital foramina of Nos. 1 and 4 are rather more 
oval than common, these of Nos. 2 and 3 ai^e of about 
normal shape. 

The external auditory foramina of all are oval. Those of 
No. 1 are of average size. Those of Nos. 2, 3 and 4 are 
exceedingly large as compared with European .skulls. 

The arch of the palate is in all, low and flat. 

The external opening of the nose is large in all; in Nos, 



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1 and 2 the nasal arch is low and flattened ; in No. 2 it is 
higher bnt by no means prominent. 

The sutures in Nos. l, 2 and 4 are distinct and un-unit- 
ed ; in No. 3 all sutures, save the squamosal and a part of 
the lambdoidal, are obliterated. 

The frontal sinuses are small in all, while in all the 
ethmoidal ridge of the frontal is large and prominent. 

The following measurements are taken as correctly as 
possible in hundredths of an inch :— 

1 2 S 4 

1. Extreme length....: 700 695 715 702 

2. Extreme breadth 545 535 538 528 

3. Height from posterior extre- 

mity of basi-cranial axis to 
junction of the coronal 
and sagittal sutures 530 527 552 526 

4. Longitudinal arc of thepari- 

etals 525 530 500 530 

5. Transverse arc from one and i- 

tory foramen to the other. 1 275 1275 1280 1300 

6. Width of frontals immediate- 

ly behind external orbital 
processes (least frontal 
measurement,) 370 * 343 362 

7. Width of frontals on tem- 

poral ridges just above the 

external orbital processes. 383 * 367 367 

8. Greatest frontal width where 

the temporal ridges cut 

the coronal suture 442 420 * 410 

9. The longitudinal arc of the 

frontal 500 475 * 464 

10. The longitudinal arc of the 

occipital 425 420 450 520 

11. Transverse arc of the occi- 

pital, from the junction of 
the lambdoidal suture 
and its additamentum on 
one side horizontally over 
the occiput to the other 
side 515 490 525 500 



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1 S 8 4 

12. The greatest traDBverse di- 

ameter of the occipital bone 
from one occipito-mastoid 
Buture to the other 416 392 422 430 

13. Between the points of the 

aliBpheno-squamosal su- 
tures, which are cut by 
the transverse ridge on 
the alisphenoid 315 364 850 305 

14. Between the most distant 

points of the outer sur- 
faces of the mastoid pro- 
cesses 472 470 502 520 

15. Between the most distant 

points of the outer edges 

ofthe occipital condyles... 197 195 195 191 

16. Transverse diameter of the 

occipital foramen 113 127 122 115 

17. Length ofthe occipital fora- 

. men 147 135 132 142 

18. Length of zygomata from 

anterior edge of auditory 
foramina to anterior edge 
of maxillo-jugal sutures.. 400 418 410 ♦ 

19. Between the outer edges of 

glenoidal fossce 487 493 477 450 

20. The greatest breadth of pal- 

ate taken between inner 

edges of alveoli 151 160 162 * 

21. The greatest length of pala- 

tine plate of palate bone.. 60 72 f * 

22. Between the outer sides, and 

posterior edges of the 
bases of the external pte- 
rygoid processes 187 204 213 175 

28. Between the outer edges of 

the foramina ovalia 220 249 225 220 



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19 8 4 

24. Between the posterior end i 

of the alispheno-sqaamo- 
sal sutures and the outer 
sides of spinous processes 290 310 285 267 

25. Between the centres of the 

styloid foramina 330 332 326 332 

26. Between the inner edges of 

the precondjloid foramina 137 130 135 123 

27. From the lower end of the 

basicranial axis to the 
anterior alveolar margin 
of the premaxilla 387 370 387 * 

28. From the lower end of the 

hasicranial axis to the 
posterior end of the spine 
of the palate 175 167 160 ♦ 

29. From the posterior end of 

the spine of the palate to 
anterior alveolar margin 
of the premaxilla. 210 200 221 '^ 

30. Vertical height of fkoe from 

fronto-nasal suture to al- 
veolar margin 294 245 270 * 

31. Vertical height of the orbi- 

tal aperture. 150 138 140 * 

32. Anterior interlachrymal dia- 

meler from point of junc- 
tion of the frontal^ lachry- 
mal and maxillary on the 
one side to that on the 
other 83 85 86 ♦ 

33. Posterior interlachrymal dia- 

meter between the junc* 
tions of the etfamotdy 
lachrymal and frontal 95 ♦ 91 ♦ 

34. Between the posterior ends 

of the ethmo-maxill«7 

fttttures, - 152 ♦ 144 ♦ 



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18 8 4 

8^. From the margin of the orbit 
to the alveolar margin be- 
tween first and second 
molars 176 156 167 * 

36. Between the centres of sub- 

orbital foramina 213 ♦ 213 • 

37. Between the outer edges of 

the optic foramina in 

orbits 122 ♦ 120 116 

38. Extreme ti*ans verse distance 

of the outer surfaces of the 

zygomata. 520 ♦ 536 * 

39. Extreme distance between 

external alveolar margins. 247 255 260 * 

40. Width of the external nasal 

aperture 108 100 110 * 

41. Length of aline drawn from 

the anterior edge of the 
premaxilla through the 
posterior edge of occipital 
foramen, and cut by a per- 
pendicular tangent to oc- 
cipital bone 787 765 775 ♦ 

42. Length of so much of this 

line as lies in front of a 
point cut by a perpendicu- 
lar to the centre of the 
occipital foramen 460 440 450 * 

43. Length of above line behind 

this point 327 325 325 — 

44. Length of basicranial axis 

from anterior margin of 
occipital foramen to pre- 
spheno-ethmoidal suture 
wHhin skull 248 282 275 250 

45. Least breadth of basicranial 

axis between apices of 

petrosals 80 100 85 90 



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12 8 4 

46. Length of cribriform plate 

ofethmoitl 83 ♦ 110 110 

47. Between outer edges of optic 

foramina within skull 91 102 86 80 

48. Length of posterior superior 

edges of ossa petrosa 248 225 245 225 

49. Between internal auditory 

meatus 228 220 215 200 

50. Extreme distance of outer 

walls of posterior nares... 115 * 120 * 

51. Height of the arch of post- 

erior nares 110 * 117 * 

52. Greatest perpendicular height 

of nasal passage from cri- 
briform plate to upper 
surface of palate^ measured 
from floor of nares a little 
to one side of ridge 171 * 210 * 

53. Projection of inner contour 

of tbe frontal forward, 
beyond the level of a per- 
pendicular to anterior 
end of cribriform plate.... 55 ^ 45 * 

54. Projection of the inner con- 

tour of tbe occipital back- 
ward beyond the torcular 
Ilerophili 61 85 50 70 

55. The capacity of tbe cranium 

and volume of the brain 
as determined by the use 
of shot of uniform diame- 
ter, in cubic inches 84.82 91.34 83.43 75.90 

56. Indices of relation of width to 

length (Kephalic Index). .78 .77 .75 .75 

57. Facial angles 76.3 80.5 84.3 * 

* Skull BO broken as to render this measureirent itnposBible. 

t Suture obliterated. 

Note, — The paper wlien read was illustrated by drawings of the 
skulls of Tarious races including those of the Botans, as well as by 
type specimens of the skulls tliemselTes. 



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—170— 



ON PRIMITIVE MUSIC ; ESPECIALLY 
THAT OF JAPAJ^; 

BY 

The Revd. Dr. SYLE. 

Head hefore the Asiatic Society of Japan, on the 
Uth June, 1877. 



Among the records of Antiquity, we read of such won- 
derful effects ascribed to the power of music, that one is 
naturally led to ask, What was the character of that early 
system — if system it was — which possessed such potency ? 
Was it Vocal only ? or. Instrumental ? or, both ? Did it 
consist of Melody alone ? or, had it also Harmony ? Had 
it a notation, so that it could be read and learned by book ? 
or, was it entirely traditional — learned by ear ; remem- 
bered as nearly as might he ; and transmitted continuously 
in the same manner ? These questions present so larg6 
a field of en(|uiry that we cannot attempt, in the present 
paper, to do more than sketch the outline of a method 
whereby our study of the subject may be conducted with 
more prospect of valuable results than any heretofore at- 
tained. 

What we should aim at is the ascertainment, if possible, 
of (hat style of music which prevailed among the early 
tribes of mankind, or the supposition of their having had 
a common origin. Whatever kind of music they had prior 
to, and at the time of, their dispersion — that they must 
have carried with them in their several wanderings ; aud 
if this music is still to be found anywhere, it most be 



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among tbe tribes which we call aborigiDal — those vestiges 
of the earliest migrations, prior to which we find no traces 
of anything that can be called historic. Now, where shall 
we look for these ? Where, but in the extremities of the 
earth ? In those remote and inaccessible regions to which 
the priuutive peoples have been driven by the successive 
migrations of mankind, all issuing from Central Asia, and 
spreading themselves, wave after wave, outward in all 
directions. 

Accordingly it is in such localities as North Wales, the 
Hebrides, the West of Ireland, the Basque Provinces, 
Finland, Southern Arabia, Ceylon, Siam and South-west- 
ern China, Corea and Japan, that we should expect to find 
what we are seeking for — if, indeed it is to be found any- 
where, after the lapse of so many ages, and in the midbt 
of so great a diversity of circumstances. 

Our present amount of musical knowledge concerning 
the earliest occupants of the African and American conti- 
nents does not warrant the attempt to include them in the 
comparison we pi'opose to make ; though it may be re- 
marked^ in passing, that whatever facts we have observed, 
or gathered, concerning the music of the Bed Indians of 
North America, of the Pacific Islanders, and of the Afri- 
can tribes, goes to confirm the conclusions arrived at by 
considering the data furnished by the better known 
countries of Asia and Europe which have been already 
mentioned. 

One of those conclusions is that in the primitive music 
of all those far removed and widely difiering people there 
is found a marked peculiarity arising from the use of 
only six tones in the compass of what we call the octave. 
In the Chinese, Siamese, Hindoo and Arabic Music there 
is found this characteristic as well as in the Scotch, Irish, 
Welsh, Basque and Finnish. A partial exception (to be 
explained hereafter) should be made in the case of 
Northern China, with which Corea* and Japan are to be 
classed as having derived their music from that regiou. 

* The performances of the band of tbe Corean Ambassador, on 
bif visit to Yedo in June 1876, sufficed to establish the identity of 



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—172-2- 

The explanation of this peculiarity would involve us iu 
a discussion of the nature and derivation of the gamut. 
In what sense, and on what ground is our diatonic scale 
to be considered natural? Is it to be gathered from the 
song of birds ? Not easily. Is it deduced from the vi- 
brations of strings, divided by regular measurements ? 
In part ; not altogelher. Does it arise from the harmo* 
nics produced by the striking of a bell ? Not with any 
directness. Fuller answers to these questions are heard 
from Germany, Italy and England in the Treatises of 
Helmholtz, Baserna and Sir Frederick Gore-Ouseley ; 
but the matter has been of late thoroughly re-opened by 
some who claim that our present scale is all wrong, and 
that we shall never have music worth cultivating until 
fourteen intervals, instead of twelve, have room made 
for them in our accustomed octave: this is to furnish the 
true music of the Future. We are engaged, however, at 
the present time, is. considering the music of the Past ; 
and one of the difficulties we find iu appreciating it, and 
in making a comparison between specimens gathered from 
different places, is that it refuses to be expressed exactly in 
our notation, or to be performed accurately on any of our 
keyed instruments. It is owing to this fact, perhaps, that 
much discussion has arisen as to whether Oriental inu:»ic is 
in the major or the minor mode ; whereas (if our sugges- 
tion is correct) it is in neither ; but iu a kind of half-minor, 
having a peculiar distribution of the semi-tones ; or, more 
correctly speaking, having intervals which are neither 
full tones nor true half-tones. It may seem presump- 
tuous to hazard this statement, after such an authority 
as Fetis (Histoire Geuerale de la musique) has said — " La 
musique Chinoise n'a qu'un senl mode, lequel est majeur," 
(Vol. I. p. 60) : and after another well-esteemed authority. 
Dr. Himbault, has written — ** Mr. Macgregor's Oriental 
Music has helped to confirm our opinion that the major 
scale is more common in ancient music than the minor. 



the Corean with the Chinese Music, while it also shewcil the 
skill and energy of the performers. They were good specimens 
of their olass. 



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The universally prevalent opinion of the minor scale 
being the basis of the music of ancient nations is certainly 
erroneous." (Art ; Leisure Hour for Ajiril, 1875, 
p. 214). We adhere, however, to our impres8ion> and 
would venture the following explanation. When au 
amateur on hearing an oriental melody attempts to write 
it down, what notation does he use ? Certainly the cur- 
rent European notation, making it represent as iiearly 
as possible the sounds that fall upon his ear, though he 
is distinctly conscious that there is something out of tune 
somewhere. He notes down, we will suppose, an air in 
E flat (the most convenient key for the purpose) and lie 
feels that his D and G are both of them a trifle too 
sharp, but not enough to justify him in writing D flat and G 
flat ; so he just goes on and writes D natural and G natural, 
and when he has written it so, so he plays it, and he says to 
himself that he has '^caught the tune prettt/ nearltfT 
Of course, what is thus written in the major mode, will 
reappear in the major mode when played ; and the musi- 
cal saoant in Europe who studies anxiously over these 
transcriptions will be led to such conclusions as those 
above expressed. By falling back upon the Pythagorean 
scale (as suggested in the text) a much nearer approx- 
imation would be made, in my opinion. Even the Gre- 
gorian Tones (so-called) we suppose to be virtually mis- 
represented by their being written according to our pre- 
sent Bcale. And hence arises one of the great draw- 
backs to the effectiveness of all this music: it lacks the 
vigor and sprightliness and majesty of our major mode; it 
lacks also the wailing tenderness and plaintive sadness 
of our minor mode ; and it loses the great effects which 
arise from the alternations of the two. Add to this, 
that all is in common time, that no triple measures are 
used, and the well-known monotonous effect is ac- 
counted for. In point of effectiveness, therefore, 
it will bear no comparison with our modern music, 
from which it is distinguished also by the absence Of 
harmony, except in the vei*y occasional use of a funda* 
mental note on cei*tain stringed mstrumentsi and of some 



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—174— 

meagre harmonies — a third, a more frequently a bad 
fourth on the Sung (Chinese) or Sho (Japanese). On 
one occasion I heard, at Shanghai, two perfonners simul- 
taneously carry through the same air on two guitars, 
tuned at a distance of a fourth apart — one we will say 
on C and the other on F. The effect was bad, but not so 
bad as it would have been on one of our instruments, 
because of the difference of scale. These three instru- 
ments here exhibited — a Wood-harmonican, a Series of 
Steel Bars and a Set of Tuning Reeds enclosed in a 
small cylinder — will shew the diversity of scale, and the 
difHouhy of determining what the Japanese gamut may be, 
and also w^hether or not they have more scales than one. 

My obliging friend, the Rev. Di*. Veeder, has taken 
the pains of testing by the Siren what are the ratios of 
vibration between the twelve notes of a standard series of 
bamboo pipes, kindly lent mo by Mr. Machida, one of the 
Members of our Society, and believed to be of great 
antiquity (some 500 years old) and to represent the Japii- 
cse chromatic scale. 

t should despair of making the delicate difference of 
these scales intelligible by any explanations of my own 
on this occasion, and must therefore leave them for 
private study when printed j meanwhile tendering to Dr. 
Veeder our best thanks on beheilf of all lovers of the 
Science of Harmony, and giving to him and his assistants 
the entire credit of the great pains they have taken in 
verifying the vibrations and tabulating the interesting 
results. 

We have to acknowledge another contribution from two 
Japanese students of the Imperial College of Engineering, 
under the instruction of Professor Ayrton. To our great 
regret, it is only a fragment, and owing to the continued 
illness of one of the students, will probably remain so ; 
but the results, so far as reached, are both interesting 
and valuable : interesting as the work of a native of one 
of those lands where Primitive Music still lingers; and 
valuable, as testifying to the prevalence of the six-tone 
Boale^ and to the extreme diffloulty of cei'tifying ourselves 



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—175- 

of the data upon which satis&otory oonoltuions can be 
baaed. 

As in the case of Dr. Veeder's contribution, so with 
tliis — the entire credit for the love-labor bestowed on the 
subject must be given to Professor Ajrton and bis pro- 
mising pupils. 

It will be observed that among the scales compared in 
Dr. Veeder's Tables is the Pythagorean — and tliis, we 
are inclined to believe, is the magic key tbat unlocks our 
difficulty. Who so likely to give us the facts on such a 
subject as the Sage of Crotona — a man who thought so 
much and travelled so far ami observed so carefully ; and 
who, moreover, esteemed this particular subject so highly 
that his ideas of astronomy were attuned to the Music of 
the Spheres, and his principles of Government were 
arranged as elements of Harmony.f His cotemporary 
Heraclitus says of him that he had made more inquiries 
than any other^ man ; :ind that he had acquired wisdom, 
knowledge and "mischievous refinement*' — which last 
remark is apt to be repeated in our own day concerning 
those who occupy themselves with measuring musical 
vibrations, and giving to their value alogarithmic expres- 
sion. 

Be that as it may ; a thinker who was the disciple of 
Thales and Anaximander, and whose system was recog- 
nized as ^^ scientific doctrine" by Aristotle — such a one 
was not likely to give us anything but what he had 
learned with care and verified wilh patience ; and there- 
fore it is that we consider he has given us the true pri- 
mitive musical scale ; the one nsed at first unconsciously 
perhaps ; but, as soon as it became the subject of mathe- 

f The ideas of Confucius on this subject and his tribute to 
the importance and the profound Mysterionsness of Music, furnish 
au interesting parallel, and are worthy of more than a passing 
notice. Speaking of the three strings of an ancient form of the 
A' »»i7 (a kind of guitar) he named one Ihe Ruler, one The Minister 
and one The People, and added that whoever could harmonize 
these three could rule the Empire. It ought not to be forgot- 
ten, also, that Plato in his Republic makes Socrates sum up all 
forms of culture in these two — Music and Gymnastics — in which 
case, of course, Mtmc includes aU that belongs to the Sacred 
Nine ; but it is significant that they shonld all be named Muses. 



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—176^ 

matical scrutiny, aooepted and adhered to by the cnltured 
muRicians of classic times ; and now corroborated, or ra- 
ther exemplified by what is still found among those re- 
mote and widely scattered tribes of mankind who have 
retained what is most primitive in the world of music. 

A few remarks must suffice for the application of oar 
theory to the case of Japan. Corea might be added, and 
both be refeiTcd to China, whence, without any question, 
their musical system was derived. Among the Chinese 
then we find the old six-tone scale, as above indicated ; 
but we find also an eight-tone scale ; and the former is 
c died the Southern, while the latter beara the name of 
Northeni — which is the very reverse of what we should 
have expected. In the ruder regions of Xhe North we 
should be apt to look for the simpler forms of song, while 
to the softer South we might expect more perfect and 
moi*e finished melodies : but we find this order reversed. 

And here we reach the point where our subject touches 
Ethnology, and contributes (as F^tis has well shewn) to 
solve some of its problems, especially those connected with 
the distribution of the Aryan and Turanian races. Tbe 
apparently anomalous case of China will receive some 
elucidation, if we bear in mind that the point at which 
a conquering race has entered a country may almost 
always he determined by taking the region ioto 
which the aborigines have been di*iven and drawing 
from it, as from a base, a perpendicular in the opposite 
direction — that will indicate the line of progress of the 
invading hordes. A single glance at the map will show a 
line drawn from Wales will point to Kent ; one from the 
Aino country to Kiushin, etc., etc. Now in the ease of 
China, the Miaou'ise — the true aborigines — are found in 
the extreme southern parts of Kwang-tong and Kwang-si, 
especially the latter ; and accordingly, it is here that the 
simpler, ruder, six-tone scale of music is found, while the 
invading Mongols brought with them the more complete 
gamut, which fills up the two gaps and gives us au eight- 
tone scale, — a true octave. Arguing from the nature of 
the case, we should expect that this hitter would not 



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—177— 

supersede what had already overspread the country, but 
would be found Hiero, as nn addition— an hypothesis 
which quite oor res ponds with the facts of the case. 

And now we must content ourselves on the present oc- 
casion, with alhiding to only one more topic — namely, the 
early subjects of mnsic ; its close connection with the 
dance at festivities, and with wailinj^ and processions of 
mourners at fnneial ceremonies. 

With regard to the former, no one can watch the sports 
of children without seeing that in the infancy of our race, 
the exuberance of animal spirits must have found vent in 
the song-dance ; and also (to take the opposite extreme) 
no one, with the habit of reflecting on such subjects, can 
have tried to analyze the movements of a modern ball- 
room (where conventionalism and artificiality reach their 
highest point) without seeing the vestiges of what was 
once the war-dance and the love-chase : this is the only 
theory we know which makes intelligible the mazy move- 
ments of the reel, the waltz, the contre-dance and the 
quadrille ; and the music is adapted to the movement— 
highly rhythmical, lively or languid, mnrkedand energetic. 

So, on the other hand ; the sorrowful wail of the 
mourner at funerals, the wild unmeasured ululations such 
as are still heard (after having been traditionally hand- 
- ed down for centuries), when the Jews recite annually 
the Lamentations of Jeremiah outside the walls of Je- 
rusalem, — these strains have as their characteristics, the 
absence of rhythm, the irregular interruptions of voice 
after voice, without regard to tune or time or key, all 
blending, in combinations more or less discordant, and 
yet preserving some kind of unity, as evidenced by 
their arriving at a simultaneous close.J We ourselves 
have listened at the house of a Japanese amateur to 

t One very noteworthy peculiarity in the performance of 
Buddhist chants is that, while all the performers use the same 
words and foUow the same cadences (with greatly resemble the 
Ambrosian and Early Gregorian Tones), yet each singer chants 
the strain in the key which best suits the pitch of his own voice ; 
in this, resembling the manner in which, among ourselves, a 
whole congregation is accustomed to read the Psalter. 



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—178— 

a performance of this kind» which lasted about twenty 
minutefl^ and we were perplexed daring its conti- 
nuance as to wliat its meaning might be. At tlie 
conclusion, our friend enlightened us by explaining 
that it expressed the waitings of a company of women 
lamenting over a recent battle-field. Had this idea been 
suggested at tlie commencement of tlie concert, we ^liould 
have listened with better appreciation, and might have 
found the music qnite as descriptive and sug^^estive as 
some of tlie com|>ositions in which the mannerisms even 
of our great masters overwhelm all fitness, e, g, certain 
portions of Sampson," especially those given to Delilah. 

But the crowning glory of Japanese music is tlint 
which is performed by the Imperial Band, and 
which wo have had the opportunity of hearing on two 
occasions — at the Opening of the Railroad and at 
the Inauguration of the University — both of whii*h were 
honored with the Mikado's personal presence. Without 
some suggestive friend at hand to indicate the intention 
of the composition I think no one — no stranger, we mean 
^-could form any definite opinion of its merits. The only 
thought that suggested itself was that an imitation of the 
CEolean harp was intended, or perhaps, the sighing of the 
winds through the trees of the forest ; and our impression 
is that if the specimen which has been given us, by the 
labors of Dr. Muller,§ were perfoi*med with suitable in- 
struments, nnd with a reference to this leading idea, we 
should find something to admire in these performances, 
and not hastily dismiss them, as some are apt to do, with 
the dictum that they are utterly barbarous and unim- 
proveable. 

If there is a universal language in the world, it is 
Music ; and according to our views, its development may 
be seen in three successive stages, which we might call 
its Dialects. — First, in the imperfect utteittnoes of the 
three or four or six-tone scale — simple, expresssive yet 
inadequnte ; next in the ill-defined yet fuller utterance of 

§ See Journal of the German Asiatic Society for March, 1676, 
p. 31. 



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—179— 

the eight-tone gamnt,— nmn'ed by monotony both of time 
and tnne, and refusing to yield to any attempts at pro- 
ducing pleasing harmonious combinations ; and lastly, in 
the finished form of the tempered scale, which with alter- 
nating modes and varied measures, gives us such forms 
and facilities of musical expression as, if not absolutely 
perfect, yet even now vindicate the pre-eminent claim of 
Music to be considered the Divine Art. 



ASIATIC SOClETr. 

The monthly meetint^ for Yokohama was held at the Grand 
Hotel on Wednesday the 13th June, the chair being taken by 
the President, Sir Harry S. Parkes, and an unusually large 
number of ladies being present. 

The minutes of the monthly meeting held in Tokid on the 
23rd May, which were published in the Japan Mall of the 23rd 
idem, having been taken as read, the President reminded the 
members present that tlie next meeting to be held that day fort- 
night would be the Annual Meeting, at which, among other 
business, is to take place the election of office-bearers for the 
ensuing year. A list of nominations, or as he would rather 
say, suggestions had been prepared at the last Council Meet- 
ing, and the Recording Secretary would now read it in order 
that the names might bo before the Society for a fortnight 
before the day of election. 
The list read was as follows: — 

For President, Sir Harry S. Parkes. 

For Vice-Presidents, Dr. Murray and Mr. J. J. Keswick. 

For Corresponding Secretary, Mr. Ernest M. j'atow. 
For ten Councillors, five being resident in Yokohama 
and five in T6ki5, 

Bevd. A L. Amerman. 

Mr. W. G. Aston. 

Bevd. G. Cochrane. 

Mr. P. V. Dickins. 

Dr. Eldridge. 

Mr. J. C. Hall. 

Dr. Hepburn. 

H. E. M. de Strove. 

Revd. Dr. Syle. 

Bevd. Dr. Veeder. 
For Treasurer, Mr. John Walter. 
For Recording Secretaries, 

For T6kid, Mr. T. P. Poate. 

For Yokohama, Mr. C. H. Dallas. 
It was stated, however, that since this list was di*awn up Mr. 
Poate had expressed himself unwilling to stand for the office 
to which he was nominated. 



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—180- 

Thd Bevd. Dr. Syle, Senior Yioe-President for tbo <mrr«nt 
year, then read his paper on " Primitive Music, especially that 
of Japan." 

At its conclusion Dr. Geerts agreed with Dr. Syle that the 
great difficult]^ in the way of ascertaining the true nature of 
Japanese Music lay in the variety of the scales used by their 
musicians. There was undoubtedly much to confirm the 
theories put forward by Dr. Syle, but the only way of deter- 
mining with exactitude the nature of the Japanese scales is 
the physical one of patiently registering the number of vibra- 
tions of each note separately, and by calculating the intervals, 
etc., from these experimental numbers. This is a task, bow- 
ever, that is not easily accomplished, and would recjuire a 
great number of very accurate experiments with registering 
apparatus of extreme delicacy, such as'Eotiig^s Phonautograph, 
or other instruments of a similar nature. Though Dr. Syle 
had remarked that the students of Dr. Veeder and Pro- 
fessor Ayrton in their musical experiments havo usually 
found what thev had agreed to expect to find, it was yet 
a matter of great interest that these students had commenced 
to lay the foundation of the building by giving us the results 
of their difficult and painstaking experiments. When, how- 
ever, in future years physical research shall have determined 
with precision the various Japanese scales, there will remain 
a question of no small interest for the philosophical mind to 
solve, which is, why Japanese music does not leave a better 
impression on the ears and minds of foreign musicians. 
Japanese music cannot be said to be ** false," and is im- 
mensely superior to the horrible playing of the European beer- 
shop violinist, but it is no less a fact that it utterly fails to 
favourably impress the foreign ear, or to awake any noble 
or pleasurable emotions in the breast of the foreign listener. 

In moving a vote of thanks to Dr. Syle for the paper, the 
President observed that he trusted that the subject of primi- 
tive music which had thus been introduced in an interesting 
form to the Society would continue to receive their attention, 
as it had an obvious bearing on primitive culture and ethno- 
logical research. He agre^ with Dr. Syle that the nations 
of the far East offered a very favourable field for the enquiry, 
as although they had not succeeded in making their music 
agreeable to our ears they had reduced it to a written system 
at a very early date, and in China, in particular, it had 
been regarded, even in the remote period of Oonfucius, as 
worthy of an important place in State organisation. A Board 
of Music formed then, as it still does, a special Department of 
the Goveniuient. However highly f^e Chinese and Japanese 
might esteem their own systems, they had proved themselves 
apt pupils in the study of western melody and harmony, 
when they had opportunities of instruction; and while they 
could supply us with definite information as to their ancient 
methods, it was to be hoped that they might derive advantage 
from a knowledge of our modern ideas on the subject. 



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—181^ 



ON A NEGLECTED PRINCIPLE THAT MAY 

BE EMPLOYED IN EARTHQUAKE 

MEASUREMENTS. 



JOHN PERRY AND W. E. AYRTON, 

Professors in the Imperial College of Engineering, T0ki6, Japan. 

Read before the Asiatic Societ// of Japan^ 
on the 2Srd of May, 1877. 



Speculations regarding the internal conslitntion of the 
eartli have interested philosopliers for many years. For 
a long time it was considered that our globe consisted of 
a thin solid shell containing a fluid core, but Hopkins, who 
was one of the first to investigate the subject on correct 
principles, showed that this shell must he from 800 to 
1,000 miles in thickness; and still more recently Sir Wm. 
Thomson has proved that the apparent absence of elastic 
tides in the earth's surface leads io the conclusiou that 
the average rigidity of the earth is greater than that of 
glass, and possibly even greater than that of steel. We 
do not on the present occasion propose to consider whether 
the state in which the internal pan of the earth exists 
Is like any state of matter with which we are acquainted; 
but this is, of course, a subject well worthy of very care^ 
ful investigation. 



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-182— 

It is probable that the earth was once in a molten con- 
dition and that it now is cooling, so that the shrinking re- 
BuUing from this cooling ranst develope vast internal forces, 
prodncing strains, or deformations, of great mngnitnde. 
Other powerful forces, too, brought into existence by water 
being suddenly changed into steam, €»n entering a h<»t 
cavity ; by tlie sudden cliemical combinations of giises; or 
possibly by elastic tides in the earth's snUstance produced 
hy the joint altrncliiMis (»f the sun mid moon, — all tend to 
cjiuse dislurliances nml ruptures which are brought vividly 
to our notice by volcanoes and earthquakes. 

An eartliqnake has been defined by Mr. Mallet as *Mhe 
** transit of a wave, or waves, of elastic compression in any 
" direction, from vertically upwards to horizontally, in any 
*' azimuth, through the crust and surface of the earth, 
" from any centre of impulse or from more tban one, and 
*•' which may be attended with sound and tidal waves 
" dependent u[k>i\ the impulse and upon circumstances 
" of position as to sea and land." If we could only 
read the earthquake message rightly, we should learn 
all about the deformation going on in the eartlfs 
crust ; for there is no doubt but that the nature of the 
stresses and strains, and every condition of the rocks 
at the origin of motion all give their character to the 
eaithquake vibi*ations. It must be remembered, however, 
that the message before it reaches us is much modified by 
the media through which it has been transmitted; and, 
again, since there is a great want of continuity at the snr- 
face of the earth, very important modifications are intro- 
duced by surface conditions ; for example, ranges of 
mountains are well known to reflect earthquake vibi*ations 
in a marked manner, and veins of good conducting rock 
by transmitting the vibi*atious more I'apidly than less 
conducting veins set up transvei*se vibrations. 

Professor Pal mieri and others have invented instruments 
which record the date of the vibration, and give rough 
ideas of the direction of propagation of the earthquake 
waves, together with what is called the strength of the 
vibration. [Professor Palmieri's electro-magnetic seismo- 



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—188— 

graphs were here described together with the other 
instruments employed bj hiiiiy and othet^s, as seismometera 
or aeismoscopes.] 

Mr. Mallet, whose wide experience on the subject of 
earthquakes has necessarily caused his wi-iting to be re- 
garded with great respect, describes the object of Professor 
Palmieri's instrument as follows: — "By means of this 
"apparatus the time of the first shock is recorded, as well 
"as the interval between the shocks, and the damtion of 
"each; their direction whether vertical or horizontal 
" is given as also the maximum of intensity." He fur- 
ther says, however : — " It is not my intention heio 
"to offer any criticism as to the consi ruction or 
"performance of this instrument, the mther as I must 
"confess I do not quite share the high opinion of 
" its inventor as to the certainty or exactitude of its 
" indications." And this opinion of Mr. Mallet with roj^ard 
to Professor Palmieri*s instruments is ours with regaid 
to all the seismoscopes of which we have read any des- 
criptions. Indeed it is well known that the instruments 
hitherto invented have not satisfied even the modest hopes 
of their inventoi-s, whereas, even if these hopes liad been 
fulfilled, wo should still hardly have made a step in this 
new science. 

A simple form of seismoscope, but by no means a per- 
fect one, would be a lamp suspended from a ceiling by a 
spiral spring, of such a strength that the period of vibra- 
lion of the lamp in a vertical direction was nearly the 
same as that for its vibrations when swinging as a pendu- 
lum. The vibrations of such a lamp during an earthquake 
would contain motions due to the motion of its point of 
suspension, and nn experienced observer would be able 
during a shock, or very soon after it, to tell the direction 
and strength of the shock with much more accuracy than 
with any of the instruments previously described. [Ex- 
periment of pendulum suspended by a spiral spring from a 
point to which a shock could be given, a scale being rigidly 
Attached to the point of suspension^ was here shown.] 
This lamp seismoscope, however, possesses the defects of 



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—184— 

ftll slowly vibrating bodiea ; the main Tibration of tbe lamp 
is (as we shall presently show) executed in its ordinary 
perio<lic time, and the lengths of its swings depend on many 
other things besides the strength of the shocks which would 
show themselves as small perturbations in the motion of 
the lamp. If, however, instead of actually observing the 
lamp we merely get a record of its greatest swing, then 
very little information could be obtained of the strength 
of the shocks, for the great or small deflection of a slowly 
vibrating pendulum during an earthquake will d< pend on 
whether the period of the earthquake is or is not some 
submultiple of the period of the pendulum, so that a con- 
siderable mathematical knowledge and much time would 
be requisite to deduce from the comparatively small ripples 
on the larger vibrations the nature of the earthquake. 
In addition, as the length of the swings of the lamp will 
genei*ally be much greater than the earthquake vibrations, 
they will, if recorded on paper, require a very large record- 
ing apparatus. 

Wo now proceed to the principle which is to enable us 
to record an earthquake message. It must be evident that 
the message can only be correctly recorded when we have 
obtained the complete motion at every instant of time during 
the earthquake of a large portion of the rocky crust of the 
earth. Any point P in the solid earth has a certain posi- 
tion, a certain velocity and a certain accelemtion in a cer- 
tain direction at any instant of time during an earthquake, 
and if we know these elements we are said to know the 
motion of P. Now we have a complete record of an 
earthquake when we know the motions of all points 
P affected by the earthquake, and if the earth were rigid 
this could be derived from a knowledge of the motion of 
three of its points not iu the same straight line. Still, 
although the earth is not rigid, and although the conditions 
of motions of different parts of an elastic non-homogeneous 
solid are very complicated, we may say that the important 
character of an earthquake, its origin and the media 
through which it has tmvelled as well as its rate of motion, 
are recorded and may perhaps be easily deduced from the 



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—185— 

known motions of three well affected points in the solid earth. 
Believing this to be the case, and seeing how important it is 
to tiie whole Rcienco of Cerreslriiil physics that the earth- 
qnake message should be reatl, we have been led to investi- 
gate mathematically the motion during an earthquake of a 
body attached to the earth by springs. And we have come 
to the conclusion that the centre of mass of a body fasten- 
ed by means of springs inside a metal box rigidly attach- 
ed to the earthy has in certain cases motions with respect 
to the box itself which in miniature, with great exacti- 
tude, represent the motions of a point of the box during 
the earthquake ; this result being truly obtained when 
the springs are exceedingly strong, so that the motion 
of the mass relatively to the box is exceedingly small, 
and practically obtained when the springs are so strong 
that the vibi*ations possible for the mass when there is 
no earthquake are several times quicker than the earth- 
quake vibi*ations themselves; that when the springs, 
however, are weak the motion of the mass relatively 
to the box in no way represents the absolute 
motion of the box itself, hut that the introduction of 
friction, although it diminishes the accuracy of obser- 
vations of regular vibratory earthquakes made by means 
of very rapidly vibrating springs, makes it possible to get 
an approximation to accuracy even with slowly vibrating 
springs, and is always desirable when the earthquake 
vibration is irregular and intermittent. In fact, in order 
that the motion relatively to the box of the centre of 
mass of the body supported in it should accurately re- 
present the real motion of a point of the box itself, it is 
necessary that the mass should be large and the springs 
supporting it so strong ihut its natural time of vibration 
should be about five times as fast that that of the eartb- 
quake itself, supposing no friction be employed beyond that 
necessarily introduced by the mechanism of the recording 
apparatus : or a much larger mass may be suspended by 
weaker springs if the chamber be filled with water, or 
some oily or tarry compound which will introduce the 
necessary amount of friction. 



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—186— 

Let AS (fliarnre 1) beai-l<?id box flrtnly attnolied to the 
eartli ; 3f ifl a large mass acted on by tv?o horizonlHl springft 
and subject 'd tone forces except tliOie introdnced by flie 
springs, its weight for example btias^ neglected. When 
both the box and M are at rest let ibeir ccn 11*68 coincido 
at the point C 

First let the box be at res', and lei if be made to vibrate 
in a horizontal line passinp^ throagh ita centre^ and let y 
be its distance at any time i from a point O fixed in 
space, then 

£Z = -n«(y-OC) (1) 

or (y-OC) = P cos (nt + Q) 
where P is the amplitode, and where 

11 = ^^, 

T being the periodic time. 

Next let the box be in motion in a horissontal direction, 
and let z be the distance of its centre from the fixed point 
at the time /, then 

d»(y-z) _ d^ d^ 
dC "■ df* " dt* 

= - n' (y - z)— ~ from (1). 
If the velocity of the box is uniform 

dt« ^ 
therefoi*e the relative motion of M about the centre of 
the box is a simple harmonic motion. 

Let the box have a uniform horizontal accelemtion a, 
then 

d" (y-z) ^ , . a . 

dt' ^^ n'^' 

therefore the body M has a simple harmonic motion 
about a point at a distance — ^ behind the centre of the 
box. 



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—187— 

Now whatever be the forces acting on the box or the 
ball 

d'(y>z) d'y _ d'z 
dt'' ""• dt^ dt»' 
or the acceleration of the ball relative to the box equals 
the absolute acceleration of the ball minus that of the 
box. 

Let M bo resisted witli a frictional force proportional to 
its mjkss and to its velocity relative to the box, let 2^/* be 
the frictional coefficient, and let the earthquake vibi*ation 
be a regular harmonic motion ahout the fixed point 0, 
then 

<^Hyz) Of ^^y:^l 

dt'' — dt 

— ti*(y — z) + n,'Aco8(n,t + B), 
where A is the amplitude of the earthquake vibration, and 

27r 

1\ being the periodic time of the earthquake vibration. 
If when the time is nought the box is at the limit uf iUi 
swing then B is nought) or 

^•(y-z) ^ _ Of d(y-g) 
dt* dt 

— n'(y-z) + ni*A cos nit, 
from which substituting x for i/'Z we get 

^= — .. 2f -j-^ — n^x + n^'Acosuit 



df* "" "' dt 
aH the equation of relative motion of the centi*e of M. 
Now the maximum acceleration of the box is n^^ A or 

4 TT ' A 

-— »^ — i — , consequently if this aocelei-ation were constant, 

and if there were no friction impeding the motion of J/, 
the mean position of ihe centre of M would be behind the 
centre of the box by a distance 

n«A i^^^ 

n 



n " 
Let this distance be numerically equal to E, then 

-g^ + 2f-^ + n«x— n*Eoo8n,t-0 



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—IBS- 
Section A. 

The first and at present the most important case to 
oonsider is when /is less than fr,* 
The integral of this equation is 

E n'^ cos (njt + tan — - — ^) 

x=e" D cos ( VS^^f H + F) — °' "" - 

A/{n,*-ii«) «+4n,*f« 

For facility of calculation we assumed above that the box 
was at the limit of its swing when the time was nought. 
We must now make some assumption with regard to the 
initial position of M in the box. As the most important 
point to consider is whether 3/ by its motion relative to 
the box correctly records the vibration of the box when 
this vibration in some way suddenly alters its character, 
we arbitrarily assume that, when the time is nought, M 
is at the limit of its swing in the positive direction, since 
we know that if the vibi*ation of the box did not alter its 
character and if iLTwere previously coirectly recording 
then at time nought M would be at the limit of its swing 
in the negative direction. 

When t=0 

let x=E 

By substituting in (2) these values we find 

cos F = _ < 1 + —-\-'— / — j__ y 

V(n' -- f ') [(17/ - n ^)' + 4 n,' f *] 

so that given n, n^y 2 /and A we can find the position of 

M with respect to the centre of the box at every instant 

I. — Let there be no friction impeding the motion of AI 

• This is the condition which allows .U when disturbed to swing about 
its position of equilibrium with an infinite number of decreasing deflec- 
tions right and left. As /increases we see, on examiniuR the first part 
of the integral, that the periodic time of M about its iK)6ition of 
rest becomes longer and longer, and the swings of M d imlnl nh moro 
rapidly in atnplit^e. 



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—189— 

in the box, that is let/ equal nought, then equation (2) 

becomes 

En, * . En' . 

x= ^—- cos n t — 5 cosn, t, 

n, «-n* n "-n" ' ' 

a composition of two harmonic motions of different pe- 
riods and amplitudes, or it may be expressed as 

C distance of centre of M from the centre 
X = ^ the box due to natural vibrations < 
( spring without earthquake. 

4 distance of the centre of M from the centre^ 

J of the box due to earthquake motion, M f 

being supposed to have no natural vibra- 1 

tions due to the springs. j 

Now if we want the relative motion of M lo represent 

the earthquake vibration we must have 

En' .. . ., E n, ^ 

many times greater than 



Qtre of) 
\ of the > 



i 



n/-n' " ^ . nj«-n*' 

or Tj many times greater than T. 

For example, let I he springs be strong so that 

Ti = 10 T 
that is, n = 10 Ui 

*u E ^ lOOE ^ 

then X = — ^ cos nt + "oo"" cos n^t 

or the vibrations of M due to the natural vibrations of the 
springs have an amplitude only rkth part of the vibra- 
tions of M which represent the earthquake. In fact M 
by its relative motion in the box merely records the earth- 
quake vibrations, to a scale diminished nearly in the ratio 
of n' to n,' or as 100 to 1, and the natural vibrations of 
the spring are quite imperceptible. 

If now we take the opposite case where the springs are 
weak, so that the natural vibrations of M are slower than 
the earthquake vibrations, we find supposing 

T = 3 1\ 

or Uj = 3 n 

9E , E 

X = -y- cos nt — g cos n^t, 

that is the amplitude of the motion M relative to the 



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— IQO— 

box caused by the natural vibrations of the springs is 
9 times as great as that due to the earthquake vibi-ations. 

11. Letf==in, 

ami let the springs be strong so that M has a natural 
vibration quicker than the earthquake vibration. For in- 
stance let 

1\ = 10 T 

or n = 10 Uj 

then from (2), the general solution for /less than w, we 

find 

-5njt y 

X = e - cos (8-66 n,t f 90^)-E cos (n,t-o% 46'), 

86*1 

Now when / is nought the first term, which is due to the 
natural vibrations of M iujlepcmlcnt of the earthquake, is 
small comparcil with the second term which is due to the 
earthqunke itself; and, in ndditiou, ns / increnses the first 
term grows rapidly smaller, therefore we may say from 
the beginning X represents the po.siiicin of M due to the 
earthquake only, and is independent of the natural vibra- 
tions of M. Now let tlie springs bo weak so that they 
have a natural vibration slower than the earthquake 
vibration, 

let T «= 10 1\ 

or "i= 1^" 

and f «= ^n as before 

then X «=e X 1-16 E cos ( M6 n,t + 80°, 5') 

- |r cos (n,t + 5% 46'). 
96 

At the beginning we see that the natural vibrations of M 

greatly prepondemte, and timt it is not until 

t=-'^logelll*4 

that the amplitude due to the natural vibrations becomes 

E 

diminished to . After this time the vibrations duo to 
96 

the earthquake begin to prepondemte and eventually en- 

E 

tirely mask the others, and the amplitude becomes . — 



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—191— 

ilmt ifl a little prrentor thnii A, or the amplitude of the 
onrlliqnnko vihnUioii. It is int^i*esting, tliei'efi)re, «o 
notice IliJit wilh a weak spring using friction although 
the vibrations of M do not represent the earthquake 
vibrations at tlie beginning, they do after some time if the 
earthquake only lasts long enough, and continues to he 
exactly the same pure harmonic motion. 



Section B. 

Let the friction be such that 
f=n, 
then the solution o( the differential equation becomes 

En'' cos(n,t-ftan' ^"\^ ) 
x^e-ft(G + H t)— "^-"^ _ 

V(n, »— n'' y +4n, « f^ 
Making x^=E 

when t = 



we find tT = -^ 3 V: — 

E (uj ^ + n'y 



and 



H 



ni u 



E n, ^ + n'^' 

Let the springs be strong and 

n = lOn, 

-10n,t p/ 301 10 \ 

thenx = e ^VlO-20i"*"l01 "* V 

100 T. / ^ . "' 20 V 

-_ Ecos (n.t-tan _). 

If the springs are weak, and 

n, =10n 

,, % / 10300 100 , V 

thenx = e E (j^^Ol "*- lOl^^O 
E /,..-* 20 



-^oo8(n,t+tan ^. 



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—192— 

These reealU ftre of the same natnre as before; wiih 
tlie strong springs we see since e"*« "i * is small compared 
with Hsf that x represents the displacement due to the 
earthquake only, with the weak springs when t is small 
the natural vibrations of M pi'eponderate and mask the 
earthquake effect, but as i increases these vibrntions be- 
come smaller relatively to those due to the earthquake, so 
that the weak spings will eventually record the earth- 
quake if it only lasts long enough. 



Section C. 

Let f > n 

then the geueml solution of the differential equation 
becomes 

X = e-** D cos (p V f - — n « t + F) 

F , 2 n, f 

*- n'cos (nit+ tan-' ~_^j,). 



V (n,» — n 2)« +4 n,*f« 
as before the values of D, E, and p must be determined 
from the character of the motion when t is nought. 

When /is equal to or greater than n then an examination 
of the fii-st term of the solution shows that M has not a na- 
tural vibi-atory motion, but if deflected from its position of 
rest, when there is no earthquake, it will gmdually ap- 
proach this position but never reach it. 

Although, therefore, the first term of the above solution 
mpidly disappears, that is, the natural vibrntions of the 
springs die away whatever be the strength of the latter, 
still the application of recording apparatus, and the neces- 
sity that M shall reach its mean position in a reasonably 
short time after disturbance, have caused us to restrict 
oui-selves to cases in which /is less than n. 

[Experiments were here shown using weak and strong 
springs so as to give 3/ a naturally long or short period. 
The motion of M, reUtive to the frame from which it 
WW supported, prodqced on giving to the frame a vibra- 



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—193— 

tory movement being magnified and indicated by a long 
light pointer moving over a scale rigidly attached to the 
frame. The effect of introducing various amounts of 
friction was shown by causing the pointer to rub with 
more or less force aj^ainst tlie scale.] 

At the commencement of section A it was explained 
that tlie box and mass M were both assumed to be deflect- 
ed from their positions of rest when the time equalled 
nought. It must now be observed that 3/ was supposed 
deflected to the opposite side of the centre of the box to 
that towards which it would be deflected on the box re- 
ceiving a shock, and the following investigation will show 
that that assumption really corresponded with a sudden 
change in the form of harmonic motion in accordance with 
which the box was moving, or what may be called a 
discontinuity in the motion of the box. For while we 
have proved that with our original suppositions the mo- 
tion of the box was instantaneously recorded by the 
motion of 3f if the springs were strong, but that if they 
were weak the early vibi^ations were lost, and that it was 
only after some time, and then only provided the earth- 
quake lasted long enough, that a record was lefl, we shall 
now prove that if the earthquake be regular without any 
discontinuity whatever (which, however, our experience 
of earthquakes in Japan leads us to believe is rarely the 
cmse) then weak springs will give good results. 

Skctiox D. 

Let the earthquake motion be a periodic function of the 
time then we know it may be expressed in the form 

z=A, + 5 A cos (N t +F), 
where Ay Ny and /' may have any values we please in 
the successive terms of the series. Or generally it may 
be expressed in the form 

z==5 A cos (N t + F) 
one N having a value nought. 
Let us tiike the restricted case 

z=5 A cos N t, 



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—104— 
then if there is no disoontinuity at tlie iMginuing 

and jj=0 

wbeu t = 
A'om which it may easily be shown that 

2 A = 0. 
The differentia] equation of the motion of tlie centre of 
the mass 3f relative to the box is 

^ + 2 r*^-^- + n« X = n« 5 E cos N t 
tit * dt 

AN2 



where E = 



n» 

for each value of ^ and iV taken in the successive terms 
of the series. The solution of this differential equalion is, 
ifyis less than ?*, 

X = e ■ ft C cos ( V u2 — f « t + D) 

Ecos (Nt + tau-i ^^~-[) 

^ (Nl n2 ) 2 + 4 N272 ' • • ^^^' 

the constants C and Z> being determined from the initial 

conditions wliich are 

when t = o 

X •= o 

, dx 
and —— = o ; 
dt 

from which it follows that 

C cos D = n2 2 J 

, , E(N2 — n2) 

„4f2 (5J— 5L)2 



nnd C» = n* 5 2J + 

where L= 



„2 __ I 3 
2EN2 



(N2 _ n2;2 4. 4 K* f 2 

It is obvious that we wislf the coefficients in the above 

equation for x to be proportional to nought, Ai, A29 -^3, 

~* 2 Nl f "** 2 N9 f 
etc., and also the epochs tan -— --L--, tan -_-_*_., etc.. 



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—196— 

to be all nought if we are to have a perfect representatiou 
of the earthquake. Now for the epochs to be very -small, 
y being a reasonable ooefiicient of friction, say /*, equals 

^ w, we must have -ir either very small or very large. Now 

examining the coefficients of the second part in equation 
(3) 

n2 El n2 E2 

V^N?:H2)2 + 4 Ni2~72"' V^(N22-U2)2 -f- 4 Nz^T^' ®^^ 
we see that the condition ^^ being very small will make 

them proportional to Au A2. etc., as is required for a 
perfect represcntatioiuof the earthquake motion, and if we 
put the coefficient C into the form 



C2 = 5*A 



N» 



(1-?' )«4.4l! 
^ N2 ^ ^ ^ N2 



1 + '-^ 



V N*W ^ Ni 



f2 

we observe that when — is very small and / the same 

as above 

2 

Now as 5 A equals nought, as previously siiowu, is the 
condition of continuity C disappeai's, and lience all eartli- 
quakes which liave continuity from the beginning, and 
which are expressible in the form 

z = 5 A cos Nt 

are perfectly represented if /* is very small compared 
with every N, that is if the natural vibralion of the 
spring has a period much longer than the period of any 
element of the earthquake. This also introduces the ad- 
ditional restriction that no N can be very small, oonse* 



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—196— 

quently z cannot have a conHtant term. If in the above 
f is nearly equal to n then 

C = a very large number x ^ A. 
If 5 A is absolutely nought then the size of the multi- 
plier is of no consequence, but if 5 A is not absolutely 
nought, that is if there is a slight discontinuity, 
then C may be very large so that with more 
friction the failure of the weak springs to produce 
an accurate registering apparatus is very much more 
marked. And since the coefficient e**"' is greater than 
0'°* and e*"** is large,. since n is small, it follows that 
e*^will bo large, and will not rapidly reduce the value of 
the first term, which may be said to belong to the natui*al 
vibrations of the spring.**, in equation (3) for a*. 

We shall now consider the alternate condition, viz. 

jj very large, 

. N n , . 

I.e. — very small, or the springs very strong. 

The coefficients in the second part of equation (3) may 
be put in the form 



n2 



\^^^ / "^ n* ln3"-^ / 



ln2 

&c., 
f 
and as ~ « is assumed to be equal to \ we see that the de- 
nominator may be regarded as constant and very little 
less than unity; consequently the second, third, etc., terms 
of equation (3) will be proportional to A^ Nj", Aj N/, etc. 
It follows, therefore, that the elementary vibrations, of 
the earthquake, of smaller periodic times than the rest 
will, in the representation, have gi-ealer amplitudes than 
they ought to have. If, however, the elementary periods 
are not very unequal the curve drawn by the seismograph 
will be a fairly approximate representation of the earth- 
quake. 



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—197— 
C may be expressed in the form 



N2 



^2A N2 n2 

C2=5 -^-p- 7N2 X~2 ~Ti' 






5 A 



since ^y equals -^* and -^is very small, 



C = 



f ^ A N2 



therefore C is a very little less than the algebraical 
sum of the other coefficients, and if we suppose as above 
that the values of -^i, iV„ &c. are not very different then 

since 5 A equals nought it follows that 5 — ^ > and there- 
fore C, cannot be very great. 

We, therefore, conclude that in the case of an earth- 
quake represented by the equation 

z = 2 A cos Nt 
both weak and strong springs give good results. 

As an example let the earthquake motion be represented 
by z = A (cos k t — cos V^ k t), 

the curve corresponding with which is shown by the thick 
black line in figure 2. 

Let the springs be strong so that 



n = ^*- k 



and let f = |> 

then determining the values of the constants we find 

X = - e* ^*^ ^^ X 000458 A cos (962 k t + 0-5142) 
-0<X)814 Acos (k t- 0-0917) 
+ 0-01218 A cos (V k t - 0-1096) 
the curve corresponding with which is shown by the thick 
black line in figure 3. This curve is magnified so that 
the greatest amplitude is nearly the same as the greatebt 
amplitude in the real earthquake motioDi 



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—198— 

If the springs remain as before, but if there be no fric- 
tion, then determining the constants we find 
X = - 0-00408 A cos (11-i k t) 
-0-00816 A cos (kt) 
+ 0-01224 A cos (1-2 k t). 
If the earthquake be represented by'i.he same equation 
as before, and if 

n = 3 k 
and f = ^ u 
then equation (3) becomes 

x-=— o"^^^ X 0-071831 A cos (2-55 kt + 0-78015) 
—0-11704 A cos (kt— 0-35896) 
+ 0-17877 A cos (V kt— 0-45408) 
llic curve corresponding with which is shown in figure 4. 

Section E. 

Let us now consider the case when 
f =0 
then unless n equals J\''all the epochs are nought so that 
as fur as the epochs are concerned no restriction is intro- 
duced in ranking the seismograph curve exactly represent 
the earthquake. C may be put into the form 

so that if w is small compared with every N, that is if the 
springs are weak, then 

C = 5 A nearly 
= O nearly, 
since ^ A = O Hs the condition of continui- 
ty ; and the coellicicuts of the second part of the right 
hand side of equation (3) are 

AiNi^ A.N2_^ ^^ 

which are equal to A„ A„ &e. Therefore springs give 
a very good representation of the earthquake. 
It must be remembered, however, that although iu the 



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—109— 

case of an earthquake motion bavmg no discontinuiiy 
weak springs givo good results^ sometimes even better 
than strong springs, still in the most complicated cases if 
the natural vibrations of the springs be quick a little ex- 
perience will enablo easy corrections to be made, which 
will allow the real earthquake motion to be read with 
much greater atjcuracy from the representations than 
might at first sight appear from the formula3. 

Section F. 

Without the help of actual experiments made with the 
form of seismograph we propose, calculation leads us to 
infer that with a small amount of friction such ns that 
opposed to a lead ball, of say 400 lbs. mass, surrounded 
by water or oil and when the ball moves a simple record- 
ing apparatus, strong springs will always give much more 
satisfactory results than weak ones for earthquakes such 
as we have felt in Japan ; but since friction will always 
cause the natural vlbmtions of the ball to cease in a longer 
a shorter time according as the friction is small or great, it 
is possible that very satisfactory results may be obtained 
by using weak springs and surrounding the ball with some 
more viscous liquid such as treacle or a mixture of tar 
and pitch, if only the alteration of viscosity by change of 
temperature can be readily compensated for, and if it be 
possible to easily employ a good recording apparatus when 
using much friction. On the whole our calculations point 
to the employment of a small amount of friction and strong 
springs, but for the following reasons we feel that onr cal- 
culations should be chiefly employed only for directing 
and making use of experimental knowledge — first because 
we assumed the friction to be proportional to the mass of 
M and to its velocity, whereas in reality the friction is 
probably composed partly of a constant tenn depending 
on the recording apparatus^ and partly of a term propor- 
tional to the square of the velocity of if, and to a certain 
extent proportional to its surface. Secondly, because ex- 
tremely little is at present knowa regarding the nature of 



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—200— 

the earthquake dhoek. Even the period of an earthquake 
vihration does not seem to have been jneasnred with anj 
approacii to accurracy, the information obtained in some 
cases from the stopping of clock pendulums is quite nn- 
satisfaotorjy since the limits between which we can place 
the period of earthquake vibrations so as to stop an ordi- 
nary pendulum clock are wide apart. 

Section G. 

Figure 5 shows roughly our first idea of the construc- 
tion of a seismometer in accordance with the principles 
we have enunciated. A leaden ball of some 400 lbs. mass 
is supported by five strong spiral springs inside a strong 
iron case, rigidly fixed to the rocky crust of the eai-tli, 
four of the springs are horizontal and one vertical and 
all have the same period, so that if there were no friction 
the centre of mass of il/ would describe an ellipse when 
M is freely vibrating. In order to get a record of nortli- 
south, east-west, and up-down motion of M throe arms, 
two of which A By C D are shown in the figure, carry 
pencils pressed by means of small spiral springs on a Imnd 
of paper moved regularly by clockwork in a horizontal 
direction at right angles to B D ; the clockwork, as in 
Professor Palmieri's and other instruments, being set 
in motion at the commencement of the earthquake. 
The arm A B is rigidly fixed to a small piece A E 
at right angles to it, this again by means of a pivot at 
E is fixed to E F, which is rigidly attached to the 
luilL A pin at A supported by the fi*ame-work of the 
instrument allows A B to move round it, and so to 
record vertical motions of the ball, and the pin A 
having a certain amount of lateral motion in the slot 
combined with the shape of A E F prevents A B record- 
ing any lateral motions; since the motion of A B parallel 
to itself is so small as to be impi*eceptible. CD turns about 
the pin C, and is prolonged to G where it is attached by 
a pivot to an eye rigidly attached to the ball : G C D, 
ther^fore^ recprds lateral motiops in ope direction, say 



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—201— 

north-south, but is not effected by east-west motions or 
by vertical motions of the ball, as these latter only cause 
the pin C to move vertically in the slot. The third arm, 
not shown in the figure, by a somewhat similar arrange- 
ment of levers, only records east-west motions. All the 
motions are recorded on one plane on the some band 
of paper so that the curves would bo somewhat as 
shown in figure 6. Drawing any line ab at right 
angles to the motion of the paper we see that at that 
moment of time the ball was moviug from south 
to north, from west to east, and from up to down, and 
from the shape of the curves we can determine the posi- 
tion, velocity and acceleration in magnitude and direction 
of the ball at that, or any other, instant of time ; the com- 
plete law of the motion of the ball is, therefore, recorded. 
Should the box be slightly tilted and some of the springs 
elongated or shortened during the disturbance, then the 
motions will not be strictly uorth-south, east-west, etc., 
but it is evident that this cannot produce any serious 
discrepancy in the indications unless the earthquake 
motions be exceedingly violent, but when this is the case 
it will not be very difficult to eliminate the errors. 

It is evident the points B and D may be above the ball 
instead of below it, as iu the figure, and this arrangement 
would be preferable when we wish to suiTound the ball 
with a liquid, as the paper could then be kept quite clear 
of the liquid. 

Section H. 

Mr. Mallet is of opinion that there is no turning action 
of the ground during earthquakes, but we think this cou- 
elusion may be perhaps a little premature, since any ex- 
planation that has been given of the observed twisting of 
columns, based on considerations of the attachment at the 
base, might also apply to the twisting of rock in its na- 
tui-al position. To test whether any such turning action 
really exists a simple apparatus such as is shown in figure 
7 might be employe-l. If J is an iron fly wheel rigidly 
rttached by a stretched thick wire A" i to a rigid iron 



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—202— 

framework K M N, An arm J P carries a peoeil at J^ 
toaching a band of paper (the one for example employed 
in the previous seismometer) moved by clockwork pa- 
rallel to If iV. If the periodic time of the torsional vi- 
bration of H JhQ perhaps one fifth of that of the earth- 
quake, then any rotatory vibration of the earth will be 
well recorded.* 

The observations of Mr. Mallet made at the scene of 
the Neapolitan earthquake of 1857, are of great value in 
connection with the science of seismometry, which owes 
its growth in a great measure to the labours of this gentle- 
man [The plates in . Mr. Mallet's book were here briefly 
described]. But we have no hesitation in saying that 
three recording seimosgraphs, such as we have described, 
suitably placed in the plain of Yedo and with clocks in 
telegraphic communication with one another, would give 
more information regarding earthquakes in a few months 
than could be obtained by the most experienced observers 
from the remains of many destroyed cities. We are 
aware of the great interest now being taken by the 
Gei*man Asiatic Society in the subject of seismometry, 
and it is to a certain extent in consequence of this 
that we have been led to publish this paper. A not 
very extended series of experiments would probably be all 
thai would be required before we could furnish working 
drawings o^an almost perfect recording instrnment, and 
after such instruments had been constructed the Japanese 
Government might possibly be induced to allow them to 
be used at their telegraph offices. With very little extra 
expense these seismometric records might be supplemented 
by regular observations of the natural currents in the tele- 
graph lines, to the importance of observing which we have 
recently directed the Society's attention in a former papei*. 

* Since writine this paper a rather sharp earthquake has been 
experienced in TOkiO wnicli caused the scale pans of a balance in the 
Physical Laboratory of the Imp. Coll. of Eng. to describe perfect 
circles, the chains about 35 centimetres long which supported the 
pans and the pans themselves moving like a conical pendalum. 
The radius of the circle described by each ^n at the beginning 
was about 5 centimetres and the motion contmued for a long time 
liter the earthquake had ceased. 



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—BOS- 
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



An ordinary meeting was held iu the Society^s Library, 
T6ki6 Dai Gakko, on the 23rd instant, Dr. Syle, Vice-President, 
in the chair. 

The minutes of last meeting were read and approved. The 
Council acknowledged a contribution from Professor Perry 
** On Steam/' and tlie Library Coraiuittee reported receipt of 
the Proceedings of several learned Societies. 

Professor Perry then read a paper ** Ou a neglected principle * 
that may be employed in Earthquake Measurements.'^ 

The Chairman invited discussion on the papier. Mr. Poate 
suggested that Peruvian Balsam, whose viscosity could be regu- 
hited, would be such a liquid as Messrs. Ayrton and Perry re- 
quired. A mixture of tar and pitch, which Mr. Perry thought 
of. Professor Smith pointeil out was very unsuitable on account 
of the effects of iieat on these substances. 

Prof. Smith further said thht in the experimental study of 
earthquakes he thought that exact time observations taken at 
a lai-ge number of stations scattered over the affected diHtriob 
were of much greater importance than very complete and 
accurate observations taken at any one place. The dynamics 
of weather meteoroloj^^y had only been successfully studied 
since the establish men i of a widespread s^'stem of observation 
stations, whose records could be studied in coimection with 
each other and as a whole, and a similar system had to be 
adopted in tracing tlie origin and progress of disturbances in 
the earth's crust. As a wind register may be made to record 
with toleiable accuracy the direction and velocity of the wind 
from instant to instant at the particular place iu which the 
instrument is placed, so might a seismograph be made which 
would indicate the nature of the disturbance of that particular 
point of the earth's surface on which it rested, with an exactness 
proportionate to the mechanical science and still brought to 
bear npon its design. But the motion of our particular part 
of the surface was by no means a time approximation to the 
average motion over a large area, nor could there be deduced 
from a knowledge of it a knowledge of the progress with re- 
gard to direction and velocity of the general wave, any more 
than the general direction and velocity of a wave crossing an 
expanse of the sea could be discovered by watching the part of 
it that runs round a rock or up a creek. In the earth's sur- 
face lie scattered everywhere resistent obstacles which deflect 
the earthquake-wave irregularly to one side or the other 
from its general course. The only way of arriving at a time 
knowledge of the value of the wave as a whole was to note 
aooorately the exact dates of its arrival at a great many 
scattered stations. Professor Smith then pointed out that 



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ProfeiBor Peny*! equations did not take aooonnt of the fact 
that as the earth*B surface tilted over the seismograph-case 
along with it, the line of action of the vertical suspending 
springs altered its inclination to the line of action of the weight 
of the ball, and expressed his belief that the modification neces- 
sary on account of this was very considerable. Professor 
Smith did not agree with the writers of the paper in thinking 
that the natural period of vibration of the ball suspended by 
tlie springs should be made short compared with the expected 
|>eriod of the earthquake, because, although Professor Perry 
had mathematically proved that if it was so, the motion of the 
ball relatively to the box would be approximately the same as 
the motion of the box itself, only reduced in scale, still it 
was only an approximation, and the long curve representing 
the earthquake would be difficult to deduce from the actually 
registered rippled curve unless the amplitude of the short 
ripples representing the " instrumentar* vibration was small 
compared with the amplitude of the long earthquake curve 
upon which the ripples were 8uperim)>osed. Now, although 
from a mathematical |>oint of view there was no impossibility 
in arranging the various dimensions of the instrument so that 
the above relation between the amplitudes would hold, still Pro- 
fessor Smith was of opinion that Professoi-s Ayrton and Perry 
would, when they came to design (heir instrument, find oou- 
Aderable practical difficulty in fulfilling simultaneously the two 
conditions that (he one vibration should have both its amplitude 
aud its period very much longer than those of the other. If, 
on the other hand, the natural i>eiiod of vibration of the instni- 
ment were made considerably longer that of the earthquake, 
the reduction of the registered curve to the true earthquake 
curve would be somewhat more complicated. The accuracy of 
the result was worth the extra trouble in the case of an ex (ten- 
sive instrument such as was under discussion. 

The Chairman now observed thatvthe usual time for closing 
the meeting had arrived and put to the meeting whether or 
not the discussion should be continued some other day. It was 
agreed that the discussion be continued next Wednesday, when 
also the other paper advertised for the meeting would be read. 



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—206- 



ASIATIO SOCIETY OF JAPAN. 



An adjourned meeting was held in the Society's room, T6ki6 
Dai Gakko on the 30th May, 1877, Eev. Dr. Yeeder in ike 
chair. 

The furtlier discussion on Professors Perry and Ayrton's 
paper " On a neglected principle that may be employed in 
Earthquake measurements '' was caiTied on. 

Professor Smith asked the authors to repeat in a few words 
what their principle was. 

Professor Ayitou then read the following passage from 
the pa|)er which contained a statement of the principle : 
" Believing this to be the case, and seeing how important 
it is to the whole science of terrestrial physics that the 
earthquake mesnage nhould be read, we have been lead to 
• investigate mathematically the motion during an eiurtliquake 
of a body attached to the earth by springs. And wo have come 
to the conclusion that the centre of mass of a body fastened 
by means of springs inside a metal box rigidly attached to the 
earth, has in cei'tain cases motions with respect to the box it- 
self which in miuiatNre, with great exactitude, represent the 
motions of a point of the box during the earthquake.*' Pro- 
fessor Marshall agreed with Professor Smith in thinking that 
the corrections arising from the tilling of the instrument pro- 
posed by the authors was by no means an element to be 
neglected and thought the autliora were premature in calling 
the principle a neglected one inasmuch as they had not proved 
by ooustruotiug an instrument that the principle would answer 
in practice. 

Mr. Knipping observed that with regard to the more simple 
instruments which are proposed for the observation of earth- 
quakes, he had found neither the bowl with molasses nor the 
tub witli water, the inside of which is rubbed with chalk, nor 
the wooden cylinders, answer in our usual shocks here. In 
one case, particularly, he had noticed a 9-inch pendulum in an 
upper room in his house swing with an amplitude of about 15 
degrees, and was surprised to find no indications g^ven by the 
above-mentioned instruments. In the most sensitive cylinder 
Mr. Mallet proposed, the proportion of diameter to height was 
• 1.9, while, he (Mr. Knipping) found that a proportion of 1.20 
for the same magnitudes was not sufficient here. It might be that 
not only the proportion but also the absolute dimensions had 
to be taken into account, and he intended to continue 
bis experiments in that direction as also with other pro- 
posed instruments. Yon Seebach added to the cylinders a ball 
put on the top of a firm column tapered at the top ; the 
throwing down of the ball giving the angle of emersion at the 
station. The aame author also recommended exaxst time ob- 



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ler^ationt aI diflerent tUtiont, aad thawed that thej alone 
would be euffloient to determine the principal features of an 
* earthquake, vis., the position of the centre or fooufl, the velo- 
city, and the direction of the wave. A simpler method than 
the observation of the time of the shock at any station could 
not be well imagined, but as it was not easy to find the exact 
time by astronomical observations within a few seconds (an 
error in longitude of 1 minute causing au error in time of 4 
soconds), if very good instruments were not at hand, the time 
olMervatious at statious connected by electric telegraph would 
nndoubtedly give the most reliable results. If the gentlemen 
in the Telegraph Department, who had clocks and the telegraph 
wire at their disposal, would take the matter in hand, and have 
the clocks at fifteen or twenty properly selected telegraph sta- 
tions daily compared, whileeach clock could be stopped by a cheap 
self acting arrangement, the exact difference of time might eaidiy 
be found at all the stations. Even if the clocks had no second- 
hands, as was the case with those between Yedo and Yokoha- 
ma, the time could easily be read to iV of a minute, and this 
would be sufficiently exact to iuvestigate tlie more essential 
features of most of the earthquakes here. The expense would 
be trifling and the tr4>uble of comparing twenty clocks once daily 
not worth mentioning after a few days practice. He hoped 
that the authors of the paper would soon be able to execute 
their proposed instrument and have it tried in earthquakes. 
Living in Tdkid we were on an unusually favourable spot of the 
globe, having on tin average one earthquake in a week, so that 
we never need wait very long to try earthquake iuHtrnmenta 
In 1876 the Yamato Yashiki instruments recorded 53 sliocks. 

The discussion was further entered into by the Chairman 
and Messrs. Cawley, Perry, and Smith. 

Prof. Smith closing it with a critical examination of some 
of the physical principles and mathematical formulas presented 
in the paper. 

The Minutes of the last meeting were then read, and at a 
later hour than usual the meeting was adjourned. 



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—207— 



THE EARLY SITDY OF DITITII IX 
.lAPAX. 

BV 

K. MITSUKURI. 

Bend hefnre the Asiatir Societij of Japan, 
nu fhe 14'// Fehrttary^ 1^77. 



In looking back over our history, two or three hundred 
years*, n«>lhing is l>ri»jhter to me than the Inave efforts 
which a fow dotenninf^l men nm<le in trying to unravel 
the mysteries of an unknown Inngungo and to put the 
medical science of their country on a true basis. Hide- 
yoshi was hrillinnt, hut we have to admit, he wns unprinci- 
pled. Iyeyasu*s legislation was ahle, but most selfish. 
We can not help admiring the spirit of the Forty-seven 
Ronins, but we are far from wishing the tragedy repeated 
at the present day. Even the great peace, of which we 
are so proud, is more like the stillness of stagnant pools 
than (he calm surface of a clear hike. Hut the men of 
whom we are to si)eak, I can praise from the bottom of 
my heart. They did what every noble mind aspires to : 
by their efforts, they lefk their fellow-men in a better 
condition than they found them. The more the world 
advances, the more highly will they be appreciated. 

It was extremely fortunale that a faithful record of the 
interesting circumstances attending the introduction of 
Dutch into Japan, should have been left by one who was 



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--208— 

A leading figure in acoonnplishing that end. "Rangaku 
Kotolnijim^,"* I lie posthumous work of Su^iia Es^i, 
tippeared, for the first lime, in Yedo, nine or ten years 
ago. To nie, few of the hooks which haveheeu ]nihli.shed 
of late, numerous as (hey nve, have equal interesr. It 
may not be altogether unwelcome, to some, to go over it 
luiefly and have some of its most important parts trans, 
latod. 

When the government of lyeyasn found that the pre- 
sence of foreigners in the country was not altogether dis- 
interested, and that tliey would he the cause of nioro or 
loss trouble all the time, it is well known what vigoi*ous 
measures were taken. It is pitiful to read what des|)otisui 
did then. Not satisfied with expelling foreigners and 
])ersecuting native Christians, It crippled almost everything 
tliHt might, by the least possibility, be made the channel 
of communication with other countries. Ship owners 
were obliged to build a new style of vessels, unfit for na- 
vigating an ocean. Persons were forbidden to go out of 
the country, under |)enalty of death. It went even so far as 
to interdict the study of any foreign language. When 
Goto, a naturalist, issued a small volume on the Dutch, 
about the middle of the hist century, its publication w:is 
instantly stopped, simply because it had- the Dutch alpha- 
bet in it. Medical students in Nagasaki could only take 
down what the foreign physician imparted to them orally. 
Even interpreters were not allowed to study Dutch, hut 
noted in kafta what they heard. From what we know at 
the present day, we can imagine how imperfect and slow 
this way of communication must have been. The first 
efi^orts, on recoi'd, to study language systematically were 
not made until Dutch had been in the country a hundred 
years. During the reign of the eighth Tokugawa Shiogun, 
(1717-44) three of the interpreters in Nagasaki became 
convinced that the way in which business bad been con- 
ducted was inexcusably careless, and that they at least, 
ought to be able to understand ''crab letters.*' Their 
petition was readily granted by the government, and ever 

* The Beginning of ^' Bangaku " or " The Study of Dutch. " 



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after, tbey applied themselves assiduonslj to the study of 
the language. It is said that one of the three, Nislii, by 
c<ipyiiig over a "book of words" {kunsttoorter) three whole 
times, astonished a Dutchmau, who gave the book to him 
as a mark of his respect. This and several other circum- 
stances were reported to the Shioguii, whose curiosity wbs 
excited. lie expressed a wish to see a foreign hook. 
One was soon procured and the illustrations in it pleased 
him so much that ho ordered Noro Genjo, an attending 
phytiician, and Awoki Bnnzo, ftjnshOf to read its contents 
if possible. The two betook themselves to their task witli 
all their energy, but with Utile suj[;cess. All they could 
do, was to learn a little from interpreters when the Dutch 
en me to Yedo, every spring, to pay their respects to 
the Shioguu. Afker two or three yeai's, they knew only 
the alphabet and a few words such as ** sun," " moou," 
•*8lar," "heaven," "man." 

Such was the state of things, one hundred and fitly 
years ago, but a better time was fast approaching. The 
thermometer, camera obscura, weatherglass, glass works 
and other curiosities, began to be seen frequently and 
served to familiarize the people with the foreign articles* 
Every year, while the Dutch were in Yedo, au eager and 
inquiring cn)wd, our author among them, was always to 
be found at their quarters. Numberless questions were 
asked on medicine, natural history, and other kindred sub- 
jects* The author wns once present when the Dutch 
physician bled a patient. He writes evidently in great 
admiration. — "The surgeon knowing exactly how far 
" blood will fly, put a vessel at some distance from the 
" patient. When blood began to flow it exactly wont into 
" the vessel I" This was the first lime bleeding was ever 
tried in Yedo. Another time, the Dutch " Captain '* 
showed a puzzle-box to a curious audience, and promised 
that he would give it to any one who should open it. It 
went round from one hand to another but nobody seemed 
to succeed, until it came to Hiraga Gennai. lie looked at 
it iuteutly for a few minutes, and to the admiration of all 
preseuti easily opeued it. This Hiraga was a thoughtful 



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—210— 

man, well read in natural history, and often astonished the 
Dutch hy his sagacity. The yearly visit of the foreigner 
must have been fnll of such incidents and, no doiiht, did a 
great denl toward making the people accustomed to strange 
sights and (»hjects. 

Wo must hurry (»n, however, and make acquaintance 
with those who nre to tigure more conspicuously i» this 
history. Of our author, I cannot, unfortunately, say much. 
From the meagre accounts I can gather from the hook, 
Sugita Fiisai war? horn in Yedo early in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, lie was well educated and followed the profession 
of his father, medicine* lie lived in Hama Cho, where, I 
helieve, his house was standing till liitely. Mayeda Rio- 
taku was his senior hy ten ycar.s, and was, like him, a 
physician, serving under the daiuiio of Nakatsu, in the 
province of Buzeu. Mayeda was left an orphan while 
very young, and was brought up by his uncle Miyada. 
This Miyada was almost eccentric in his disposition. He 
held it to be a solemn duty to learn any art or accomplish- 
ment that might be going out of the world, and then 
describe it so fully that it might preserved to posterity. 
Young Riotaku was faithful to hi;^ instructions. Though 
following medicine for his profession he took it upon him- 
self to leriin " hitoyogiri,'' a certain kiuvl of music which 
was well nigh forgotten, and even went so fair as to sinily 
a kind of dramatic acting. It was then no wonder that 
this nuni's attention should be drawn to the study of 
Dutch. He once hnppened to see a book in that language, 
and began to think that, though country and idioms might 
be different, there was no reason why one part of the human 
family could not understand what another might think or 
write. He soon learned the alphabet and a few wonU 
from Awoki, before mentioned. But not satisfied with 
those, he went down to Nagjisaki, sometime afterward, 
and there succeeded in collecting about seven hundred 
words besides obtaining a great deal of information about 
his own profession. The author writes : 

I do not remember exactly when it was, but early in the period 
of Meiwa (1764-7) one spring when the Datch had oome as usual to 



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—211— 

to pay their respects to the Shiogun, Riotaku (Mayeda) came to my 
bouse, and on niy iuqiiiriug whither he was bouml, said that he 
was going to the Dutch quarters, -to have a talk with the interpre- 
ter, and if he favored it, to be^n the study of the hinguage. J, 
l>eing young yet, and full of spirit, was quite taken with the idea, 
and asked permission to go with him, to which he readily cousent- 
etl. When we arrived at our destination, we laid our plan before 
Nishi Zenzaburo, the chief interpreter of the year. After hearing 
what we bad to say, he replie<l, discouragingly : ** It is entirely 
'* useless for you to try. It is not by any means an easy thing to 
*' understand tbeir speech. For instance, if we want to ask wbat 
** drinking water or ^nne is. we have no means but to begin by 
'* gesture. If it is wine, we first imitate ix>uring wine into a cup, 
'*andtben, lifting it up to the mouth, ask what that is. 'ITiey 
** will i*ay 'Oriuk.' But when we wish to know what drinkinjj: 
*' much or f if fie is, we have no means of askinir. ♦ * • * ] 
*' was }>orn in a family of interpreters and have been used to these 
** things all my life: Yet I am fifty years old now, and I undei- 
** stood, for the first time, the meaning of the word ** To like," in 
'* this journey. * * It is by such a tedious process, that even 
•* we, who see the Dutch every day, have to learn. You. who live 
** in Yedo, must not hope to do much. For this reason two gentle- 
•* men, Awoki and Noro, who apply themselves very hard, cannot 
'* make any progress. It is by far the best for yoU'Uot to begin at 
'*all." I do not know (the author continues) what Riotaku 
thought, but I ffave up entirely the idea of undertaking suoh a 
troublesome tasK." 



But, fortunately for »Japaii, fate ilecrecd otherwise. 
Another friend of the author, Nakagara Klowan, ulan a 
pliysiciHU, serving under the same daiinio as him-^clf, being 
interested iu the products of different countries, was a 
Cuusiuut visilor at the quarters of the Dutch, whenever 
they appeared in Yedo. It was in 1771, one day, the 
interpreter showed him two Dutch books on Anatomy 
whlt;h were for sale. He took them home, and among 
those who saw them was our authon Sugila could not, 
of coui'se, read a word, but wivs struck by the fact that 
the illustrations of bones and organs represented them to 
be very different from what he had believed them to be. 
He wished to buy the books but' was too poor. Fortunate- 
ly, however, he succeeded in persuading a knro (councillor) 
who, by his influence, had the price paid from the public 
treasury of the daimio. Ever after this, Sugita longed 
for the opportunity to test which of the theories was 
correct. 

He had not to wait very long. As good luck would 
bave ity be was invited; aborily afterward^ to a disdection 



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—2151— 

which was to take place in the execntion grounds of 
Kozukapparo. Such a thing was of rare occuireuce at 
that time and Sugita was not the man to enjoy it liy him- 
self, lie knew that several of his friends, among others 
Nakagawa Kiowan and Mayeda Uiotakn would be very 
glad to avail themselves of such an opportunity, lie must 
let them, know by all means, so he wrote to them though 
it was somewhat difficult (o do this, and appointed a place 
to meet, next morning. 

The anxiously expected day came, and all were prompt- 
ly at the rendezvous. Mayeda had with him a Dutch 
Uiokf on Anatomy, which he had bought in Nagasaki 
some time beft>re, and when they came to exniniue it, it 
proved to be the same tis one of those which Sugita ha«l 
been fortunate enough to procure lately. They wore 
soon in Kuzukappara, the famous execution grounds near 
Asaknsa. The hour for which they had lunged had 
actually come. 'J'liey weie about tt» know whether the 
things they and their fatheVs had believed in> were right 
or wroug. I can imagine how their hearts must have 
luat. The dissection was performed by an old executioner, 
an eta who had had some experience in this line. The 
result is soon told. IMicy of conise found that their the- 
ory was entiiely mistaken, and the way in which the iihi*> 
stratious in their new books ct>incidcd with real oitjects, 
raised their admiration to a high degree. On the way 
back, Mayeda, Nakagawa and Sugita were together. 
The events which had taken place of late must have seem- 
ed to them as if they had been pre-arranged. How 
foi'tunate that Nakagawa should happen to see those 
books, that Sugita should be able to buy them, that they 
should have a chance to test their doubts ! And what a 

t I have the plcHsure of knowing a descendnnt of Mayeda. He once 
allowed me a boolc which belonged to hi:) illustrious' ancestor, and 
which, I believe, was thia very Anatomv mentioned above. It was 
ciirefuUy kept in a box of kiii (name of a kind of wood), wrapped in a 

fmrple jukusa. It was, 1 should sa^, about 4 inches by 6 in breadth and 
eiigth, and 2 in thickness. My friend told me that it cost 200 rios^ and 
as Mayeda was too poor to buy it, he hnd the cost paid at the expense 
of his daimio, of wnom he seems to have been a favorite, ana who 
Items to have appreciated bim fully. The book was yellow with tiznei 
and looked, aa if it was not worth a quarter of a dollar. 



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oolnoidenod that Mayeda slioald posaess the same book ! 
A^ they walked home, they (alked earnestly. Sh:inie tliat 
they should have lived all their livei as physicians, and 
not know, till now, the construction of the human body, 
on which the science of medicine was necessarily founded ! 
If they could understand the true principle of Anatomy 
from the real objects they had just seen, if they conld 
tmnslale this book, which they had obtained so luckily, 
they would do an immense service to the country, and 
would not have lived in this world in vain. So they went 
on, and when they separated for the night, they hnd 
come to the agreement that they would try their best to 
master the strange language, and that as such things wero 
the better, the sooner begun, they would commence the 
very next day. They bad set before them a hard task, 
but they were determined to accomplish it. As they ' 
parted, their hearts were perhaps too full to speak, but 
they must have shaken hands most heartily, if such a 
thing bad been known then. 

According to promise, the three met in Mnyeda's house, 
and talked over what had passed the previous day. They 
o|)ened the Anatomy before them, but it was like managing 
H ship out in the ocean, without a rudder, to use the 
author's ^are. They did not know what to do. Mayeda, 
however, having had his mind set on the subject for a 
long time, had already acquired the alphabet and a few 
hundred words, as stated before. So he was chosen the 
leader and the other two undertook to learu from him 
what he knew. This was soon done, and now they pro- 
ceeded to the book. The way in which they started is 
interesting. There was in the book a chart of the ex- 
terior of a whole human body, giving the names of different 
parts. Now they, knowing the corresponding Japanese 
names, could compare them together and thus get at least 
a foothold which might enable them to proceed from the 
exterior to the internal construction of the body. The 
author says : 

At that time, we did not know anything about such auxiliary 
words M de, M, als and welhe, and th^iifore, though we might 



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oocAtioiiAlly meet with wordi that we knew, we oonld not make 
any connected sense oat of them. For instance, snch a simple 
aentence as ** the eyehrow is hair growing a little above the eye " 
was all confnsing, and we had to spend a long spring day, even 
till (lark, thinking and thinking, as bard as we couKL One day, 
when we eanie to the nose, it said that it was the thing that h 
f^vhft^H. We did not then have any dictionary, but in hM>king 
over the list of words which Riotaku and brought from Nagasaki, 
it said that the tree is rrrhetvn when a branch is cut off, and also 
that when a garden'is sm ept and the dirt put together it is Vfrheren. 
A« usual, we fell to thinking but could not make it out. A bright 
thought came to me that when the tree whose branch has been cut 
off, heals, the place is slightly elevated, and again that the dirt 
accumulated will, of course, be "elevated.'* Then the wonl— 
must mean ** elevated. " All agreed that this was quite reasonable 
and decideil that ivi'het^n shomd be translated ** elevate<L" The 
feeling of jo^ which I experienced then, cannot be told. I felt as 
if I had obtamed a whole castle full of precious stoues. 

It was by sucli a process that tliey made their wny incli 
by inch. They had their meetings six or seven times in 
a mouth, and s(i*ange to say, in a little over a year they 
became able to go over ten lines of coarse print in a thiy. 
At times, (hey attended a dissection, or saw for themselves, 
by cntting open animals. In two or three years, they 
began to enjoy their work so much that they waited for 
the day of meeting ** as a child would for a holi«lay.*' 
Such men as Kntsuragawa were also added to their number, 
und their undertaking began to be well known. 

It is interesting to note the object which each had in view. 
Mayech^, to whom all looked upas to a leader, was inclined 
toward Literal ure. His ambition was lo be able to rea«l 
any book and to acquaint himself with the affaii*8 of 
Europe. He wished to devote himself entirely to this 
study. He shunned society and quietly enjoyed himself 
in working on what he desired to accomplish. The daimio 
of Nakatsu, a rare man among his class, appreciated him 
fully, as I said before and encoui^aged him in various ways. 
Nakagawa Kiowan was interested in the products of 
different countries, and those he wished to know, through 
the channel of Dutch. He died about 1781, not quite 
^hj years old, a little after they got through their fii-st 
book. Sugita, our author, was more practical. He had 
found that what had been believed in regard to Anatomy, 
in Japan, was eiToneous, and wished to rectify it, He 



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—215— 

wished to apply the true principles to practical uses as 
soon as possible. The quicker^ therefore, he made out 
aujthiDg that could be seen by the world, the better. He 
illustrated his purposes by a simile. " It is beautiful to 
" see threads of all five colorsj twisted together, but I 
" resolved to confine myself to a single color, as yellow or 
" red, and let the rest go." After every meeting, he 
wrote down what had been read that day. It was a 
difficult work, certainly. He was the fii*st one who ever 
tried translating, and he had to settle a great many points 
that necessarily come up in such a task. After four years, 
changing the manuscripts one way or another, and copy- 
ing them over eleven times, he finally succeeded in having 
a work on Anatomy ready for publication. He had at first 
doubts about the safety of issuing it. A book had been 
suppressed, simply for having the Dutch alphabet in it. 
It was possible that something might be done to his. 
Persons had been imprisoned for writing books. He, 
however, determined to sacrifice himself to the cause of 
his profession, if need be. But a better time was come, 
and not only his book was left untouched, but he even 
succeeded in presenting a copy to the Shiogun, and several 
to men of power and influence in the country. Before 
Sugita died, he was honored with an audience by the 
bhiogun, a rare distinction indeed. 

As time went on, the study of Dutch spread far and 
wide. Scholars flocked to Mayeda, Sugita, etc., from all 
parts of the country. Some of them, as Otsuki, Ogata, 
and Udagawa are known by every body, and they did 
great service to the country. Books were exceedingly 
rare at that time, and students had to copy them. I have 
seen volumes upon volumes of manuscripts, neatly and 
carefully written, representing an immense amount of 
patience and labor. The privations and hardships which 
poor students went through in those old times, are almost 
incredible, and are often told to stir up lazy scholars of 
the present day. It is to be hoped that some of those 

X Blue, yellow, red, white and black were the primary colors of 
Japan. 



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—216— 

living now, who have gone through thoee bard trials maj 
write their memoirs, and thus leave a true history of their 
young days. 

Such, in brief, was the way in which the language of 
Holland came to be studied in Japan. It is a chapter of 
our history worthy of a far better chronicler than myself. 
The good that came out of it is incalculable. For a long 
time, it was the only channel through which outward 
thoughts could be brought to the Japanese mind. It was 
through this that the medical science of Japan was put on 
a true foundation. It was through this, that something 
of the laws of nature came to be known. It was through 
this, that the history of Europe, in fact, of the world, was 
underatood. Above all, if this had not somewhat prepared 
the public mind, we should not now be taking advantage 
of facilities which free intercourse with other countries 
has opened to us. Many of the men who have been lead- 
ing figures in our country, the last ten years or so, belonged 
to this school. Fuknzawa, the teacher and author, Tera^ 
shima, the well-known Minister of the Foreign depart- 
ment, Murata Zoroku, the Minister of War during the 
Revolution, Tanagawa, the founder of Japanese journalism 
and many others whom I might mention, have all been 
students of Dutch. The work which thoee three accom- 
plished at first was no doubt imperfect from a modern 
point of view, but it is one of the things of which I am 
proud in the history of our oountiy. 



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X 



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Vl^' 



?l i 

TRANSACTIONS 



OP 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN. 

VOL. V.-F-A-K/T II. 



A STIMMRT OE THE JAPMESE 
PEITAI CODES, 

BT 

JOSEPH H. LONGFORD, Esq., 

H. B. M. Legation. 



Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan, on the 
28/A February, 1877. 



YOKOHAMA. 

^1877. 
PRINTED AT THE ** JAPAN MAIL" OFFICE. 

1 



^ 



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TEANSACTIONS 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN. 



A STIMMIRT OF THE JAPAIOISE 
PEKAL CODES, 



BT 



JOSEPH H. LONGFORD, Esq., 

H. 6. M. Legation. 



Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan, on the 
2Stk February, 1877. 



YOKOHAMA. 

1877. 
PRINTED AT THE ''JAPAN MAIL" OFFICE. 



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PREFACE. 



When I commenced tlie preparatiou of the following 
Summary, it was my intention to endeavour to convey 
within the ordinary limits of the papers read before the 
Asiatic Society a general idea of the Japanese Penal 
Codes, by giving a short sketch of the plan and system on 
which they are founded, and translations of the more im- 
portant laws contained in them and of those which showed 
the points wherein Japanese criminal law differed most 
widely from that of England and other European countries. 
I found, however, that the manner in which all the laws 
in the Codes depend one upon the other rendered it neces- 
sary, in order to arrive at a correct apprehension of the 
penalties with which any transgression of them is to bo 
visited, to have a knowledge not only of the law imme- 
diately applicable to the particular transgression, but of 
many preceding or following it, and either explanatory of 
references in it or providing aggravations or mitigations 
of punishment in the case of particular classes of offenders, 
or in consideration of particular circumstances connected 
with the offenc3. It seemed hopeless, therefore, to attempt 
to convey a correct understanding of the Codes without 
giving either a complete translation of them or else a sum- 
mary, which, though curtailed by the omission of every- 
thing tending towards repetition^ by the re-arrangement 



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of the laws in such a way as uecessitated the smallest pos- 
sible number of references and explanatory notes, and by 
making such precis of tbem as the marked conciseness of 
the language admitted without falling into obscurity, 
would still contain a notice of all the laws in the Codes 
that are at present in force and of the provisions in them 
necessary for arriving at a proper appreciation of their 
spirit and principle. The latter course is the one which I 
have endeavoured to carry out, and though a summary 
compiled in the way I have described must necessarily be 
of a very imperfect nature, I trust that the following will 
nevertheless be sufficient to render intelligible to those 
referring to it any judgments of the Japanese Criminal 
Courts brought before the attention of foreigners. It 
will thus, perhaps, serve a useful purpose, until such time 
as a complete translation of the Codes may be published, 
by preventing much of the unfavorable criticism with 
which those judgments are now often visited, and which 
is in many cases only to bo ascribed to an entire want of 
knowledge of the principles on which they are based. 

J. H. L. 

Yokohama, March, 1877. 



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INDEX. 



Pagb 

Introduction 1 

Chap. I. — General Laws. 

PuniBliments 4 

Officials 7 

Clergy 8 

Naval and Military Offenders 9 

Magisterial and PoliceOfficers 9 

Indulgences toCommoners 9 

^ Female Offenders 11 

Prisoners committing second offences 11 

Aged and Youthful Offenders 12 

Principal and Accessory 13 

Offenders who voluntarily confess their crimes... 14 

Offenders charged with two or more offences » . . . . 16 

Absconding Offenders 18 

Relatives concealing each other's offences 18 

Repetition of offences 19 

Offences discovered after the lapse of time 20 

Increase and Mitigation of the Degree of Punish- 
ment 21 

Imperial Privileges 22 

Participators 22 

Superintendents and Custodians 23 

Family Servants 23 

Restitution and Forfeiture of Gk)od8 23 

Contradictory Laws 24 

Determination of case to which there is no law 

applioftble 25 



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Page 

Chap. IL— Dobiestic Law. 

Lands and Tenements 26 

Enrolment of the People 28 

Marriage and M iscellaneous Observances 29 

CuAF. IIL — Robbery and Tueft. 

Violent Robbery 30 

Embezzlement of Public Property 32 

Theft of Public Property 32 

Common Robbery 33 

Sacrilege, Imperial Property, Public Documents. 36 

R^)scue of Prisoners 37 

Abduction and Sale of Women 37 

Trespassing in a Dwelling House at Night 38 

Unlawful Conspiracy and Riot 39 

Harbouring Thieves 40 

Chap. IV. — Homicipe. 

Preconcerted and Wilful Muixler 43 

Wilful but not Preconcerted Murder 48 

Manslaughter 50 

Infanticide 53 

Murder in Self-defence 53 

Murder of Adulterers 53 

Poisoning 55 

Attributing the crime of Murder to an innocent 

person 55 

Wife Murder 56 

Murder of a Servant 56 

Murder of Several Members of one Family 57 

Terrifying a person into the commission of 

suicide 57 

Murders by Lunatics 57 

Compromising the crime of Murder 58 

Casting away Corpses and Violation of Graves... 58 
Failing to interfere and prevent an Act of Vio- 
lence 59 

Chap. V. — Quarrelling and Fighting. 

Assaults on Ordinary Persons 60 

Assaults on Officials 62 

Assaults on Relatives 63 

Other special cases. 66 

Chap. VI. — Abusive Language 68 

Chap. VII. - Indictments and Informations. 

Neglecting or Declining to receive an Indictment 

or Information properly preferred. 70 



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PXdB 

Improperly taking cognizanoe of an Indiotment 

or Information 71 

Cases in which Officials are privately interested ... 72 

False and Malicioua Informations 72 

Informations against Relations 76 

Inciting and Promoting Litigation 78 

Disobedience to Parents or Grandparents 78 

Chap. VIII. — Bribery and Corritption 79 

Chap. IX. — Forgery and Fraud. 

Forging Public or Private Documents 82 

Counterfeiting Official or Private Seals 83 

Counterfeiting the Ou rrency of the Reahn. 83 

Counterfeiting Weights, Scales, or Measures 84 

Falsely and Deceitfully addressing the Sovereign. 85 
Falsely representing one's self as a Government 

Official.-. 86 

Pretence of Sickness or Death 86 

Inciting people to transgress the Laws 86 

Chap, — Rape and Adultery. 

Adultery 87 

Incest 87 

Rape.. ; 88 

Sodomy 88 

Chap. XI.— Miscellaneous Offences. 

Breaking or Destroying Government Notice 

Boards or Notifications 89 

Trafficking in or Smoking Opium 89 

Gambling 90 

Preferring Solicitations to Officials on Public Mat- 
ters 91 

Accidental House Burning 91 

Incendiarism 93 

Making away with Property that has been 

entrusted for Safe Keeping. 93 

Detention of LostProperty 94 

Transgression of Prohibitions, Standing Orders, 

or Public Regulations 94 

Improprieties 95 

Chap. XIL— Arrest. 

Failure to execute a Warrant of Arrest 97 

Maltreating Prisoners 98 

Failing to prevent the escape of Prisoners 98 



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Paob 
Pritonen etoaping from custody or redsting 

Police Officers 99 

Aiding and Abetting the escape of Prisoners 103 

Chap; XIII.— Judgment and IifPRisoNMENT. 

Imprisonment of and Procednre against innocent 

persons 106 

Pronouncing and executing an unjust Sentence... 107 
Torture of Offenders of advanced or tender years. 109 
Improper examination of the Body in cases of 

Homicide 110 

Execution of a Capital Sentence without awaiting 

the Emperor's Approval 110 

Offences connected with the Trial of Women Ill 

Imprisonment Ill 

Postscript 113 



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A SUMMARY OF THE JAPANESE 
PENAL CODES, 

BY 

JOSEPH H. LONGFORD, 

H. B. M. Legation. 

Read be/ore the Astatic Society of Japan, on the 

2Sth February, 1877. 



The Ciiminal Laws of Japan as they stand at present 
are comprised in two code.^, respectively entitled the 
"Chief Points of the New Fundamental Laws" and "The 
Revised Fuiidttmental and Supplementary Laws," both of 
which have been compiled and enacted since the Revolu- 
tion. Under the Shognnato the whole criminal jurisdiction 
of the country wns nominally administered according to 
the laws contained in the two Chinese codes known as the 
Ming and Tsing, but as the several territorial magnates 
had from time to lime modified and altered these codes at 
will, the mode of their administration differed in almost 
every province. The attention of the Mikado's Govern- 
ment was therefore early directed to the subject, a com- 
mission was appointed to enquire into it and to draw up a 
code that would be applicable to the whole Empire, and 
(he result of their labours was the code which I have first 
mentioned and which was published in January 1871. It 
is simply a selection from the two Chinese codes of the 
laws which were considered to be most applicable to Japan, 
large modifications being, however, introduced into the 
amount and nature of the punishments prescribed in them 
for ditferent offences. These punishments had been of the 
most cruel and rigorous severity; death was inflicted for 
almost trivial offences and no other method was known of 
punishing heinous crimes save by accompanying that death 
with tortures of the most painful description. The Com- 
missioners who draw up the new code, however, recognizing 
that the true principle of punishment existed not in 
extreme and vindictive severity altogether disproportioned 
to the gravity of the offences, but in the certainty of the 
infliction of that punishment, entirely eliminated from the 



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— 2— 

new code thoee barbarous modes of execntion which had 
characterized the old, largely curtailed the crimes for which 
death wns enjoined as the penalty, abolished merciless nnd 
excessive whippinjjs, and for the majority of offenoes 
prescrihed the punishment of imprisonment with corrective 
labour, or in other words penal servitude. 

The second code which I have mentioned was notified 
by an Imperial Precept, pnhlished in May 1873. By it 
many of the laws contained in the first were abrogated 
or amended, new ones which experience had shown to be 
necessary were added, and further proof given of the humane 
feelings by which the Government was actuated by the 
still further curtailment of the crimes punishable by death, 
and by the almost total abolition of corporal punishment. 
What I now purpose to lay before the Society is a sum- 
mary compiled from these two codes of the Criminal Law 
of Japan as at present constituted, and I am induced 
to do so because I am not aware that this subject has as 
yet found a place among those that have from time to 
time been brought before the attention of the Society, 
and because it is one of interest, not only to the student, 
but in some degree also to every foreigner resident in this 
country. 

The "Chief Points of the New Fundamental Laws" 
consist, in addition to a preface containing certain t^^ble* 
and preliminary matter, of five volumes subdivided into 
192 sections, and the "Revised Fundamental and Supple- 
mentary Laws "* are comprised in two volumes containing 
318 consecutively numbered sections, there being as in the 
first code also some tables and Preliminary matter. These 
sections are again in both cases grouped into 13 chapters 
of different length, headed respectively : — 

1. — General Laws. 

2. — Domestic Law. 

3.— Robbery and Theft 

4. — Homicide. 

5. — Quarrelling and Fighting. 

6. — Abusive Language. 

7. — Indictments and Informations. 

8. — Bribery and Corruption. 

9. — Forgery and Fraud. 
10. — Rape and Adultery. 
11. — Miscellaneous Offences. 
12.— Arrest. 
_ 13. — Judgment and Imprisonment. 

and wIe^"*^BSi^5\£J ^f'*®*^®'^ respectively referred to as the "New Cod©'* 



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— 3— 

The first chapter contaius the laws describing the regu- 
lations under which the punishments specified in the re- 
maining twelve cimpfera are to be inflicted. Every crime 
known to Japanese law, with the ex<;eption of such offences 
as are in contraveiiiion of the Press-Laws, llailwaj Regu- 
lationn, etc., which are provided for in special statutes, is 
separately treated of in one or other of these twelve 
chapters, the circumstances which are to bo taken into 
coiwitleration in convictincr a prisoner being minutely des- 
cribed, and the punishment wiiich is to be iufiicted on him 
on conviction precisely stated in each case, authority being, 
however, given to the judge to make certain mitigations iu 
these punishments whenever he thinks the circumstances 
of the ciise call for the exercise of clemency. 

I will now separately summarize these chapters in the 
order in which they occur. 



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CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL LAWS. 



The first and second volumes, containing forty sections 
of the *New Code,' and one liundred sections of llie firet 
volume of tlie * Revised Code' rreiit of the " General Laws." 
These may be divided into three classes devoted sevenilly 
to— I. Punishments : II. Special cases in which the sta- 
tute punishments are to be increased, mitigated, compound- 
ed by the payment of a fine, or altogether remitted accord- 
ing to 'the aggravating or extenuating circumstances of 
each case, and the ranlc, nge and sex of the ofiender : 
III. Definitions of Legal Terms that occur in the body of 
the coJes, and Miscellaneous Provisions. 

CLASS I,— PUNISHMENTS. 

KevisedCode, There are twenty degrees of punishment — 
Sec.I-IV, namely penal servitude for a period of 10, 20, 
30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 days, or for 
one of 1, l^, 2, 2^, 3, 5, 7 or 10 years, or for 
life, — there being no intermediate peiiod be- 
tween that of 100 days and 1 year, or between 
that of 10 years and that for life — and death. 
An offender sentenced to a t«rm of penal ser- 
vitude is to be placed in the penitentiary or 
convict depot of the district in which he has 
been tried and sentenced, and work suited to 
his age, physical condition, and acquirements 
is to he allotted to him, so that ** by toil and 
** labour he may be gradually brought to 
** repent of his past misdeeds and be restored 
** to virtue." A certain portion of the value 
of all work done by him is to be placed to his 
credit in the prison books, and given to him on 
his discharge at the expiration of his sentence. 



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in order to serve as a capital to enable him to 
gain an honest livelihood. The punisliment 
of death may be inflicted either by hanging or 
decapitation, the laJter form being considered 
the more severe, and accompanied in n few 
instances where the crime is of a very heinons 
nature — snch for example :us tiiat of parricide — 
by the disgraceful addition of exposure of the 
liead after death. Tlie body is always to bo 
handed over to any relatives who may apply 
for it, but it mnst be buried without religious 
ceremony of any kind, and the headstone must 
contain nothing save the criminnrs name and 
date of death. A government notice recording 
the punishment and the crime for which it has 
been inflicted is always to be erected, both in 
the district in which the criminal has been 
tried and executed, and in his native place. 

Every crime treated of throughout the code is 
punishable by one of the of the above periods 
of penal servitude or by death, but there are 
certain cases in which the punishment of 
pillory — which consists of placing the offender 
in iron stocks in the prison yard— is to be 
substituted for one of the shorter periods of 
penal servitude, and there are others again in 
which the punishment of Imprisonment unac- 
companied by hard labour — which is called a 
supplementary (lit. intercalary) punishment — 
is to be inflicted iusteac( of that actually provid" 
ed in the statute. 

Imprisonment without hard labour may, ac- New Code, 
cording to circumstances, be undergone either 1^"P?» -^^^ 
in the offenders own house, he being closely menta." 
confiued in one room and no communication of Revised 
any kind allowed with outsiders nor any Code, S«o. 13. 
egress or ingress except on the part of domes- 
tics conveying daily necessaries, or else in 
the ordinary penitentiary of the district, in 
which case the offender is to be kept apart 
from other prisoners, allowed to wear his own 
clothing, and have his own food brought into 
the jail, as well as other privileges. This 
punishment, the periods of which are similar 
to those of penal servitude, is the one to 
which all persons of the rank of Bamwai are 



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to be sentenced for crimes which are not 
considered of a very disgi-aceful nature, 
such as robbery, unlawful sexual intercourse, 
etc. Samurai who commit crimes of this latter 
class are to be considered uuworthy of their 
rank, and are to be punished accordingly by 
being deprived of that rank and reduced to 
the level of commoners ; and, if their crime be 
such that a commoner would for committing 
it have been liable to any punishment exceeding 
penal servitude for 1 year, they are, in addition 
to the degradation, to undergo the statute 
punishment. This distinction may be licst 
explained by an example. A commoner, who 
is guilty of an ordinary assault, is punished, 
as will be seen hereafter, by penal servitude 
for 20 days ; a samurai, this not being 
considered a very disgraceful crime, by im- 
prisoment without hard labour for a like 
period. A commonei^, again, who commits 
embezzlement of a sum not exceeding 20 yen 
is punished by penal servitude for 90 days; a 
samuraihj degradation unaccompanied by any 
other penalty. If, however, the sum embezzled 
exceed 40 yen, both samurai and commoner 
are to be punished by penal servitude for one 
year or longer, according to the amount, the 
samuralf as iu the first case, also undergoing 
degradation. There is no supplementjiry 
punishment of death, and in all cases therefore, 
excepting of course those in which the crime 
id of a very disgraceful nature, where death is 
provided in the law as the penalty for any 
offence, imprisonment for life is to be substituted 
if the offender be a samurai. 

R^visedCode, Noblemen and officials of the two higher 
grades are tobe treated as S'lmttrat^ with the ad- 
dition that in their ease,a full report isto be made 
to the Emperor, and His Majesty's will inquir- 
ed before any proceedings are taken. When 
.Revised either a nobleman or samurai is degraded, any 

Code, Sec. 14. jjpg pension or grant which he enjoys as a re- 
ward for previous services is to be confiscated, 
but a hereditary pension is to be continued to 
his legal heirs, and the degradation is not to 
exteud to the latter, 



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— 7— 

CLASS II,— SPECIAL CASES. 

Tbe second class of the General Laws describes those 
cases in which a special routine is to be adopted on account 
of the rank of tlie offender, and also those in which tlie 
statute punishments are to bo increased, mitigated, com- 
pounded by a fine, or altoj^cther remitted on account of 
the circumstances incidental fo the offeuce being aggrava- 
ting or tlie reverse, or according to the age and sex of the 
offender. 

Officials.* 

Officials of all grades committing nny "pri- New Code, 
vate offence'' or any wilful and deliberate "^"^^J^.^^" 
offenco durmg their period ot oince, or, ir, ^.jajg » 
though the offence be antecedent, the discovery Revised 
bo only made subsequent to their entering Code, Sec. 13. 
office, shall be punished by the infliction of a 
flue, calculated according to the following table, 
in lieu of the term of penal servitude that is 
provided in the statute applicable to the of- 
fence. Where, however, the offence is such 
as would render a commoner liable to a sen- 
tence of penal servitude for one or more years, 
officials are to be dealt with in the manner 
that has been already described as the one to 
be adopted iti the case of samurai, their 
official brevets being confiscated where the 
samuiui would h:\ve been degraded. The 

* Persons in Government employment are cither ** Classed " or 
** Unclassed" officials. The Unclassed officials comprise only the 
copyists, servants, messengers and others employed in suborainato 
capacities in -the public offices. Classed officials include all who 
are employed in responsible capacities and have a definite rank. 
They aie divided into seventeen trades, numbered conscutively 1 
to 17. All who belong to one of the tirst three grades receive their 
apx>ointmeut8 direct from the Emperor and are therefore called 
** Officials of Imperial Appointment." All the Ministers and Vicc- 
Ministers of the Public Departments, the Councillors of State, etc. , 
come under this category. Those who belong to the fourth, fifth, 
sixth, or seventh grade receive their appointments from the Council 
of State and are therefore called ** Officials of Government Appoint- 
ment." The Secretaries, Acting Secretaries, Assistant Secretaries, 
and Acting Assistant Secretaries of the Public Departments, and 
Provincial officials of corresponding rank come under his category, 
Classed officials of any of the remaining ten grades receive their 
appointments from the head of the Public Department to which 
they are attached, and are therefore called "Officials of Departmental 
Appointment." They are entitled Attacht^s — an official of the eighth 
grade being an "Attach^ of the first rank" — an official of thg 
ninth grade an "Attach^ of the seoond Bank," etc. 



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term " private offence *' is the literal translation 
of that which is contained in the original. It 
includes all cases of criminality on the part of 
officials where tlu* offender's liability to punish- 
ment does not arise from his official responsi- 
bility, and is opposed to the term "public 
offence" which was used to describe a class 
timt has been recently abolished, in which the 
offence consisted either of a dereliction or vio- 
lation of official duty. Examples of this latter 
class of offences were " Failure to make proper 
reports to the Emperor,'* "Destroying or in- 
juring official documents," " Wilfully absen- 
ting ones-self from duly." ** Failing to attend 
at the Palace on necessary occasions," etc., 
Revised etc. The provisions in this law apply also to 

Code, Sec. 25. ^^q parents, brothers, and children of a com- 
moner holding office provided he be the head 
of the family. 

TABLE. 



Punhhments to 














which Commoneri 


r F 


Incs ichich shall be paid by Officiah for similar 


would bt liable. 








offtnces. 






Officiah qf 
Imperial 


Officials qf 


Officials fif 


i'tielattd 




Government 


Departniental 


Official 


Penal Servitude, 


Appoint- 


Appoint- 


Appoint- 


£mplogett. 




ment. 


ment, 


ment . 




10 days 


4 i/en 


3i 


ijen 


2 7J€H 


Hy-"* 


20 „ 


8 


» 


6' 


99 


4 », 


3 „ 


80 „ 


12 


»> 


9 


>> 


6 „ 


4i „ 


40 „ 


16 


« 


12 


» 


8 „ 


6 „ 


50 „ 


20 


»> 


15 


>> 


10 „ 


7i „ 


60 ,, 


24 


i> 


18 


9> 


12 „ 


9 „ 


70 „ 


28 


)> 


21 


» 


14 „ 


m » 


80 „ 


32 


9f 


24 


99 


16 „ 


12 „ 


90 „ 


36 


99 


27 


» 


18 „ 


I3i „ 


100 „ 


40 


99 


30 


» 


20 „ 


15 „ 



Clergy. 

Now Code, Beneficed clergy though by birth common- 

" Benefic^ ers are to be treated as samurai, and as samu^ 
vitl^CodiQ ' ^^' "**® degraded so they are to be unfrocketl 
See. 26. ^^»>' peculiarly disgraceful crimes and for viola- 

tions of clerical law. Unbeneficed dlergy are 
to be treated as commoners. 



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— 9— 

Naval and Militabt Offenders. 

Persons in the naval and military services Revised 
are in all cases to be tried and punished by « 27 
their own authorities, even for civil offences. 

Magisterial and Police Officers. 

Magisterial and Police Officers accepting ^1^ ^^^®» 
bribes, or appropriating any property that ^\j,^ p, 
may come into tlieir hands in the course of the officers." 
discharge of their duty, are to be sentenced to Revised 
a pnnisliment two degrees heavier than that Code, Sec29. 
wiiich is to be iuflicled on any other person 
for an offence of similar description, even 
though the discovery of their guilt may be 
subsequent to their ceasing to hold office. 

Indulgences to Commoners. 

Commoners deserving of leniency on ac- New Code, 
count of their having become implicated in a *'^2^™ 
crime through mistake or inadvertency, or ot ^^^^,^3^.^ 
their being of advanced or tender years, maim- not to be car- 
ed or deformed *, or of the female sex, are to ried out." 
be allowed to commute the period of pennl ser- 
vitude to which they would have been other- 
wise liable by the payment of a fine, according 
to the following Table : — 

TABLE. 



Ordinary Panuhiient, 

Penal Servitude 

for 


Fxnw to be paid 

by pernons 

accUkntally or 

inadvertently im- 

plieated. 


Fmes to be jxtid by 

persons of cut- 

I'anced or tender 

yearly maimed or 

deformed jyersons, 

and by females* 


10 days 


0.75 ten 


0.25 sen 


20 „ 
30 „ 


1.50 yen 
2.25 „ 


0.50 „ 
0.75 „ 


40 „ 
50 „ 


3.00 „ 
3.75 „ 


1.00 yen 

1.25 „ 


60 „ 


4.50 „ 


1.50 „ 


70 „ 


5.25 „ 


1.75 „ 



* These terms are of constant occurreuce throughout the Codes. 
A maimed person is one who is permanently crippled by one of 
the limbs, or the back bone being broken ; a deformed person one 
who is suffering from any permanent and incurable disease or 
infirmity, suoli as leprosy, or who is permanently crippled by both 
of the legs or arms oeing broken, or who is blind of ooth eyes, 



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80 days 6.00 yen 

90 „ • 6.75 91 

100 „ 7.50 „ 

1 year 15.00 .. 

1^ years 22.50 



2 

2i ;; 

3 „ 
5 „ 

7 „ 
10 „ 
Life 
Death 

Revised 
Code, Sec. 
30. 



ReviBed 
Code, Sec. 
31. 



Re>'i8ed 
Code, See. 
35. 



Revised 
Code, gee. 
38. 



30.00 
37.50 
45.00 
60.00 
70.00 
80.00 
90.00 

ioo.ro 



2.00 yen 

2.25 „ 

2.50 „ 

3.00 „ 

4.50 „ 

6.00 „ 

7.50 „ 

9 00 „ 

15.00 „ 

21.0) „ 

30.00 „ 

35.00 „ 

40.00 „ 



If a commoner sentenced to pay a fi ue of 
the first of Ihe above chisses is not able to do 
so on account of poverty, (he ordinary puui«h- 
menfc is to be inflicted wiih the exception 
that, if it 1)0 that of death, penal servitude for 
life is to be subsituted. In the case of those 
unable fur a similnr rcnsun to piiy fines of the 
second clascs, linlf the ortlinary punishment is 
to bo inflicted if the full term do not exceed 
100 days. If it does the term is to be mitigated 
tivo ilo«rroe8. The indnl^rence of punishment 
by inflict ion of a fine calculated accordinj? to 
the second cinris in lieu of penal servitude is 
also to be extended to commoners who have 
aged, maimed or deformed parents, or grand- 
parents with no other relative above 16 years 
ofngeou whom to depend for support save 
the offender. If the full period of the ordinary 
sentence would not Inive exceeded 100 days, 
the whole may be commuted in this way, but, 
in the case of more serious oflTences, the of- 
fender is to be put in pillory for three days 
«n(l allowed to commute only the balance of 
the punishment. Pillory for throe days is to 
be considered as equivalent to penal servitude 
for 100 dnys, and thus an offender coming 
under this category and guilty of an offence 
which would otherwise have rendered him 
Inible to un<lergo penal servitude for one year, 
would be pnnishe<l bv three days pillory and 
a fine of 50 sen, the fine being increased by 3 
yen for each additional period of one year that 
the greater magnitude of the oflFence would 



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liave involved. This indulgence ia not to be 
allowed in the event of the repetition of an 
offence, nor in any offence involving capital 
punishment. 

Female Offenders. 

Women who commit offences which violate 
filial piety,* or who are guilty of theft^, unlawful 
sexual intercourse, homicide or incendiarism, 
are m all cases to undergo the punishment pres- 
cribed by the several laws applicable to those 
offences, but nil other offences may — unless 
an exception is specially made — be com- 
mutted by the payment of a fine calculated 
according to the above table. Women of the i^vised 
rank of samurai are to undergo imprisonment 2) *^' 
in their own houses instead of penal servitude, 
except the term exceed one year, when they 
are to be dealt with in the ordinary way. 

Prisoners Committing Second OrFENCES.f 

Persons, already in custody for a previous 
offence, who, before their sentence has been Now Code, 
pronounced, are guilty of a second offence, shall " ^^w o£- 
only undergo the punishment due for the more convicte.'* 
serious of the two. If, however, the second 
offence is committed after the legal sentence 
hns been prononncrd in the case of the first and 
while the prisoner is undergoing punishment, 
additional penalties are to bo imposed according 
lo the following system. If the period of the Kevised 
first sentence do not exceed 100 days and the ^?^ ^^' 
second offence committed before the expiration 
of the first also involves a sentence not exceed- 
ing that period, then the full term of both 
sentences must be undergone. If, however, 
the second offence involve a sentence of 
penal servitude for one or more years, then the 
balance of the first sentence shall be remitted 
and second take effect forthwith. If the 
period of the first sentence exceed one but 
not three years, the full legal punishment for 

* Suob as assaulting or using abusive language to parents, dis- 
obeying their lawful commands, &c. 

t Frequent illustrations of the application of thia law are afford- 
ed by the sente&oee passed on newspaper editors. 



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anj second offence shall be added to that of 
the first. The full period of both mnst, how- 
ever, not exceed four years, unless that appli- 
cable to the second offence is of five or more 
years, in which case it is to be imposed in full 
and take effect forthwith, iiTespective of the 
time the offender may have already been in 
prison on acconnt of his first offence. 

If the period of the first sentence be five or 
more years a second offence of an equally se- 
rious nature shall involve an addition of four 
years to the first. If, however, the second 
offence involve punishment for a period vary- 
ing from one to tliree years then only half 
this period is to bo added to that of the first 
sentence, though if the legal period prescribed 
for the second offence do not exceed 100 days, 
it is to be added in full to that of the first. 
The time occupied by the trial of an offender 
for any offence committed during the period 
of his punishment is not to be computed as 
part of liis first sentence, unless he may be 
iiually acquitted of the second charge. 

Aged and Youthful Offenders. 

New Code, Persons of advanced or tender years — that is 
A^^ ^^ above seventy or under fifteen yeai*s of age — 
Youtliful "^"^ *^'^^ mnimod and deformed persons me to 
and Decrepit be allowed to commute, by the payment of a 
Offenders.^' fine according to the table already given, any 
^^JIJ^^^^J^ punishment to which they may render them- 
45 46 48. B^lv^ liable except that of death, and in the 
case of maimed persons those prescribed for 
rape or violent robbery. 

Persons above eighty or under ten years of 
age or deformed persons, shall not be liable to 
punishment for any offences of which they 
may be guilty other than those of theft or 
wounding, and they are to be allowed to com- 
mute the usual penalties for these crimes by 
the payment of fines according to the table. 
Persons above ninety or under seven years of 
age are not to be held responsible f(»r any 
offences whal soever that they may commit, 
even if it be that of murder, bat any person 
who may be eouvioted of ha?iDg instigated 



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them to the commisBion of an ofibnce shall 
suffer the full legal panishment for it, just as 
though he himself had actually committed it. 
Persons of the first of the above three 
classes repeating an offence, for the first com- 
mission of which they have already been 
allowed to commute their punishment by the 
payment of a fine, shall have the same indul- 
gence again extended to them, unless the 
offence be one, a repetition of which involves 
an increase of severity in the degree of punish- 
ment. In this case they shall only be 
permitted to commute the additional degree 
of severity, and the balance of the legal 
punishment shall be inflicted as though on an 
ordinary peraon committing the crime for the 
first time. A third commission of an offence 
shall render them liable to the punishment 
that an ordinary person would have suffered New Code, 
for a second. All the above indulgences are "OflFendera 
to be allowed to persons who, though neither ord^rep^t." 
of advanced years nor maimed or deformed at 
the time they may have committed a crime, 
become so before its discovery or before the 
expiration of their sentences, and also to those 
who though of tender years at the time of the 
commission of an offence, have advanced to 
manhood before its discovery. 

Principal and Accessort. 

An all important principle in Japanese law 
and one applied to all cases except where spe- 
cial exception is made, is the distinction of 
Principal and Accessory that is to be drawn 
between the parties to the commission of an 
offence. The Principal is he who originates New Code, 
the idea of commilting an offence, and he is to /I^^^S*™^" 
suffer the full punishment prescribed in the gions of Pun- 
law applicable to it. The Accessory is he who ishments." 
joins with the Principal in carrying out the New Code, 
crime suggested by the latter, and he is to "Principal 
suffer punishment one degree less in severity ^ ^^cc«8- 
than that prescribed by law, and this remis- Revised 
sion is to be made even though the accessory Code, Sec, 
may have been equally or more active than 71. 
the principal iu the actual oommiasioa of the 



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offenoe. A further remission of one iegx^ 
of severity is to be allowed where an acces- 
Borj afterwards gives information of the 
crime, even though such information may 
have been consequent on his learning that it 
was about to become divulged from other 
sources. In the cases of offences other than 
theft, bribery whether for a lawful or an ini- 
lawful object, fighting and quarrelling, homi- 
cide and wounding, where the parties to tlie 
offence are all members of one household, the 
head of the bouse shall alone be punished, 
unless he be over 80 yeai's of age or maimed 
or deformed, in which case the punishment 
shall fall on the head of the house next in 
succession, or, unless the head be a female, 
in which case the senior male member of the 
household shall also undergo punishment. 
Where different laws are applicable to one 
offence committed by two or more persons, both 
principal and accessory shall be punished ac- 
cording to the laws that may be severally 
applicable to their individual cases. For 
example, if a man procure a stmnger to 
join with him in striking his elder brother, 
the former shall be punished as Principal in 
the offence of assaulting Family Senioi-s by the 
penalties contained in the law of Assaults 
on Relatives, — the latter as Accessory in 
the offence of assaulting ordinary persons.* 
Again, if a stranger procure a member of a 
family to join with him in stealing the family 
property, the former shall be punished as be- 
ing the principal in a robbery, the latter as 
accessory in the crime of wasting the family 
property, the law on which is contained in the 
chapter entitled "Domestic Law." 

Offenders who Voluntarily Confess their Crimes. 

NewCode, A criminal, who, before his crime has been 
" >olu»tary^ discovered and while his name is as yet un- 
known to the authorities, voluntarily confesses 
it either himself or through another person 
duly deputed by him for the purpose, or of 

* The term ordinary is used to denote cases where is no official 
connection or tie of blood relationship between the parties. 



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whose crime information is given to the 
authorttiea by a pei*8on witliin tlie dep:ree 
of relationship that would have jnsfified 
the latter in concealing if, shall be pardon- 
ed. If, however, such voluntary confession 
or information be either inoperfect or in- 
accurate, the crinaiimi shall be held to he 
guilty of, and shall be punished for as much 
of his crime as may have been inaccurately or 
imperfectly stated ; for example, a criminal 
who, having stolen 100 yew, makes a voluntary 
confession of his crime but represents the 
amount as having been only 60 yen, shall be 
punished for the amount which he failed to 
declare — i. e. for 40 yen. If the imperfection 
or inaccuracy be so serious an to involve capital 
punishment, a remission of one degree of 
severity shall be made in the sentence. Shonld Revised 
the confession or information have been con- Cjde, Sec. 
sequent only on the offender learning that 
information of his crime was about to be given 
to the authorities from another source, or that 
a warrant had been issued for his apprehension, 
remissions of two and one degrees respectively 
in severity only shall be allowed to him and 
not a full pardon. The latter remission shall 
not be granted to the offender, if a noble or Revised 
samurai, but if the offence were of a desgi-ace- ^^®' •^^* 
fnl nature he shall l>e spared the degradation ^' 
that would have otherwise attended it. Resto- 
ration of stolen property by a thief to the 
owner before the fact of the thefk has been 
discovered shall be treated in the same light 
as voluntary confession. None of these in- 
dulgences shall be allowed in the cases of 
offences against the person, or of injury to 
property which cannot be replaced or repair- 
ed, or in that of unlawful sexual intercourse, 
or a repetition of the same offence; and in 
all cases stolen or otherwise dishonestly 
acquired property must be restored in full, 
otherwise a voluntary confession will only 
entail a remission of two degrees in the sever- 
ity of the sentence instead of a pardon. If, Revised 
however, a port ion of such property be restor- 9^^* ^^' 
ed, pardon shall be granted for this portion, 
and punishment mitigated two degrees inflicted 



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R«vi««d for the balance only. Runawaya from prison 
Code, Sec. volnntarily surrendering themselves shall have 
tlie additional punishment for pnson breaking 
which would otherwise have been inflicted on 
them remitted, but their original sentences 
are not to be affected. 

Offenders Charged with Two or more Offences. 

New Code, When two or more crimes on the part of 
*'Two ^ff®^- the same person are divulged at one and the 
at^one^anS^ same time, proceedings are to be taken against 
the same the offender only on account of that which 
time." involves the more serious penalty of the two, 

and, if the penalties for both are alike, one 
only is to be inflicted. If, again, after a pri- 
soner has been tried and sentenced for any 
offence, a fresh one committed previous to his 
trial is discovered, no account is to be taken 
thereof, unless it be such as would involve a 
more severe penalty than that to which he 
has already been condemned. In the latter 
case such addition shall be made to the first 
penalty as shall make it equal to that 
of the more recently discovered offence. In 
cases where one of the two crimes is such that 
the offender is entitled to the privilege of 
commuting the punishment by a nioney pay- 
ment, but the other one for which he is liable 
to undergo the statute punishment, the latter 
only is to be inflicted, if it be the heavier of 
the two or if both be alike. If not, a mitiga- 
tion of five degrees is to be made in the com- 
mutable punishment and the balance imposed. 
For example: — Suppose that it is discovered 
that a criminal charged with an assault punish- 
able by penal servitude for one year was, l»e- 
fore he attained the age of 16 years, guilty 
of a robbery of 120 yerty the punishment 
of which is penal servitude for ten years 
but commutable, — the crime having been 
committed when the offender was of tender 
years — for a money payment of 30 yey. The 
commutable offence in this instance being the 
more serious of the two, its penalty is to be miti- 
gated five degrees and the prisoner sentenced to 
penal servitude for two and a half yeais, no 



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further account being taken of the charge of 
assault. If, however, the robbery had been 
only of such a nature as wonltl have rendered 
the offender llal>lo (o a pennlty of penal servi- 
tude for 100 days, tlien, that for the assault 
being the heavier, is alone to be imposed and 
no account is to l»e taken of the commutable 
offence. 

In cases where two or more robberies or 
other form of unlawful acquisition are to- 
gether discovered, the amount acquired by the 
more serious form of robbery * is to be added 
to the amount acquired by that which is less 
80, and the offender punished either for the 
full amount that has been acquired by both 
offences according to the law of the lighter 
form of robbery, or for the amount acquired by 
the more serious form only, if the penalty there- 
for be heavier than that for the full amount under 
the lighter form. This may be best explained 
by (he following illustrations: — Suppose an 
offender to be guilty of the theft of public pro- 
perty to the valueof lOOi/eHf the statute punish- 
ment for which is penal servitude for 7 years, 
and also of common robbery of a sum of 200 
7jen, The sum obtained by the first and 
more serious form of roUbery is to be added 
to that acquired by the latter and less serious, 
and the penalty for a connnon robbery of the 
full amount of 300 yeii hcing that of penal 
servitude for life, and heavier therefore than 
that provided for a theft of public property to 
the value of 100 yen, it is to be inflicted on 
the prisoner, in the case, however, of an 
offender guilty of embezzlement of 80 yen, 
the penalty for which is penal servitude for 5 
years, and also of common robbery of 10 yen, 
the |)enalty to which ho would be liable for the 
full amount of 90 i/en acquired by both rob- 
beiies if treated according to the less severe 
form being penal servitude for 3 years, and less 
therefore than that provided for the embezzle- 
ment, punishment is to be inflicted for the 
latter only. 

* i.e. By the form of robbery which involves the more serions 
penalty of the two. 



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New Code, 
«* Offenders 
absconding 
together." 



Absconding Opfendbrs. 
If two or more persons who have been con- 



cerned in the commission of an offence abscond, 
and one among them seizes and delivers up to 
the anthorities those wliose share in the guilt 
is greater than his own; or, if when all are 
equally guilty, a minority seize and deliver up 
to the authorities (he remaining majority, he 
or they so doing shall receive a full pardon, 
except the offence have been that of killing or 
wounding or unlawful sexual intercourse. 
When several persons are implicated in the 
guilt of one who dies during the progress of 
his trial, the punishment of those who are 
guilty by implication only shall be reduced two 
degrees of severity, and, in all cases, where a 
pardon ormitigatiou is granted to an offender 
on account of his having made a voluntary 
confession, or of an Imperial act of clemency, a 
similar pardon or mitigation shall be granted 
to every person who has been implicated in 
his offence. 

When only one party to an offence absconds, 
and the remainder who are in custody declare 
the absconding offender to have been the prin- 
cipal, such declaration shall, in the absence of 
evidence to disprove it, be taken as true, and 
punishment imposed accordingly ; but should 
it, on the arrest and trinl of the absconding 
culprit, afterwards appear that the first were 
in reality the principals, then the balance of 
punishment which they escaped in the fi i-st 
instance shall be added to their previous sen- 
tences. When the relative degrees of guilt of 
the ]>arties to an offence where one has ab- 
sconded are clearly and incontestably proved 
at the trial of those in custody, it shall not he 
necessary to hold a new trial on the arrest of 
the absconding culprit, but he mny be at onco 
sentenced ou the evidence adduced in the first 
instance. 
Relatives Concealing each other's Offences. 
New Code, Persons of nny degree of relationship living 
"^^^*fr"* together, or down to the third degree of rela- 
^nc^liug tionship though living apart from each other, 
es^h other.'' maternal grandparents, daughter's sou, fathers 



New Code, 
"Abscond- 
ing after 
the Offence 
has been di- 
vulged." 



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and mothers-in-law, sons-in-law, wives of 
grandsons, husband's brothers and brother's 
wives, mutually concealing each other's oifencos, 
and also family relaineis and servants con- 
cealing offences for their masters' sakes 
shall not be hehl gniify of any crime for so 
doing, nor even for informing them of mea- 
sures that have been taken for their arrest, 
and thus enabling them to conceal themselves 
or escape. The same inmiunity shall be ex- l^vised 
tended to [)ersons of a lower degree of rela-g^^ ^'., 
iionship, if dependent for their support on the 
bounty of them whose guilt they cloak, but, if 
not, they shall undergo the punishment ordi- 
narily inflicted for such offences, mitigated 
three degrees of severity. 

The following Table shews the several degrees of Rela- 
tionship. 

Kehitions in the (Parents, adopted parents, husband, 
first degree : | child, adopted child. 

Kelatious in 
second degi 

[ Great-grandparents, aunt by marriage, 

,> , ,. • n \ husband's nephew, cousin, half bro- 

• lielations in the J ,, i i i> i ^ i 

,, . , , < Iher, husbands grand parents, lins- 

tliird ilc'iroe : i , i» i i . i • » 

'^ y band s uncles and aunts, concubines 

( child, nephew's wife, stepfather. 

'Great-great-grandparents, grand uncle 

and aunt, second cousin, husband's 

brothers, brother's wife, cousin's 

.. ,, , I cousm, maternal gruudparcnts, ma- 

lourth degree : < , , , i ^ t » i -i i 

^ ' ternal uncle and aunt, wiles child 

by previous husband, brother's 

grandchild, cousin's son, sister's 

child, great-great-grandchild. 

t3 I ,. . ,, ( Wife's father and mother, aunt's son, 
Relations in the 1 ^, , . * i. i 

fifth dei^ree- i '"others cousin, great-gieat-grand- 
^ ' ( child, daughter's child, sou-in-law. 

Repetition of Offences. 

New Code, A Repetition of the offences of robbery or 

^Increased gj^jj J 1^1 j„g gjj^^ij i„volve an increase of one 

for Second degree of severity in the sentence in the 

Offences.'' second instance; but in the e^nt of a third 




Relations in the 



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commission of robbery the amounts stolen on 
the lliree several occnt-ions are to be added 
together and the punishment provided by the 
law applicable to the least serions form of the 
three robberies ini])osed for the full amount. 
The punishment shall bo imposed, however, 
according to the most ser ions form if it was last 
of the three in8hin<;es ; as, for example, if the 
three robberies in the order of their commis- 
sion were, firsHy, embezzlement of 10 yen ; 
secondly, robbery wilh violence of 1 yew ; 
thirdly, common robbery of 25 yen, the 
oil'ender shall be punished only for a com- 
mon robbery of 36 yeti, the punishment 
for which is penal servitude for 90 days; 
whereas if in the order of commission, the 
robbery with violence were the last, he shall bo 
sentenced to penal servitude fur life, that 
being the punishment provided for a robbery 
with violence of the above amount. The 
offence of running away from prison, either 
before or after the offender has been sentenced 
for the crime on account of which he was in the 
lirst instance placed in custody, shall be punish- 
ed by the penalties provided therefor in (he 
law contained in the chapter on "Arrest," but 
a prisoner, who having absconded before sen-^ 
tcnco had been passed on him, is, while at 
large, guilty of a second cflbnce, shall be sen- 
tenced to the punishment provided for the 
more serious of the two oliences, irrespective of 
whether it wns the first or last committed, in- 
creased two degiees of severity, and if the 
offences were those of robbery, the degree of 
punishment shall be based on the total value of 
the goods stolen on both occasions. 

Offences discovered after the lapse op Time. 

?i7 1^*^^^' ^^^ those instances where an offence is only 
ary Matter " ^'^'^^^^c*'^*^ ^^^^^' « period of several years has 
elapsed since the date of its commission, the 
circumstances will betaken into consideration, 
and either an entire or ]»artial remission of 
punishment granted. If t lie discovery is made 
after the lapse of 10 years, a capital sentence 
(unless the origiual crime was that of mar- 



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—21— 

der) shall be mitigated to one of penal servi« 
tilde for 10 years ; a sentence of penal servi- 
tude for life to one of penal servitude for 3 
years; and sentences of penal servitude for 10, 
7, or 5 years entirely remitted. Entire remis- 
sion of punishment shall also be granted for 
offences liable to any period of penal servitude 
not exceed! no; 3 years, if they are only dis- 
covered when five years have elapsed since 
the date of their commission, and also for of- 
enccs liable to a term not exceeding 100 days, if 
only discovered after the lapse of three years. 



CLASS III.— DEFINITIONS. 

The third class of the General Laws contains the defi- 
nitions, or explanations, of the meaning that is to be 
al Inched to legal terms that appear from time to time in 
the general body of the laws, and also certain Miscel- 
laneous Provisions. 

Increase and Mitigation of the Degree of 
Punishment. 

Increase or Mitigation of the degree of NewCJodo, 
l)niiishmont that is provided in the law ap- ' jxjv^f 
plical)lo to any otleiice, means that the penalty ^^^^ ^f p^_ 
is to be made more severe or lighter, as the nishmcats." 
case may be, in the mode that is illustrated in 
the following example. Where it is stated 
that a penalty of penal servitude for 80 days 
is to be increased one degree*, it is meant that 
the penalty which is next in point of severity 
— Le. that of penal servitude for 90 days — is 
to be inflicted. If it is stated that it is to be 
increased two degrees, then the penalty next 
but one — Le, penal servitude for 100 days — 
and, if three degrees, then the penalty next 
but two— i.f. penal servitude for one year — 
in point of severity is to be inflicted. If, again, 
it is stated that this penalty is to be mitigated 
one degree it is meant that that immediately 
below p'^nal servitude for 80 days, — Le, penal 
servitude for 70 days — is to be inflicted, and if it 
is slE^ted that it is to be mitigated two degreesi 



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Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 84. 



then the penalty next but one below penal ser- 
vitnde for 80 days — i,e. penal servitnde for 60 
dnys— is to l>e inflicted. No penalty, how- 
ever, that is provided in the law applicahle to 
any offence, can he increased such a number of 
degrees as would render the punishment capi- 
tal, unless the contrary is specially stated in 
the taw. Thus, though a sentence of penal 
servitude for 5 years increased four degrees 
ought to involve the punishment of death, this 
is not to he inflicted, but penal servitude for 
life substituted. Although, again, there arc 
three Ibrms in which the punishment of death 
may be inflicted, all are to be considered as 
being one degree of punishment, and when, 
therefore, it is stated that a capital sentence — 
no matter in which of the three forms it was 
lo have been carried out — is to he mitigated 
one degree, |>enal servitude for life is always to 
be inflicted. The full extent required by the law 
lo warrant an increase in the degree of punish- 
ment must always he clearly proved before 
such increase is permitted; — e.g. embezzlement 
of 30 t/€H is punishable by penal servitude 
for one year, whereas if the sum be 40 
f/en the punishment is increased one degree, 
that is to 1^ years, but if the amount fall short 
of 40y«» by ever so small a fi-action, tbc in- 
crease shall not take place. 

Imperial Privileges. 

•* l^ ^^^* ^^^ ^*^^® relating to the Imperial privileges 
Eq^j^ggi^jjjj shall extend, not only to the Emperor, but 
Presence." also to the Emperor's father, mother, grand- 
mother and consort, and any punishment pro- 
vided for violation of the Imperial commands 
shall, reduced one degree in severity, be in- 
flicted for violation of those of the Emperor's 
relatives herein mentioned. 



New Code, 
"Participa- 
tors." Re- 
vised Code, 
Sec. 88-89. 



Participators. 

Those whom the laws declare to be "Par- 
ticipators in a crime" arc to suffer the legal 
punishment provided for such crime, but mi- 
tigated one degree in the case of capital offen- 
ces. Where the laws state that a crime is 



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"the same as " (another) the full legal punish- 
ment provided for the latter Bhnll he inflicted. 
Where the laws state that, nii offence is to he 
considered as " coming under the catej^iny of 
laws Bpplicahle '* i^ (e. g.) hri])ery the legal 
punishment shall he inflicted^ hnt it is not to 
exceed penal servitude for 10 years ; 
where, however, a case is referred directly to 
those laws the full extent of the punishment 
mnst always he carried out. 

Superintendents and Custodians. 

Responsihie Superintendents are those who New Code, 
have particular departments of the Clo^®*'"- ^^^^^" 
ment nnder their control ; responsihie cuftto- ^^^ Custo- 
dians are those in charge of treasures, store- diftos." 
houses and the like. 

Family Servants. 

"Family Servants*' include all the employeesRevised 
of every degree in the households of nohle,^-^®» ^^' ^' 
samurai and commoner alike. 

Restitution and Forfeiture op Goods, 

In all cases of transfer of property where New Code, 
guilt attaches both to the giver and receiver, V^^*^'*' 
in those of bribery, whether for a lawful or an porfdiare 
unlawful object, and in those where a person of stolen 
is found in the possession of prohibited goods gooda." 
{e,g. opium), such property, bribes or goods, 
shall be forfeited to the Government, but 
goods which have been obtained by one per- 
son from another by such unjust means as 
violence, threats, fraud, extortion or the like, 
shall be restored to the rightful owner who 
has been so deprived of them. The proceeds Revised 
of a robbery — no matter of what nature — that Code, 
may be found in the possession of the thief, or ^^^ "*• 
in that of a ])eison to whom he has tmnsferred 
them, or who has acquired them otherwise than Revised 
by purchase in open market at a fair price. Code, 
irrespective of the number of hands through ^^ ^^* 
ifvhich they may have passed since the com« 



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Reviled mission of the crime, or to whom they have 

^^®» M ^^^®" j?iven by the thief as gif^a or in sntisfac- 

• tion of previons (\ehi», sliall in all cases l>e 

restored to the rijjlitful owner. Any prfn>pi-iy, 

Revised also, that a ihiof nwiy he possessed of, shall, if 

^^®» he have already made away with the proceeds 

* ■ * of the robbery, he devoted to reimbursing the 

person on whom the robbery was committed. 

The value of stolen property is for purposes 

of punishment always to be estimate*! at its 

medium market value at the time and place of 

the robbery. 



Contradictory Laws. 



New Code, Crimes to which there is a law in the genei-al 
ii'ff ™?i hotly of the codes specially applicable shall 
deacrfbed in always be decideii according to such law, even 
the Particu- though it may appear to differ from any of the 
lar Law8." General Laws iu this division. When a crime 
to which there is a law specially applicable is in 
itself an evidence of a design to commit another 
and more serious crime, punishment shall be 
imposed according to the law bearing on the 
latter and not the former. If an offence is 
committed under aggravating circumstances 
of which the offender was himself ignoitint at 
the time of commission, then only the punish- 
ment due in ordinary cases is to be inflicted, 
while, on the other hand, the advantjige of any 
remission of punishment provided by the 
special law applicable to the offence when 
committed under extenuating circumstances, 
shall always be allowed to an offender, even 
though he may at the time have been ignoi'ant 
of such circumstances. Examples of these two 
cases last mentioned are : A nephew striking an 
uncle from whom he has been brought up apart, 
and of whose personality he wjis ignorant, 
shall be punished only for an assault in ordi- 
nary cases, instead of for an assault on Family 
Seniors; while a father striking his son, though 
under the impression at the time that the son 
was a stranger, shall not render himself liable 
to any penalty. 



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Determination op Cases to which there is no 
Law Applicable. 

In case of the commission of any offence to New Code, 
wbich there can he fonnd no law applicable, ^^^^^JiJ^j^ 
the degree of punishment tliat is to he inflicted ^ ^^ j^^ 
for it is to he determined hy an accurate com- applicable." 
parison of the case with otliers already pro- 
vided for in the laws. Such punishment must, 
however, be repoited to and approved of by 
the Emperor before being carried out. When- 
ever the special circumstances attendant on the Notification 
commission of any crime to which there is a ^^' ^^ 
law applicable seem to he of such a nature as jsth 1874. 
to render the offender deserving of special 
clemency, mitigations may be made in the 
degree of punishment provided in the law, but 
they must not exceed five in number. 



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CHAPTER II. 

DOMESTIC LAW. 



Tlie literal meaning of tbe term in the original which 
I have translated 'Domestic' is * House and Marriage,' 
and (he hiws contained in this chapter consist for the most 
part of a very short selection from tlie three first books of 
the Fiscal and from the second book of tiie Ritual Laws 
in the Tsing code, respectively, entitled 'Enrolment of 
the People,* 'Lands and Tenements,' 'Marriage,' and 
* Miscellaneous Observances.' They are comprised in eleven 
sections of the New Code, and, thirteen chapters of tbe 
Revised Code, and in summarizing them I shall classify 
them according to the above headings. 

Lands and Tenements. 

The offences treated of in the laws thus headed are 
of three kinds : (a) Unfair levy or assessment, or wilful 
evasion of payment of the land tax : (b) Fraudulent 
mortgage or disposal of lands : (c) Injuries to crops, etc. ; 
and the following are tbe punishments respectively 
provided for them. 

New Code, Unfair levy or assessment of the land tax on 
"Partial As- ^\^q pj^^^ of officials of any grade, penal servi- 

Land Tax." * "*^® ^"^^* ^^ ^^y^ ^^'> ^^ *^^® offence has been com- 
mitted for a bribe, such heavier punishment 
as the amount of the bribe, if treated as gooils 
acquired by common robbery would involve. 
New Code, Misrepresentation of the value of land with 
"Fraudulent ^ view to evade payment of the land tax and 
of produce defraud the Government, penal servitude for 
of land." 30 days, for any extent up to five se* so mis- 
represented, one degree of severity being 
added to this punishment for every additional 
five s€y until the maximum penalty, that of 

* One M of land is 1,060 square feet. 



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penal servitude for 100 days is reached. The 
land so misrepresented is to be confiscated, 
and any arrears, of which payment Iiad been 
evaded prior to tbe discovery of the offence, 
are to be collected from the offender. 

Tampering with the official Land Register, Revised 
penal servitude for 1^ years, with a similar JJ^®' ^®*^* 
reservation to that in the first instance in case 
the offence is committed for a bribe. 

Fraudulent disposal in any way or acquisi- New Code, 
tion of the lands or tenements of another, ^^®?t*^^ 
mortgaging a second time land or tenements and Tene- 
that have been ah-eady pledged to the full ments." 
extent of their value, re-selling any that have New Code, 
already been disposed of, or wilful destruction "Second 
of agricultural implements, growing trees, ^^^^^^® ^^ 
plants or vegetables, shall be treated as com- ^^ Tet^ 
mon robbery and punished accordingly in ments." 
proportion to the amount that has been New Code 
acquired by such fraudulent mortgaj/e, or**De8truc- 
re-sale, or to the value of the articles destroyed, tion of im- 
the punishment being, however, limited in the Pj^^^'^ts, 
case of tbe offence fii*st mentioned to penal ft-uit."* 
servitude for 10 years, and in all cases 
to be increased one degree in severity if the 
offence be committed against the Government 

Refusal to return land mortgaged on the New Code, 
mortgagors tendering payment of the bond in "Second 
full at the proper date, penal servitude for ^J^^^^^^g 
30 days. In both this and the previous cases ^nd Tene- 
the offender is, in addition to undergoing ments." 
the legal punishment, to forfeit to the rightful 
owner any gain which he may have unlaw- 
fully acquired by his fraud or detention of the 
land. 

Inadvertent destruction or loss of Govern- ^ New Code, 
ment property shall be treated as common "I^fstniction 
robbery, but the punishment contained in the mentB^planta 
law relating thereto shall be reduced three and fnut." 
degrees in severity. No penalty shall attach 
to the inadvertent destruction of private pro- 
perty, unless that of standing crops caused by 
animals, carelessly let loose, in which case Keviged 
the persons responsible for the custody of ??^®» ^^^ 
said animals shall be punished for Pecuniary 
Malvorsation to the extent of the value of the 



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property that has been so destroyed. In all 
these cases fall restitution of the value of the 
property destroyed must be made to the owner, 
whether the Government or a private indi- 
vidual. 
Revised Unauthorised removal of flood gates or dams, 

Code, Sec q,. breaking of river embankments shall be 
punished according to circumstances either 
as a grave or trivial Impropriety, under the 
law relating to Improprieties that is contained 
in the chapter on Miscellaneous Offences. 

Enrolment of the People. 

The laws comprised under this head also relate to three 
classes of offences, namely, those comiected with Inheri- 
tance and Succession, Wanton Disposal of Family Proper- 
ty, and Absconding. The offences described in them with 
their penalties are as follows : — 

*^v^l t Discarding without due reason the son of 

of Law of * ^*^® ^^ favour of that of a concubine, penal 
Inheritance." servitude for 90 days, the rightful heir to 
be reinstated. 

Discarding an adopted son, unless in favour 
of a natural child born after the adoption had 
taken place, penal servitude for 2 years. 

Revised Abandoning a natural or adopted child, 

Cjxle, Sec. penal servitude for 100 days, a step-child, pe- 
nal servitude for year, and a child, adopted 

Revised for the sake of the money thereby obtained, 

CfKle, Sec. penal servitude for 10 years. 

Revised Procuring or assisting in any way to pro- 

n"a^' ^^^* ^"^® abortion, penal servitude for 100 days. 
In none of these offences shall the offender, if 
a female, be allowed to commute the punish- 
ment of penal servitude by the payment ef a 
flue. 
New Code, Wanton disposal or consumption of the pro- 
.*^^^]J^- perty of a parent by a son, of that of an elder 
tion*^o?*pro^^y ^ younger brother, or of that of any mem- 
perty by son ber of a family by a junior member thereof or 
or younger by a servant, or of that of the superintendent 
lather' of any religious community — riiale or female 
Code Sec. — ^7 *^® members thereof, penal servitude for 
115. ' 10 days for each yen^s worth of property so 



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disposed of, the maximnm puuishment beinfi^, ^ • ^ 
however, limited to peiml servitude for 100 Q^^^g 
days. Sec. 115. 

Absconding from the phice of retristration, New Code, 
penal servitude for 80 days, hut this punisli- *' ^V,^^*^*^^' 
nient may he conimutetl if the offender return ,^ . j 
and give himself up to the aulli(U-iiies within (jode 
two years. On every re[)et it ion of the offence See. 117. 
after the second, a'l increa-^e of one degree of 
severity is to he made, until tlie maximum 
penalty of peinil servitude for 1 year is reach- 
ed. Increases in the degree of severity shall 
also he made if the offender he a samnrni 
(when he shall he degraded) or if he ahsconds 
to foreign countries. Domestic servants of New Code, 
any description iihsconding from their mnster's "Absconding 
employment shall he punished by penal s^or- j^g »» 
vitude for 30 days. 

Marria(;i: and Mksckllaneois Observances. 

The offences punishahio hy the laws com- 
prised under the renmining two headings of 
this section are — in respec^t to marriage — 
ejecti(>n of a son-in-law without due reason New Code, 
and giving daughter in unirriage to a second "I'^jection of 
hushand, penal servitude for 90 days, the ^j^JJ^'^^^f^^ 
second husband being considered a participator of daughter. " 
in the crime ifawure ol'ihe unjust ejection of 
the first ; encjii^in^ in umrri}i»'c during the Now Code, 
period ofmourning for parenisor grandparents, *^t>nceai- 
penal servitude for 100 days; and — in ^he^"^^^^^ 
case of miscellaneous ritual oljservances — con- reutsorhus- 
cealment of the death of parents or'hnsband band." 
and not going inlo mourning, penal servitude 
for 1 year, and falsely reporting the death of 
paients or grandparents, penal servitude for 
100 days. 



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CHAPTER III 

ROBBERY AND THEFT. 



All cases of rohhery — with the exceptions of " Sacri- 
lo<re," '* Theft (►f Im[)erial Property," and " Theft of Pnh- 
lic Documents,'' each of which offences is provided for hy 
a special statute — are included in one or other of four 
classes, namely "Violent Rohhery," " Emhezzlemenfc of 
Puhlic Property," "Theft of Puhlic Property," and 
"Common Uohhery,'* and all these offences, as well as 
those of "Rescue of Prisoners,'* " Ahduction and Sale of 
Women,*' " Trespassin*^," " Conspiracy and Riot," and 
" Harhourincr of Thieves and Receiving Stolen Property " 
are described in the present chapter. 



New Code, 

''Violent 

Kobbcry." 

Revised 

Code, Sec. 

127-133. 



Preliminary 
matter. 
"Table of 
seven kinds 
of Unla\Fful 
Cain." 



Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 127. 



Violent Robbery. 

Violent robbery includes burglary effected 
by smashing of doors, fences or walls, highway 
robbery, robbery effected by stupefying a per- 
son with drugs, and, in general, all cases where 
foice of any kind is used by the thief at the 
time of the actual commission of the robbery, 
either for the purpose of effecting his object or 
preventing his arrest. Two degrees of it are 
recognized — namely, violent robbery with 
weapons, and violent robbery without wea- 
pons. Thieves who at the time of the com- 
mission of the offence are armed with swords, 
spears, pistols or guns are always to be, and, 
if armed with sickles, knives, hatchets, sheath 
knives, or clubs, may be considered guilty of 
the first, and are to be punished, if the robbery 
has been accomplished, irrespective of the 
amount stolen and without distinction of prin- 
cipal and accessory, by decapitation ; if the 
robbery has been only attempted, the prin- 
cipal by hanging and the accessories by penal 



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servitude for life, unless the offenders have, 
in addition to the robbery, been guilty of 
either murder or woundinj:^ when, as before, 
all shall be punished by deenpit^itioii. Violent ^ew Code, 
robbery without weapons includes all the {^ iV i 
above cases when, al the cotnniission, the thief unarmed 
or thieves were n<»t armed with any of t be persons." 
weapons mentioned. The pnnishments which 
arc to be inflicted for it vary according to the 
amount stolen, as shown in the table below, 
and in passing sentence tbe following provisions 
are to be observe«l. All parlies to tbe offence Revised 
withont distinction between prinei[»al and ac- Jt^ V^^ 
cessories, are to bo punished for the full 
amount stolen irrespective of whether any di- 
vision of it has been made among them or not. 
Thus, if three unarraed persons together com- 
mit a highway robbery of ten yen, although 
I he principal may appropriate three-fifths of 
this sum, the first accessory tbe remaining two- 
fifihs and the second got nothing, (he whole 
three are nevertheless to be punished alike as 
having stolen ten yen and sentenced therefore 
as will be seen by the table, to penal serv- 
itude for five years. If murder is committed 
in connection with the robbery it shall involve 
the punisbment of decapitation, and wounding 
or rape (even if only attempted) that of hang- 
ing, but those of the offenilers who had no 
share in such murder, wounding or rape are 
only to be punished for the crime of robbery. 
Reductions of the degrees of punishment pro- 
vided in the table shall be made of one degree 
in the case of an accessory who, though he 
enters a houae, does not assist in the search Revised 

for booty, or who only remains on watch out- ? ino 
• 1 i • » • • ..11* Sec. 128. 

side and assists \\\ passing out the booty ; — 

of two degrees in the case of persons who, 

having been forced by threats to join in the Revise 

commission, have entered a house, searched o lofl 

for, and shared in the division of the booty, 

— and of three degrees if they have not 

shared in such division, or if they have only 

remained on watch outside the house and 

assisted in handing out the booty. These 

mitigationB shall not be made in the case of 



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Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 130. 



second offences. Persons who are clearly 
proved to have purposed comraitting a violent 
robhery but Imve been prevented doinjr so 
by being arrested, sbjill, if tbey were armed at 
tbe time of arrest, be punisiied by j>enal servi- 
tude for five yeais, and if unarmed by penal 
servitude for one vear. 



Embezzlement of Public Property. 



New CcmIc, 
** Embezzle- 
ment." 



Notification 
No. '2(J7 of 
July 24, 
1873. 



Embezzlement of public j>roperly is llio 
offence of wbicli superintendents of public 
property, or custodiaus of Government store- 
houses of any kind, wbo appropriate or obtain 
fraudulent posses>ion in nny way of tbe pro- 
perty eonnnitietl to tboir ebartje, are to be 
convicted. The punishments for it are as 
piven in the table, and, in inflicting them, no 
distinction is to be matle between principal 
and accessory, and all parties to the offence are 
to be punished for tbe full amount stolen in 
tbe same way as in the case of violent robbery. 
A repetition of the offence, even if only at- 
tempted, shall involve an increase of one 
degree in the punishment, and an offender 
guiliy of a second repetition shall be punished 
by penal servitude for lift*. 



Theft of Public Property. 



New Code, 
"Theft by 
Ordinary 
Persons." 



Notitication 
No. 267, of 
July 24th, 
1873. 



Theft of Public Property is the stealing of 
it by nny persons other than those in whose 
custody it was. A distinction between prin- 
cipal and accessory is only to be made wheu 
the theft has been attempted but not success- 
fully accomplished, and, in other cases, all the 
parties are, as before, to be punished for the 
full amount stolen. 

An increase of one degree of severity is al- 
ways to be made in the punishments provided 
in the table in the case of a repetition of the 
offence, and a second repetition is always to 
be punished by penal servitude for life, irres- 
pective of what the amount stolen may haY© 
been. 



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Common Robbery. 

Common Robbery incliules all cases of of- 
fences against private property that arena- New Code, 
accompanied with violence, — such as pocket- ^^*l*i^f,*' 
picking, secret theft, embezzlement of master's 
properly by a servant, obtaining fraudulent 
possession, extortion by threats, etc., etc. New Code, 
All parties to its commission shall bo punished *'^xtortion 
for the total amount stolen by them, but the y^y threats " 
distinction betwen principal and accessory is 
to be o1 served. If the robbery bo only at- 
tempted the punishment is to be penal servi- 
tude for 40 days, but, if it be a second offence, Revised 
for 50 days, and, if a third, for 3 years, and if ^ 'lo^ 
it be committed or attempted a fourth time 
the punislunent is always to be penal servitude Notification 
for life, irrespective of the amount stolen. Ac- y *J* ^^ ^^ 
cidental wounding in connection with the rob- 1373, ' 
bery shall be punished more or less severely, 
in proportion to the gravity of the wounds by 
the penalties contained in the law of " Quarrel- 
ling and Fighting" increased one degree, but 
this punishment is not to exceed penal servi- 
tude for 10 years. Accidental killing shall bo ^ 
punished by hanging. The term ** obtaining New Co<lc, / 
fraudulent pos.^ession " is used to describe all ''I'raud." ^ 
cases in which. pr<>perty is obtained by assert- ' 
ing a faUe claim to it, by deceiving the owner 
by a plausible story, by prevailing on him to 
part >Nith it on any pretence, or by absconding 
with it. The punishment to be inflicted for it 
is limited to penal servitude for 10 years. 

All the punishments of the above offences, 
with the exception of that for violent rob- 
bery with weapons, are shown in the follow- 
ing table as are also those to bo inflicted for 
offences treated of in the chapter * Bribery 
and Corruption," 



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In inflicting the above punishments the fol- 
lowing increases or mitigations are to be made. 
In the case of comnioii robbery, an increase of 
one degree in (lie punishment of a servant New Code, 
guilty of robbing his master's property and "Z''^®^* ^^ 
of two degrees in that of a serviuit guilty pj-^j^v " 
of embezzlement of his master's property ; 
an increase of one degree is to bo made even Notification 
in the case of persons only temporarily employ- ^^ ^0*^^74. 
ed, such as chair coolies, boatmen, etc., who *^ ' 
may steal any property entrusted to them by 
their em])loyers or in that of a hotel keeper 
who steals property committed his care by a 
guest. In the case of theft from a relative of New Code, 
the fifth degree of relationship a mitigation !* '^^®/*' ^^?,"^ 
of one degree in the punishment provided for ^^^"^'^8- 
ordinary cases shall be allowed, and a further 
mitigation of one degree for each closer degree 
of consanguinity that there may be between 
the parties, but in the case of violent robbery 
this mitigation shall only be allowed when the 
offender is the senior relative of the two ; e, g, 
it shall allowed to an uncle robbing his nephew 
but not to a nephew robbing his uncle. In the 
latter case, however, if the crime is accompa- 
nied with the killing or wounding — though 
accidental — of the relative robbed the offender 
shall be punished under whichever of the laws 
of Robbery or Homicide subjects him to the 
severest penalty. This law of course applies 
only to relatives dwelling apart from each 
other. Robbery from relatives resident under 
the same roof shall be treated as *' Unauthoriz- 
ed disposal of the family property*' the pun- 
ishment as provided in the lawconntaiued in the 
chapter on Domestic Law to be increased two 
degrees, but not so as to exceed the maximum 
penalty of penal servitude for 100 days. A 
mitigation of one degrees hall be permitted in 
the punishment for Common Robbery of a 
stranger who steals family property eitherat the 
instigation of, or in conjunction with a member 
thereof, but if the latter is guilty of causing at 
the time of the robbeiy either death or wounds, 
the stranger even though he took no part in 
and was ignorant of such killing or wounding, 
shall be punished for violent robbery. 



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New Code, 
*' Theft of 
Government 
or private 
cattle." 
Revised 
Code, Sec. 
140 

New Code, 
*' Theft of 
groM'ing 
crops." 



Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 141. 



" Stealing oattleor animals of any kind from 
pasture or stables shall be pnnifthed eitlier as 
Embezzlement or Theft of Public Poi*pertv or 
Common Robbery as the case maj be, but if 
from pasture the punishment must not exceed 
penul servitude for 10 ye:iri». This limitiition is 
also to be observed in ciise of theft of {jrowinsr 
crop.Q, timbers, or any thin tj prepared for use and 
loft in an unwatched placo. which are all to be 
punished under the law of common robbery. 
If animals that have been stolen are after- 
wards killed the punishment is to be increased 
one degree, and no matter what the value of 
the animals may have been it is not to be 
less than penal servitude for one year in 
the case of Government, or for 100 days in 
case of private property. Wilful killing^ 
of animals, even if they are not stolen, is 
to be punished accord inp; to the laws of rob- 
bery, the punishment, no matter what may 
have been the value of the animals destroyed, 
not to be less than penal servitnde for 100 
days in the case of Government or for 90 
days in the case of private property. 



Sacrilege — Imperial Property — Public 
Documents. 



Revised 
CJmle, 
Sec. 122. 



Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 123. 

Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 124. 

New Code, 
"Theft of 
Im^Kirial 
Clothing. " 



The punishments provided for I he three class- 
es of robhery specially treated of are a,s follows : 
For Sacrilege, which consists ofihe theft of 
the offerings to the gods, of articles that have 
been got ready with a view to and are about 
to be offered to the gods, the relics of shrines, 
etc. — penal servitude for life if committed at 
the shrines of Ise or at the chapel within the 
precincts of the palace, and if at other shrines 
for a period varying from 10 years to 90 days 
according to the class of the shrine. For thefi^^ 
of Imperial clothing in use — penal servitude 
for life ; if already used and laid aside or only 
prepared for use penal servitude for 2 year? ; 
for theft of food, prepared for the Emperor 
or of Imperial furniture, penal servitude for 
1^ years, and thefl of plants and trees from 



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Imperial graveyardfl, penal gervitude for 100 ,,^^.^^*» 
days, or such heavier puuishment as would be il £ 
entailed if the offence were treated under the imperial 
ordinary law of robbery and the penally in- Cemetery." 
creased one degree. For theft of Public 
Documents, if belonging to the Privy Council, ^^^ Code, 
penal servitude for 100 days; if ti one of the p^^^^J^D^! 
chief metropolitan or provincial departments cuments." 
for 80 days, and in the case of any other public 
document, for 30 days, the punishment iu each 
case to be increased one degree if the docu- 
ments were of primary importiince, and in all 
instances the theft to be punished by the most 
severe law applicable to it if committed with 
an ulterior corrupt motive. For Theft of the New Code, 
Seal of the Privy Council, penal servitude for *^^^ ^^ 
10 years ; of that of one of the chief metropo- Seals;" 
litau or provincial departments, for 3 years, of 
of any other Government sChI, for 80 days and Revised 
of a private seal, for 70 days, with the same re- S^^^^inK 
servation,asin the previous instance, if the theft 
is committed with an ulterior corrupt motive. 



There remain to be noticed certain offences which, 
though treated of in this chapter, are not necessarily con- 
nected with lobbery. 

Rescue op Prisoners. 

Forcible rescue of a prisoner froni custody, 
whether only attempted or successfully carried Revised 
out, shall be punished by penal servitude for f^®* ^^^' 
10 years, or for life if the prisoner were * * 
under sentence of death, or if wounds are in- 
flicted on any one while the rescue is being 
effected. 

Abduction and Sale of Women. 

Forcible abduction or enticement of women 

away from their guardians shall be punished New Code, 

by penal servitude for 7 years if the woman "Abduction 
,'»,,, ... -^ J ,. andSaleof 

be sold to a prostitution or any degrading or Women." 

toilsome occupation, and for 2^ years if she Revised 

be S(dd as a wife, concubine, or servant ; the Code, Sec. 

woman in each case to be restored to her ^^* 

guardians unless she be over 10 years of age 

and have assented to her abduction or disposal, 



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when she shall undergo pnnlshment three 
degrees less severe than tlmt of the chief 
offender, whose punishment shall also he 
reduced one degree. A hiishand who sells 
his wife to prostitution ngainst her will 
shall also he punished as ahove, hiit if 
with her consent by penal servitude for 70 
days ; any person who sells his <laughter to 
prostitution against her will shall be punished 
by penal servitude for 50 days, and any one who 
in like way sells his niece, younger sister or 
gi-anddanghter by penal servitnde for 70 days. 
Abduction of a wife or concubine, and making 
her one's own or another's wife or concubine, 
shall he punished by penal servitude for five 
and three years respectively. Disposal of any 
woman against her will to a foreigner, even if 
only attempted, shall be punished by penal ser- 
vitude for ten years; — and in both this and the 
previous case, the stipulations provided in the 
first instance as to the mitigation of the punish- 
ment of the chief offender and the punishment 
to be inflicted on the woman whenever she is a 
consenting party to her abduction or disposal, 
nre to be observed. Disposal of a daughter 
to a foreigner against her will shall be punish- 
ed by penal servitude for 1 year, and for 100 
days, if with her consent, mitigated in 
either case one degree if the disposal be not 
actnally completed. Any eJapanese purchasing 
a foreigner shall be liable to a penalty less 
severe by one degree than those herein pro- 
vided for the offence of disposing of a Japanese 
to a foreigner. 

I'rESPASSING in a DWELLING-HOUSE AT iflGHT. 



Revised 
Cotle, Sec. 
146. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
147. 

Revised 
Code, Sec. 
149. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
150. 



New Code, 
" Unau- 
thorized 
entry into a 
DwolJing- 
bouse at 
night." 



Any person, who without due reason, entei*8 
a dwelling-houso during the night time, shall 
be punished by penal servitude for 30 days, 
and no blame shall attach to any householder 
who kills such person on the spot. Should, 
however, a honseholder deliberately kill or 
wonnd such person after he has been dnly 
arrested, he shall be liable to the punishment 
provided in the law of Qnarrelling and Fighting 
for the offence of killing or wounding in an 



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-89- 

aiR»aj, mitigated two degrees. The owner or Revited 
custodinn of any cereals, vegetables, or fruit, <P^®|*-- 
who pursues a perscMi nttouipting to steal the * 
same during the night time, or^ of any house 
or other property in town or country, who 
pursues a thief entering therein in broad dny- 
light, and slays him on overtaking him shall, 
without reference to whether the theft has 
been successfully accomplished or not, be 
punished by penal servitude for 2 years ; and 
killing, wounding, or beating such person 
after he has been duly arrested shall in each 
case be visited by the same punishment that 
would have attached to the ofience if it had * 
been committed during an affiay, mitigated, 
however, one degree. 

Unlawful Conspiuacy and Riot.* 

The ringleaders of any band of riotera who New Code, 
wreck, burn, or plunder property or cause "^^*?"* „ 
wounds or death shall be punished by decapi- ®°^ ^' 
tation ; an accessory, who, with his own hand, 
commits murder or kindles a fire, by hanging ; 
and other accessories by penal servitude for 
10 years. The word 'accessory' is in this case ReviBed 
to be understood to mean an olFendor who, ?^®\k| 
though he has not been the actual contriver, 
or originator of the riot, has yet taken part in 
the deliberations among the offenders which 
preceded its actual outbreak. Persons who 
have not done so, but have been present at the 
time of the riot and contributed to swell the 
numbers of the rioters, shall be punished ac- 
cording to the law " Violation of Standing Or- 
ders," contained in the chapter entitled "Mis- 
cellaneous Offences," but they shall be per- 
mitted to commute the term of penal servitude 
therein provided by the payment of a fine cal- 
culated at the usual rate. If, however, per- 

* There is no law tif " Hiph Treason " in Japan, and thoufch the pre- 
sent one might be applied to cases wliere the treason extended to rebel- 
lion, it is impossible to say whether or not it is under it that punishment 
is imposed for that offence, as n^iie of the sentences that have been 
passed on persons guilty of it have been pnblished. The absence of a 
law of " High Treason " is the more remarkable from the fact that in 
the Chinese CJodes on which the " New Code " is founded, the crime is 
treated with the greatest nuupt^ness, seyeral degreee o( it being des* 
cribed. 



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—40— 



Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 153. 



Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 154. 



sons who would otherwise oome under thig 
category, with their own hands kindle a fire, 
they shall he punished by psual servitude for 
10 yeare, and by penal servitude for 8 years 
if they do so under compulaioii ; and if they 
assist under compulsion iu the wrecking of 
property they shall be punished for a "Gi*ave 
Impropriety,** the law relating to which is 
also contained in the chapter *' Miscellaneous 
Offences." 

The ringleaders, again, of any Dumber of 
persons who, on account of agricultural dis- 
tress in their own district, assemble and as- 
sault farmers, threaten the authorities, plun- 
der the local stores, make au uproar at the 
Government office ; or on account of any re- 
sentment, forsake their occupations and so 
bring discredit on the authorities, shall be 
punished by hanging ; the accessories by penMl 
servitude for 10 years. If, however, persons 
who have thus assembled inflict no injniy 
on the people but merely forcibly urge a 
petition on the Government, the ringleader 
shall be punished by penal servitude for 10 
years, and the accessories by a penalty miti- 
gated one or two degrees iu proportion as 
their share of the guilt may have been greater 
or less. When a riot is clearly ascribable to 
bad government on the part of the local 
authorities, or when the rioters are discovered 
by other authorities than those under whose 
jurisdiction they are before they have pro- 
ceeded to extremes, they shall be punished by 
penal servitude for 100 days, or for 70 days 
if the riot were not of a serious nature. 



Harbouring of Thieves. 

New Code, Any lodging-house keeper who harbours 
"/tw^""*^ persons guilty of robbery with violence, and 
*®^*^- ^Ijo likewise contrives a robbery of this 
nature and shares in the booty thereby obt:iiti- 
ed shall, even though he had not assisted in 
its carrying out, be punished equally severely 
with those who have, and in the case of 
common robbery he shall under similar cir- 
cumstances be treated as the principal in the 



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^1— 

offence. If he does not share in the booty 
he shall be punished in the case of robbery 
with violence by peual servitude for two years, 
and in that of common robbery as an acces- 
sory. He tjhall also be punished equally 
severely with those wlio have actually com- 
mitted robbeiy with violence when, though he 
may not have been its contriver, he has yet 
taken part in the deliberations that preceded 
it, and has either shared in the booty even 
without assisting in the commission or assisted 
in the commission without sharing in the 
booty, and he shall in all these instances be 
treated as an accessory in (he case of common 
robbeiy. Mere harbouring of persons guilty 
of violent robbeiy shall be pun shed by penal 
servitude for 80 days, and of persons guilty of 
common robbery by penal servitude for 30 
days. 

Receiver of stolen goods, or of money or 
property acquired by the disposal of persons 
forcibly abducted or disposed of with their 
own consent, shall be punished as accessories 
in a common robbery ; puichasers of stolen Revised 
goods or receivers of any property acquired £^®\eQ 
by extortion, fraud, or bribery, whether for ' ^' 
a lawful or an nnbiwful object, shall be 
punished under the law of Pecuniary Mal- 
versation. A mitigation of one degree in 
the punishment provided in this law shall 
be allowed to those who purchase, and two 
degrees those who merely receive into their 
keeping, property unlawfully acquired by any 
of these means last menlioned, but in all 
cases the punishment shall be increased one 
degree of severity on every repetition of of- 
fence until the maximuni of penal servitude 
for three years is reached. 

Pawnbrokei-8 who receive in pledge any Revised 
stolen goods unsecured by broker and guar- ^ 1^7 
antor shall, even though they were ignorant ' 
of the fact that such goods were stolen, for- 
feit them to their rightful owner ; and any per- 
son who acts either as broker or guarantor in 
pledging stolen goods, shall be sentenced to Revised 
a punishment one degree less that that pro- S^^'ieg 
yided for Pecuniary Malversation ; and if he 



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—42— 

has received any money for doing bo to 
one degi'ee less than that for common robbery ; 
and be shall in addition in both eases be 
held liable to reimburse the amount for which 
the goods have been pledged. 



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—43— 



CHAPTER IV 



HOMICIDE. 



Of the crimo of Homicide there are three degrees, viz : 
preeoiicerted and wilful murder, wilful but not precon- 
certe<l murder, ami manslauf^hter. 

Preconcerted and Wilful Murder. 

Preconcerted and Wilful Murder is Ilomi- New Code, 
cide which it is clear from such attendant "I^ehocj^to 
circumstances as the perpetrators having *«< Murder of 
scheme of reven<;e to effect, having previously Officials." 
prepared and provided themselves with nox- "Murder of 
ions drugs, weapons or implements of auy ^'^^"1^1- 
kind wherewith to carry out their design, parents" 
or from a number of persons having united *'Murcicrof 
and made a simultaneous assault, that the Head of the 
crime has been deliberately planned and ^awiily." 
concerted beforehand. The punishments 
that are to be inflicted for its successful ac- Revisc<l 
complishment or attempt are detailed with ^^^li^^*^^^' 
great minuteness ni tour sections ot the New jp^-/ ^j^j 
and six sections of the Revised Code, but iu 167, 108*. 
order to avoid repetition as much as possible 
I have endeavored to show them all in the 
table that is here subjoinetl, instead of separ- 
ately describing each particular case as iu the 
origiDal. 



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The Principal is^ as in other cases, the 
original contriver of the crime ; the accessory 
who has assisted in carrying it out is one who 
was both privy to the design beforehand and 
who contributed to its perpeti-ation ; and the 
accessory who has not so assisted is one who 
though privy to the design beforehand contri- 
buted in no way to its perpetration. The 
term " wounds " is to be undei*stood to mean 
** cutting-wounds." 

The distinction between principal and ac- 
cessories shall not be observed if any property 
is obtained in connection with the murder, all 
parties in that event being sentenced to de- 
capit4ition according to the law of violent 
robbery, and no person sentenced to a term of 
penal servitude under this law shall be released 
even on the expiration of such term unless on 
the surety of his relatives or fellows that he 
shall not again be guilty of a similar offence. 
Failing such surety he shall coutinue to be 
confined in the prison reformatory until his 
repentance and reformation are assured of. 
In cases where^ in an attempt to commit this 
crime, a by-stander is accidentally killed, the 
guilty parties shall be punished according to 
the law next following.* 

WjLPUL BtJT NOT PRECONCERTRD MURDEH. 

Wilful but not Preconcerted Murder is 

homicide where death results from a wound 

deliberately inflicted, in the heat of a dis- 

New Code, cusion or quaiTel, or before the resentment 

* Aff'^ '^ consequent on such has had time to subside, in 

and Wilful ^^ affmy, or otherwise, and with either the 

Murder." hand, foot or any weapon whatsoever, but where 

the idea has originated at the same time and 

* The punishments which are given in the table that is con- 
tained in the above section, as those to be inflicted on personji 
guilty of wounding while attempting to murder an official 
of Imperial appointment, are the ones prescribed in the Re- 
vised Code, and I have not only been unable to discover any 
notification altering them, but have been informed by a Japanese 
lawyer whom I consulted on the subject, that they never have been 
alteo-ed. As, however, all the persons, both principal and acces- 
sories, who were guilty a few years ago of an attempt on the life 
of Mr. Iwakura were punished by decapitation, it is obvious that 
some alteration in or addition to the penalties here provided most 
have been made sinoe the publication of the Codt, 



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Murder." 



—49— 

place in which it has been carried out and 
there has been no previous contrivance what- 
soever. The guilty person shall be punished 
by decapitat ion, if the wound was inflicted Wilfnl and 
with the intention of causing a fatal result ; if ^*f?J^l^,^*^ 
not, by penal servitude for life.f In the case 
of an affray in which several persons are 
engaged, only those who actually caused death 
or mortal wounds shall be subject to this 
penalty, the other persons, with the exception 
of the contriver, who, whether he actually took 
part in it or not shall be sentenced to penal 
servitude for ten years, being punished by 
penal servitude for 90 days. If, however, the 
nature of the affray renders it impossible to 
discover the person who has actually caused 
death or mortal wounds, the contriver, if he 
took part in it, or, if not, the person who 
commenced it, shall receive the heaviest 
punishment ; and, if, again, all parties have 
caused mortal wounds the person who was the 
last to inflict one shall receive such punish- 
ment. The heaviest punishment shall in all 
these cases be reduced one degree, if any of 
the accused, whatsoever, commit suicide or 
die while in custody after the commission of 
the offence. 

In any of the following cases, whenever death is caused, 
the guihy party or parties shall be punished under this 
law for the crime of " Murder in an Affray ;" and, when 
wounds or injuries only are caused, by whichever of the 
several penalties provided in the law of assault in the 
following chapter the degree of severity of the wound 
or injury may call for. 

Killing or wounding a person while engaged 
in any .sport attendant with risk to human life, ,,^Syf Code, 
such as fencing, boxing, etc., the punishment Woun^na: 
to be reduced two degrees, but only one if in Sport.'^ 

t The offence of Homicide where death results from a wound 
inflicted with the intention of causing a fatal result, shall hereafter, 
on all occasions on which it may be found necessary to refer to it 
be styled Wilful Murder, as distinguished from Preconcerted and 
Wilful Murder, and that of Homicide where death results from a 
wound which was not inflicted with the intention of causing a fatal 
result, * Murder in an Affray *— that being the title used in the 
original codes to distingmsh it from the two previous cases. 



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—50— 

tlie sport were of a very dangeroas nature, or 
if carried on in a dangerous place. 
New Code, Killing or wounding a by-stander while 
B^^^f* engaged in an affray or wounding a person 
by mistake." ^^^^^^' ^^*" ^'^6 intended victim in an attempt to 
commit wilful murder, — the maximum punish- 
ment not to exceed penal servitude for 10 
years. 
New Code, Causing death or iujuries by persuading a 
F^ehowL'^ person to enter deep water under the impres- 
sion that it is shallow ; by wilfully deceiving 
him as to the condition of a decayed boat or 
bridge and causing him to embark in or cross 
Revised thereon ; by the wanton discharge of firearms, 

Cmle, Sec. |,ows or arrows in an inhabited place (the 
mere offence of discharging such even where 
no injury is caused being punished by penal 
New Code, servitude for 30 days) ; by rapidly driving a 
w ?^ ^^ horse through a street or market place ; or by 
by Horses or P^t^^^^ls or gins laid in inhabited places without 
Carriages." the exercise of reasonable caution or without 
erecting notices warning people against them. 
Revised In both these Ifwt cases a mitigation of one 

1<S?^' degree shall be allowed in the punishment, and 

of four degrees if the pitfalls or gins have been 
laid in wild and uninhabited regions, and even 
if deiith is caused, the punishment shall not 
exceed penal servitude for 10 years. 

Manslaughter. 

Manslaughter comprises all cases in which 

New Code, death is caused by an accident which it would 

*• Killing or have been impossible to have foreseen or pro- 

by^Acci^^ vided against, sudi as may occur in the pursuit 

dent." of game, or be caused by tiles or stones thrown 

for any lawful purpose and accidentally striking 

a by-stander, by falling on a by-stander from a 

scaffold or other high situation, or by a horse 

that takes fright and runs away when being 

driven or that is being rapidly driven on 

account of public business. In all these 

cases the punishment which is that prescribed 

for the offence of murder in an Affray 

may be redeemed by the payment to the family 

of the killed person of the fine mentioned in the 



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—51— 

following table, to be devoted to the defrayal 
of the burial expenses of the person killed. If 
injuries only and not death are accidentally 
caused in any of the ways above mentioned, 
then the punishments, which are those prescrib- 
ed in the law of Assault contained in the follow- 
ing chapter, may in like manner be redeemed 
by the payment to the person injured of one or 
other of the fines mentioned in the following 
table, to bo devoted to the defrayal of the 
medical expenses incurred in his treatment. 



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—62— 



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—63— 

The above is a general account of the Law of Homicidei 
but there are^ in addition, a large number of sections in the 
present chapter describing the procedure that is to be 
adopted in certain special cases, the modifications which 
are to be made in the punishments ah'eady detailed in 
cases where special relations exist between the offender 
and the victim, or where (lie crime has been committed 
under aggravating or extenuating circumstances, and also 
treating of some offences which are akin to homicide. 
These cases are as follows : — 

Infanticide. 

Infanticide by relatives is to be treated Revised 
according to the law of Preconcerted Murder 9^^* ^^^ 
or Wilful Murder, as the case may be, of a 
relative, and a nurse who is guilty of it at the 
instigation of a rehitive is to be considered a 
participator. 

Murder in Self-Defence. 

A person who, on learning that others are Revised 
planning his murder, assaults and slays them 9^^* ^^ 
instead of appealing to the authorities, shall 
be punished a.s having committed Wilful Mur- 
der ; if again he slays them when they are 
about to put their design into execution but 
when a chance of escape was still open to him, 
he shall be punished under the law entitled 
" Killing an Unresisting Prisoner " that fs 
contained in the chapter on "Arrest ;*' but no 
penalty shall attach to a person who slays 
others that are actually engaged in an attempt 
on his life. 

Murder of Adulterers. 

No punishment shall be inflicted on a bus- New Code, 
band who, on discovery of a wife or concubine a?^}!!"^ " 
in the act of committing adultery with a lover, 
forthwith kills either or both the guilty par- 
ties, and if he only kills one of them the 
survivor shall, if the wife, be punished by the 
penalty provided by the law of *' Unlawful 
Sexual Intercourse" in the chapter entitled 
^' Rape and Adultery," and if the lover, by 



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—54— 



Revised 
(,'ode, Sec. 
1G9. 



Revised 
Cede, Sec. 
171. 

Revised 
C'ode, Sec. 
170. 



New Code, 
** Planning 
to die 
together. " 

Revised 
Code, Sec. 
199. 



penal servitude for 10 years. If, however, 
the hushand do not kill either of them until 
after a lapse of time from the commission 
of the adultery, ho shall be punished accord- 
ing to the law of "Murder in an Affi*ay, " 
a mitigation of two degrees being permit- 
ted in the punishment for the murder of the 
lover and of five degrees for that of the 
~ wife, and the surviving lover or wife, as the 
case may be, shall be punished under the law 
of " Unlawful Sexual Intercourse." In order 
to entitle the husband to these mitigations the 
fact of the adultery having been previously 
committed must be proved by clear and incon- 
trovertible evidence, and in cases where there 
is any doubt whatsoever, he shall be punished 
by the penalties contained in whichever of the 
Laws "Wilful and Delibei*ate Murder,*' 
" Wilful Murder," or " Murder in an Affray " 
may apply to his case. 

On the other hand, if a wife or concubine 
conspire with a lover with whom she has 
committed adultery and they together murder 
the husband of the former, she shall be punish- 
ed by decapitation accompanied with exposure 
of the bend, and the lover by decapitation. If, 
however, the lover slay the husband without 
the knowledge of the wife or concubine, the 
latter shall be punished by penal servitude for 
life, unless it is clearly proved that she had 
broken off the adulterous connection before 
such murder, when she shall be liable only to 
the punishment for adultery, and if the wife 
or concubine slay the husband, if it is clearly 
proved that she did so without the concurrence 
of tl»e lover, the latt^er shall be punished only 
by the penalty contained in the law of** Unlaw- 
ful Sexual Intercourse.'* If two persons who 
have been guilty of Unlawful Sexual Inter- 
course together attempt to commit suicide, 
but one of them is rescued before the design 
has been carried out, such survivor shall be 
punished by penal servitude for 10 years, and 
if both are prevented they shall be punished 
under the law of "Quarrelling and Fighting'* 
according to theexte^it of the injuiy they have 
inflicted on themselva^ but allowed a mitiga- 



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—55— 

tion in the penalties therein provided of one 
degree.* If a femnlo dies from the eonse- Revised 
quences of an attempt to effect abortion, the P^^* ^^^' 
lover at whose instigation she may have made 
the attempt shall be sentenced to penal servi- 
tude for 3 years. 

Poisoning. 

A druggist who sells poisonous drugs 
knowing tbat they are to be used for an New Code, 

unlawful object shall be considered as a"¥^*^®^^y 

^. . . ^ . I • u ^1 PoiaoDB. ' 

participator m any crime which the pur- 
chaser may afterwards commit by means 
of these drugs, but his punishment shall 
not exceed penal servitude for 10 years. The 
purchaser shall undergo the statute pun- 
ishment of whatever crime he may commit by 
means of the poison, and, if he commit none, 
he shall, for the mere offence of. purchasing 
poison with felonious intent, be sentenced to 
penal servitude for 2^ years. Causing illness ^^"^^ 
by the administration of any noxious drugs ^^®» ^^' 
shall be punished by penal servitude for 80 
days. A quack physician, who accidently New Code, 
kills a patient by improper treatment, shall il^^^g 
be allowed to commute the punishment pro- caused by 
vided [for Murder in an Afl'iay by the pay- Quack Phy- 
meut of the usual fine ; but a physician whose sicians." 
patient dies under improper treatment design- 
edly adopted in order that the cure of the 
disease may be prolonged and greater emolu- 
ments obtained shall be decapitated. 

Attributing the Crime op Murder to an 
Innocent Person. 

Parents or Grandparents guilty of killing 
their children, and masters their servants shall, 

* The pratice which is forbidden by this Law is extremely com- 
mon in Japan, and the Ye<lo daily newspapers very frequently 
describe cases of its occurrence. It is called *'8hinjiu," a word 
written with two Chinese characters sicpiiting "human passions " 
and "death," and it is usually committed by lovers, the circumstances 
of whose position forbid them enjoying each other's possession ; as, 
for example, by a girl bound to a term of service in a tea-house and 
a lover without sufficient means to redeem her. The form of death 
most frequently chosen is that of drowning, the two smcides usually 
binding themselves tightly together beforehand. 



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New Code, 
'* Using 
deadb^es 
to incrimi- 
uate. " 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
186. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
18.3. 



Rovised 
Cmlo, Sec. 
184. 



if they afterwards attrlbnte the crime to 
another and innocent person, undergo a pnn- 
ishment increased one degree of severity over 
that usually inflicted for such homicide. A 
child or grandchild, who throws suspicion on 
another person of having caused the death 
of a parent who has died a natui-al death 
shalt be punished by penal servitude for 
3 yeai's ; a junior relative who in like way 
throws suspicion on apother person of having 
caused the death of a senior relative in the 
second degree of relationship, by penal servi- 
tude for 2 years, a further reduction of one 
degree of severity in the punishment being 
made for every successive degree by which 
the relationship becomes more remote, and a 
senior relative who is guilty of the same crime 
in the case of a deceased junior, or a servant 
in that of a.master, shall be punished by penal 
servitude for 80 days. 

Wife Murder. 

A husband who kills a wife for using 
abusive language towards or assaulting liis 
parents or grandparents, instead of appealing 
to the authorities, shall, if information of his 
crime be given to the authorities by the 
parents, be punished by penal servitude for 
1 year, and by penal servitude for 90 days if 
in the assault the wife has inflicted any wounds 
on ^either parents or grandparents. No 
penalty shall attach to the husband if the wife 
commit suicide after having been beaten or 
scolded by him for a fault of this kind. 

Murder of a Servant. 

A master, who of himself and without re- 
ference to the authorities kills a servant who 
has been guilty of a capital offence, sh.all be 
punished by penal servitude for 80 days. No 
penalty shall attach to a master for striking 
or beating a servant, unless cutting wounds 
be inflicted, when he shall be sentenced to a 
punishment three degrees less severe than that 
provided in the law of assault for ordinary 
cases, and if the death of the servant result 



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from snoh beating, the punishment shall be 
penal servitude for 10 years. 

Murder of Skveral Members op one Family. 

A person who shiys three or more members New Code, 
of one family, whether relatives or servants, ^i^rder of 

^, •' 1 xi 1 . threeormore 

or three or more persons wlio, thon^^h not re- members of 

sident under the same roof, are closely related, one house- 

either preconcerted ly, in connection with an told." 

act of incendiarism or robbery, or in any other ^^?®^ 

way, or who deliberately mangles the body of I'j^^ * 

a person he has slain, or commits murder by a 

slow and painful process, shall be punished by 

decapitation accompanied with exposiu'e of 

the head. 

Terrifying a Person into the Commission of 
Suicide. 

A person who by threats of violence used New Code, 
in connection with any dis|»nte about lands, j ?u*^?^ 
tenements, or money matters, or an official fearful 
who by tlireats conveyed through an under- threats." 
ling on any subject not connected with public 
business terrifies another into the commission 
of suicide, shall be punished by penal servitude 
for 100 days, and by decapitation if the threats 
were used in connection with an attempted 
robbery or rape, irrespective of whether the 
last named crimes were accomplished or not. 

Murders by Lunatics. 

A lunatic who commits murder shall pay Now Code, 
to the family of the murdered man a fine "Murder by 
similar to that provided lus the amount of com- j^^yiged 
mutation to be paid by a sane person guilty of Code, Sec. 
the offence of manslaughter, and in addition be 195 and 198. 
sentenced to clo.*e confinement for life either in 
the care of his family or in the prison, but, 
should he return during such confinement to 
a natural frame of mind, this sentence shall be 
amended to one of penal servitude for^ 5 
years. His lawful guardian, for not in the 
first instance having exercised a proper su- 
pervision over him, shall be punished by penal 
servitude for 90 days, and for 40 days if the 
lunatic had beep guilty of wounding only. 



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Haviied The lawful guardian of anj lunatic who oom* 
C(^e, Sec. jjjiig suicide shall, for the same reason, be puni- 
shed by penal servitude for 40 days. 

Compromising the Crime of Murder. 

New Code, Any person who privately (;om promises the 

♦H'ompro- murder of parents, gmndparents or husband, 
Ilerr''^ ^**^^' ^® punished l»y penal servitude for Syears, 

and every person who privately compromises 
the murder of a senior relative in the second 
degree of relationship, by penal servitude for 
2 years, and that of a relative of a more remote 
degree by a penalty reduced one degree in 
severity for each additional degree of remote- 
ness in tlie relationship. If the offence be 
committed by a senior relative in the case of 
the murder of a junior, he shall be punished 
one degree less severely than he wouM have 
been had their respective situations been rever- 
sed ; if it be committed by a parent, grand- 
parent, or husband in the case of the murder 
of a child, grandchild, or wife the punishment 
shall be penal servitude for 80 days ; if by 
an ordinary person penal servitude for 60 
days ; if by a master, in the case of the mur- 
der of his servant, penal servitude for 70 
Kevised^ days, and if by a servant, in the case of the 
'Vki ' ^^^ murder of his master, penal servitude for 
' 100 days. If, however, any money or other 

property is in any of the above instances 
received by the offender he shall be pun- 
ished by the most severe law applicable to his 
case, whether it be the present one or that of 
** liribery for an Unlawful Object." 

Casting away Corpses and Violation of Graves. 
New Code, Any one who secretly removes from his 

*• Transfer- ^^^j, to another lot of ground a foundling or 
rnig a Dead . , ^ i i . i 

Body from ^'^*^ person, or a corpse, or who buries such 
onu'8 own to corpse without Informing the authorities, shall 
another's Lot be punished by penal servitude for 90 dnys, 
of Uud." j^,j^j |;,j. ^QQ ^ jpijq iiii-owg the body into a 

Code Sec. >'»ver, a mitigation ot one degree being how- 
20G. over allowed if the body bo afterwards re- 

lloviscd covered. If an offender guilty of this offence 

Code, Sec. despoils the body of clothing or valuables, he 
shall be liable to any heavier punishment 



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than that contained in this law not exceed- 
ing penal servitude for 10 years which 
the law of common robbery would en I ail if 
such clothing or valuables were treated as the 
proceeds of a thefl^. Burying a person who 
lias died an imnatural deuth, or throwing away Ilcvise<l 
the body of one's own cbild without reference ^^JJj^^^* 
to the authorities, shall be punished by penal 
servitude for 40 days ; and abandoning the Revised 
body of a person who has died while travelling ^^r '^^^' 
ill company by penal servitude for 80 days. *. . 
Vi(»latioii of graves shall, if the coffin be ex- ^i^J^j^, ^^,^, 
c»^xposed, be punished by penal servitude for. 201. ' 
1 year, by penal servitude for 3 years if the 
corpse be exposed, and by penal servitude for 
5 years if the corpse be mutilated. 

Failing to interfere- and prevent an Act of 
Violence. 

A person who, knowing that his coin))aniou ^'ew CchIc, 
meditates the commission of an acl. of vio- . ' ^"^^''.^'"'t^ 
lence, docs not restrain nim betoienand, or who ^^ ^^^ iniurv 
fails to give information to the authorities known t<» lie 
ufler wards, shall bo punished by penal intended." 
servitude for 90 days. Rev. Code, 

Sec. 237. 



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CHAPTER V. 



QUARRELLING AND FIGHTING. 



This chapter contains tlie several penalties wliicb are 
to be inflicted on persons j^nilty of assanUs whether com- 
mitted without provocation or necessity, in the case 
of a combat between two persoii.<i, or in that of an affray 
between a number in which all parties are guilty of 
inflicting injuries on their several adversaries. The pun- 
ishments vary according to the more or less severe nature 
of the wounds that may be inflicted, but the chapter is 
extended to an almost immoderate length by the minute 
detail of variations that are to be made in the puniahmenta 
provided for ordinary cases in those instances in which a 
special relationship exists between the panics to the of- 
fence. The chapter contains 14 sections of the New, and 
26 sections of the Revised Cede, and these may be sum- 
marized under the respective headings of Assaults on 
Ordinary Persons, Assaults on Oflficials, Assaults on Re- 
latives, and Other Special Cases. 



New Code, 
•* Quarrel- 
ling and 
Pightine." 
Revised 
Code, Sec. 
208. 



Revised 
Code, Seo. 
209. 



Assaults on Ordinary Persons. 

A common assault committed by striking 
a person with the hand or foot shall be 
punished by penal servitude for 20 days, and 
for 30 days if a wonnd, such as a swelling oi* 
inflammation, is caused, or if the assault is 
committed with tiles, stones, or clods of earth, 
by sticks, or the back or hilt of a sword. If a 
wound is caused in any of the latter cases, or 
if part of the hair is torn off, the punishment 
shall be penal servitude for 40 days^ A 



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person who inflicts slight wounds during an Revised 
affray with scythes, sickles, or edge tools shall St^* ^^* 
be punished by penal servitude for 70 days, a 
reduction of three degrees being peimitted in 
case the wounds are veiy trivial, but in 
general, if b^ood is drawn or caused to be 
voniited, an internal injury caused or the 
assaulted person stunned, the punishment 
shall be penal servitude for 80 days. If 
a finger or tooth is broken, an eye in- 
jured but not 80 as to cause blindness, an 
ear or nose disfigured, a bone fractured, a 
scald or burn caused, or any unclean sub- 
stance thrust into the mouth or nose, the 
punishment shall be penal servitude for 100 
days ; for 1 year if two fingers or two teeth 
are broken, or if the head is entirely denuded 
of hair ; for 2 years if a rib is broken, both 
eyes are injured, a wound inflicted with an Revised 
edged tool, or if a pregnant woman is assaulted 5*^^®^,! 
in such a way as to cause miscarriage ; for 3 
years if a person is maimed by a limb or any 
bone in the body being broken, or an eyo 
being toUilly blinded ; for lOyears, if a per.iou 
is deformed by two limbs being broken, both 
eyes being blinded, an old wound being struck, 
the tongue being pulled out, or the private parts 
injured ; and when this last mentioned punish- 
ment iH inflicted, a »um of 20 yen is also to be 
paid to the injured person to defray medical 
expense. In case an assault of the degree Revised 
of gravity last mentioned is committed by n^^^* ^°°" 
two persons, each of whom blinds the 
person assaulted of one eye, the one who first 
blinded an eye shall be punished for maiming 
and the one who blinded the second eye for 
deforming, but the sum to be paid for medical 
expenses shall be equally apportioned between 
both offenders. In this case the contriver of 
the assault, whether he was one of those who 
took part in the commission or not shall under- 
go the heaviest punishment, mitigated one 
degree. 

In the case of a number of persons agreeing 
to commit an assault jointly, each shall be pun- 
ished according to the gravity of the wounds 
committed by himi and the same rule shall be 



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llcviswl 
CVxle, 8cc 
12,2 



Revised 
OkIo, 
Sec. 216. 



Revised 
Code, iSec. 
217. 



observod ia that of a combat between two per- 
sons or of an affray between 80vei*al, in which 
all parties inflict wonnds on each other, witli 
the exception that the pnnishment of the per- 
son or persons who only returned blows which 
they may have receive<l, and on whose side the 
rij^ht and justice of the dispute lay, shall be 
mitigated two dejjrees, unless the assault has 
been committed on an ehler brother or sister 
or on an uncle or aunt. If the death of the 
person who commenced an affray results from 
injuries inflicted on him by the pei*son who only 
returned blows, the punishment is to be ]>enal 
servitude for ten years, but a mitigation of one 
degree may, in the discreti/>n of the judge, be 
granted when the circumstances justify it. 

Assaults ox Officials. 

A common assault committed by a person 
not in office on an official of Imperial appoint- 
ment shall be punished by penal servitude for 
5 yeais, for 10 years if a swelling or inflama- 
tiou is caused, jind by hanging if a cutting 
\vound is caused. On nu official of Govern- 
ment appointment a common assault shall be 
punished by penal servitude for 2 years, for 
3 years if a swelling or inffammatton is caused, 
for 7 years if a cutting wound is caused, and 
by hanging if maiming is (^used. On an official 
of departmental appointment, a commou as- 
sault shall be punished by penal servitude for 
90 days for 1 year if a swelling or inflamma- 
tion is caused, for 3 years if a cutting wound 
is caused, for 5 years if maiming, and by hang- 
ing if deforming is caused. If an official 
of departmental appointment assault one of 
Imperial appointment he shall be punished by 
penal servitude for 90 days, for I-^ years if a 
swelling or inflammation is caused, for 5 years 
if a cutting wound is caused, and by hanging 
if maiming is caused. If a^ain a depart- 
mental official assault one of Government 
appointment, or one of Government assault 
one of Imperial appointment, he shall be 
punished by penal servitude for 70 days ; for 
100 days if a swelling or inflammation is 
caused; for 3 years if a cutting wound, and 



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—63— 

for 10 yeara if maiming is caused; and by 
hanging if deforming \» caused. In all the 
above instances if the assanUed person die of 
the wounds that have been inflicted on him, the 
offender shall be punished by decapitation. 
When an official of either of the higher grades Revised 
commits an assault on one of the grade below « ?i ' 
him he shall be punishetl according to the 
law of assault on ordinary persons. 

Assaults on Relatives. 

Husband and Wife : — No penalty shall be New Code, 
inflicted on a hu?«band for an assault on his l^eatingand 
wife or concubine of nuy less degree of gravity \vif °orcf)n^ 
than one in which a cutting wound is caused, cubine." 
In this and more serious cases he shall un- Revised 
dergo the penalties provided in the ordinary 9?^^* ^^' 
law of assault, mitigated however two degrees 
in the case of the wife and four in that of the 
concubine, and no proceedings shall be taken 
against him unless a charge is laid by (he 
wife or concubine who is assaulted. When 
death results from the wound the penalty shall 
be penal servitude for life, in the case of the 
wife and for five years in that of the concubine, 
and if the crime be that of wilful murder 
the punishment shall be hanging. Where, New Code, 
however, the wife is guilty of a common assault . -^ssault- 
on her husband she shall bo punished by penal Husband." 
servitude for 100 days ; for any form of assault Revised 
more serious than that of cutting and wouuding Code, 8ec. 
by theordinary penalty increased three degrees ; "^' 
for one in which maiming or deforming is 
caused, by penal servitude for life ; for one in 
which death is caused by dccjipitation ; and if 
the husband is wilfully murdered by decapi- 
tatiou accompanied with exposureof the head. 
An increase of one degree shall be made in 
these penalties in the case of a concubine as- 
saulting the husband. A wife assaulting a 
concubine shall be liable to the same punish- 
ments Jis those provided for a husband assault- 
ing a wife, and a concubine assaulting a 
wife to those provided for a wife assaulting a 
husband. 



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Xew Code, 
** Assaulting 
Husband's 
Relatives." 

New Code, 
*' Beating 
and Wound- 
ing a wife or 
concubine." 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
228. 



New Code, 
** Assaults by 
Parents or 
Grand par- 
ents." 

Revised 
Code, Sec. 
230. 



A wife ABsaultiug relatives of ber baaband 
simll be liable to the same penalties as tlie 
husband would have been were he the offend- 
er. A husband on the other hand who 
nssanlte his wife's parents shall he punished 
by ponal servitude for 90 days, and If the 
ii!<snult amount to the iniliction of a cutting 
W(»und by the punishment provided for ordi- 
nary cases, incroa.sed one dofrree ; by ^>enal 
servitude for life if deformity is caused and 
by decapitation if guilty of wilful murder. 

Parentsand Children: — Children or grand- 
children guilty of a common assault on their 
parents or paternal grandparents, or a wife or 
concubine on those of her huslmnd, shall 
be punished by penal servitude for 10 years, 
and for life if a cutting womid' is caused ; 
by decapitation if death results from the 
assault, and by decapitation accompanied with 
exposure of the head if the case be one of 
wilful murder. Even should the death of a 
parent or grandparents or of a husbimd's 
parent or grandparent be caused in any of 
those ways, that come under the category 
of * Accidental Killing,* the child by whose 
act death was caused shall he punished by 
penal servitude for 3 years and for 1 year if 
wounds only are so caused, and shall not be 
allowed to take advantage of the privilege of 
compounding the statute punishment by the 
payment of a tine which is allowed in ordinary 
cases of accidental killing and wounding. 

A parent or grandparent beating a child or 
grandchild shall be liable to no penalty ; but 
for the wilful murder of such shall be punish- 
ed by penal servitude for 3 years, and foi* 10 
years if the offence be committed against a 
step-child. Where tlie death of a child ia 
c»»used by an excessive beating administered by 
a parent on account of any transgression on its 
part, the parent so offending shall be punisbed 
by penal servitude for 2^ years. A step- mot her 
cruelly beating a child without due reason 
hhall undergo the punishment provided in the 
law of assault applicable to ordinary cases, 
mitigated, however, three degrees, and, if the 
death of the child ensues from the beating, 



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Bbe shall be punished bj penal servitude for 
7 years. 

Relatives </ other Degrees of Relation- New Code, 
ship, — Assaulting an elder brother or sister, p^i?^^^^ 
uncle or aunt, or maternal grandparents shall the 2nd 
be punished by penal servitude for 2 years ; Degree." 
for 2^ years if a bruise or inflammation is 
caused ; for 7 years if a cutting wound is 
caused ; for 10 years if maiming, and for life Revised 
if deformity is caused, and by hanging if the ^^®» 
assaulted person dies from the effect of the ®^' 
wounds. The wilful murder <»f any of thi'se 
relatives shall be punished by decapitation 
accompanied with exposure of the head ac- Revised 
cidental killing of them by penal servitude Sf^^An/; 
for 2 years, and accidental wounding by 
penal servitude for 100 days. In neither 
of these cases can the punishment be com- 
pounded by the payment of a fine. As- New Code, 
sauHing a senior relative of the 3rd degree of *^f^j^^^^^f 
relationship shall he punished by |)enal servi- 3rd ami* ^ 
tude for 1 year, and a senior relative of the lower 
4th degree hy penal servitude for 100 days, degrees." 
and in the case of assaults of more serious 
nature, the offender shall be liable to an in- 
crease of one degree of severity in the punish- 
ment provided in the onlinary law for 
each successive <hegree of closer relationship 
that there is between the parlies, commencing Revised 
from the fourth. The punishment shall in all 5^®' ^^^' 
cases 1)6 penal servitnde for life if the senior 
relative be assaulted so as to cause deformity, 
hanging if his death result from the assault, 
and decapitation if he be wilfully murdered. 

Where the offence is committed by a senior 
on a junior relative no penalty shall attach to 
the former unless a cutting wound is caused, 
when punishment as provided in the ordinary 
law shall be inflicted according to the greater 
or less gravity of the wound, one degree of 
mitigation being, however, allowed for each 
successive degree of closeness of relationship 
that there is between the parties. Thus a 
mitigntion of one degree shall be allowed if 
the parties be relatives of the 4th degree, two 
degrees if of the 3rd, and three degrees if of 
the 2nd. In any of these cases, if death ensue 



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from the assault tbe pnnishment sball be penal 

servitude for life, and bAuging; if (be crime 

New Code, be tbat of wilful murder. Beating a younger 

'jAssaultmg i),.otber or sister, a nepbew or niece, or a 

SnddeCTee." daugbter*8 cbild so as to cause deatli sball be 

puni^bed by penal servitude for 3 years, and 

tbe wilful murder of any of tbese rebitives by 

penal servitude for 7 yeai*s, biit no penalty 

sball be inflicted if tbey are accidentally killed 

{i,e, in cases of mauslaugbter). 



Other Special Cases. 



New Code, 
** Assanlting 
Teachers. " 



Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 219. 
Now Code, 
** Assaulting 
Head of Fa- 
mily." 
Revised 
Code, 
Sec. 220. 
Revised 
Ct>de, Sec. 
221. 

New C<Mie, 
''Resisting 
and Assault- 
ing Crovem- 
ment 
Officers." 



New Code, 
"Krawling 
inside tbe 
Palace. " 

Revised 
Code, Sec. 
215. 



Tbe remaining seel ions of tbis cba)>ter pro- 
vide tbat in tbe case of a pupil assaultnig bis 
teacber or an apprentice bis master, an in- 
crease of two degrees of severity sball be made 
iu tbe punisbment provided for ordinary cases, 
but not so as to make it exceed penal servitude 
for 10 years, unless deatb is caused, wben tbe 
punisbment sball be penal servitude for life; 
tbat in tbe case of an assault by a servant on 
tbe master of a bouse tbe punisbment sball be 
penal servitude f«u* 2 years, for 10 years if a 
cutting wound is caused and for life if tbe 
master be tleformed or if bis deatb ensue from 
tbe assault; tbat if a servant commit suicide 
on account of baving been scolded by bis mas- 
ter for a transgression tbe latter sball be 
puui.sbed by penal servitude for 70 days; tbat 
resifiting Government officers in tbe execution 
of tbeir duty, wbetber of collecting duties or 
enforcing any legal or public services, sball be 
punisbed by petml servitude for 60 <lay.«?, for 
80 days if tbe officer be assaulted, nnd by tlio 
ordinary ])unisbment increased two degrees if 
wounds be caused, sucb punisbment, liowever, 
not to exceed penal servitude for 10 years, un- 
less tbe (fffieer bo killed, wben it sball be dec4i- 
pilatiou ; that disputing within the limits of 
tbe palace sball he punished by penal servitude 
for 50 days, fighting, by peiuil servitude for 
lOO days; fighting with swords by penal ser- 
vitude for 5 years, and wantonly entering within 
the gate of tbe palace, by penal servitude for 
50, and tbe palace itself by penal servitude for 



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100 day ; that, geizing a person, carry iug hira New Code, 
away, confining liiin in a privale honse, and -.-y'^*?. „ 
there ill-treating ami uhuning him shall, even 
if no ftssignuhle injnry be inHicte<I, be punished 
by penal servilmle fur 100 days, and if any 
injuries are inflicted, by a penalty two degrees 
more severe than that provided for ordinary 
casas. Where this offence is committed by a 
person hired for the purpose, the person so 
hired shall be deemed the accessory and his 
employer the principal in the offence ; and, 
finally, — that a son or grandson shall render New Code, 
himself liable to no penalty for interposing in "Assaulted 
the defence of parents and immediately strik- 
ing their assailants, unless the blow bo such as 
to produce a cutting wound, when he shall be 
punished three degrees less severely than In 
ordinary cases, «»r deatli ensues from it when 
he sliall be punished by penal servitude for 10 
years. In order, however, to enl itle him to the Revised 
benefit of this law it must he proved that the ^®' ^®^* 
blows were inflicted on the impulse of the 
moment and actually in deft nee of such parent, 
and it shall never be allowed in cases where a 
son combines with a parent and they together 
commit an assault, or where the sou assaults 
a ]»erson with whom the parent is engaged in 
a dispute, even if he does so on the latter's 
order. A son or grandson shall also bo liable Revised 
to no penalty who slays the murderer of a ^l?, ' ^^ 
parent on the spot and at the moment that the 
murder has been committed, but if subseciueut 
to such murder he deliberately frames a 
scheme of revenge and carries it out by himself, 
slaying the murderer then, heshall be liable to 
the ordinary punishment for Preconcerted and 
Wilful Murder.* 

* This law a£fords a very striking illustration of the cliango 
which has come over the 8X)irit of the Japanese legislators during 
the last few years. Avenging the murder of a parent in the man- 
ner that is here forbidden was until recently not only regarded as 
no crime but as a duty to he stei nly discharged by the son, and the 
law in the **l^ew Code " proviilod that a son who carried out such 
a duty should render himself liable to no penalty whatsoever, if 
only he had given notice beforthaud to the authorities of his inten- 
tion to do so. 



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CHAPTER VI. 



ABUSIVE LAXGUAGE. 



New Code, 
** Abuaing 
people " 



Il4»viac<l 
('o4e, See. 
237. 



Reviaecl 
CVnle, Sec. 
2.34. 



Revised 
CVnle, Sec. 
2.35. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
2.36. 



Persons guilty of iisino; nhiisive langua«;e to 
others shall he punished i>y penal servitude for 
10 (lays, and if two persons nuitnally ahnsc 
each other both shall he liahle to this penalty. 
An inerease of one degree of severity shall 
he made if the offence is committed hy a com- 
moner against the mayor of the offender's 
district, and of two degrees if against a 
policeman. 

When the offence is committed against Go- 
vernment officials, the penalty shall he penal 
servitude for I year if the official were of Im- 
perial appointment, for 90 days if of Govern- 
ment appointment, aud fur 60 days if of 
Departmental appointment. If the offence is 
committed hy an official of Departmental agtiinst 
one of Imperial or Government appointment 
the penalty shall he In the first cjuse penal 
servitude for 60 and in the second for 40 
days, and the latter penalty shall also be 
inflicted on an official of Government appoint- 
ujent guilty of the offence towards one of 
Imperial appointment. When, however, the 
offence is committed by an official of a higher 
against one of a lower grade punishment shall 
be inflicted as in ordinary case^. 



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—69— 

If the abusive langnago be used towards a New Code, 

senior relative of the 4th degree of relation- "Abusing a 

ship or towards a wife's parents, the punish* ^thin^the 

ment .shall he penal servitude for 50 days ; degree of 

for 60 days if towards a senior relative of the relationship 

3rd degree ; for 90 davs if towards an elder for which 

brother or si:iter ; for 'lOO days if towards an r^^'^ri'IL'" 

1 11 t n ^'O oe worn* 

uncle, aunt, or maternal grand|>arent ; and for 

3 years if towards a parent or grandparent. 

A servant guilty of the offence towards the New Code, 

head of the house shall he punished by penal lV^^"*^?^r 

servitude for 80 days, and a wife towards any the family " 

of her husband's relatives by (he same penalty 

that would have been inflicted on the husband 

had he been the offender. 

In nil cases in which this off*ence is com- 
mitted the abusive language must have been 
uttered in the presence of, and actually heard 
by, the person to whom it was addressed, or the 
penalties above detailed cannot be inflicted, and 
no proceedings can be taken unless a charge 
is formally preferred by the person offended 
ac:ainst. 



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CHAPTER VII. 

INDICTMENTS AND INFORMATIONS. 



The offences which are treated of in the chapter thus 
lieaded may he divided into two classes, viz, those which 
may he eoinmitted by (ifficiHls and those wliich may be 
commit te<l by the people in general. 

Of the first mentioned class there are three offences, 
viz : 'Neglecting or Declining to receive an Indictment or 
Information properly preferred', ^Taking Cognizance of an 
Indictment or Information with one of the parties to 
which the officer is in any way connected or related', and 
^Interfering or tnking part in the condnct of case in which 
the officer is personally interested*. The first two of these 
apply, of conrse, only lo magisterial or police officers, the 
third to officials of all departments. 

Neglecting or Declining to receive an Indictment 
OR Information properly preferred. 

New Code, Any magistrate who neglects or declines to 

*'Notactiug ^.g^gjyg ^yj immediately act upon an informa- 

onac arge. ^.^^^^ containing a charge of violent or other 

robbery, or of murder, shall be punished by 

penal servitude for 70 days,* and, if the 

• It is to be remembered that the apparent severity of tlie penalties 
which are provided both in this and other la^-s, for offences committed 
by officials^ is greatly modified by the provision contained in the 
" General Laws" under the heading "Officials," to the effect that the 
term of |>enal servitude mentioned as the punishment in the statute 
applicable to any offence which is not of a very disgraceful nature may, 



ment of a fine, 
Imprisonment,' 



if it does not exceed 100 days, be commuted by the pav: 

and if it does exceed that period is to be replaced by " 

The punishment that could be actually inflicted in this instance would 

(as will be seen by the table in the " General Laws ") be a fine varying 

from yen 2H to i/tn 10^, according to the grade of the officials. 



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charge be one of an offence against any of the 
laws contained in the chapters 'Quarrelling 
and Fighting,' ' Domestic Law/ or others, by 
a punishment two degrees less severe than 
that to which the accused person is properly 
liable, except that it is not in any case to 
exceed penal aervitude for 70 days. In all 
instancen, however, in which it can be proved 
that the oflfendiiig oificcr has declined to re- 
ceive the information on account of having 
been bribed by the accused party, he shall be 
punished l>y the penalties contained in the 
law of * Bribery for an Unlawful Purpose* 
whenever the amount of the bribe which he 
hjis received is such as would render him liable 
to a heavier punishment than that which is 
herein provided. 



Improperly t.ucing Cognizance of an 
Indicment or Information. 



No magisterial officer can take cognizance 
of an information laid before him if either of New Tode, 
the parties interested in it is in any way ic- '*^*>^*U^^*'"^*'*^ 
lated to him, has stood towards him in the ^^^^^ ^J^![^^ 
position of either teacher or pupil or has cbar^c." 
been a personal enemy to him. In all 
thcHO case he is to call upon another otficer 
to deal with the case, failing which he will he 
liable to a penalty of penal servitude for 30 
days, even though in dealing with the case he 
may have been guilty of no act of injustice 
cither in mitigating or aggravating the guilt 
of the accused person. If, however, he is 
guilty of this last mentioned offence in addition 
to that of receiving an information of any 
of the classes that are forbidden by this law, 
then he will be punished by the penalties pro- 
vided in the law of * Wilfully pronouncing 
an unjust sentence' that is contained in the 
chapter "Judgment and Imprisonment'* 
whenever they are more severe than those 
herein provkled. 



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Cases in which Officials are Privately 

Interested. 

All officials involved in any dispnte con- 
cerning marriage, pecuniary transiicliuns, 
New Code, lands and tenenaents, and the like, are tu 
** I rivatc plead through and cause their case to he con- 
t he part of dueled hy a member of their household, and 
ollicials." «re not to interfere either directly or by ad- 
dressing a written communication to the 
officers who have conduct of the case, other- 
wise they shall be punished by penal servi- 
tude for 30 days. 

Of the offences of the second class of those into which 
this Chapter is divided there are four, viz.: * False and 
Malicious Informations,* * Informations against Ilclations,' 
* Inciting and Promoting Litigation,* and * Disobedience 
to Parents.* The first of these is of extreme importance 
owing to the system of Japanese criminal procedure in 
which, as will be explained hereafter, the prisoner is 
always the the first witness examined, and is liable not 
only to a severe re-examination, but even to toiture in 
case he may deny the charge preferred against him. 
The sections treating of this offence are accordingly of 
great length, and the penalties provided for its com- 
mission as severe as its seriousness demands. 

False and Malicious Infokmations. 

A person who lays a false and malicious 
charge against another shall suffer the same 
New Code, penalty that would have been inflicted on the 
** liilse and pQi-gQn falsely accused had the charge been 
chaiiius " J^*^^ and well-founded, and this penally shall 
be enforced irrespective of the degree of grav- 
iiy of the charge falsely preferred and without 
reference to whether the falsely accused person 
has undergone punishment or not before the 
discovery of the injustice, ihe only exception 
being that, where the charge has been of a 
capital nature and its falseness is discover- 
ed before the penalty is carried out, the 
informer shall be punished bv penal servitude 
for life instead of by death. In cases where 
a person lays two charges against another, one 
of which is just and well-founded but the 



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other false aud malicious, no peualtj shall 
attach to him if the latter be of a less or 
equal degree of gravity with the former, as 
according to oue of the provisions contain- 
ed in the General Laws no increase wouhl 
have been made in the punishmcut of the 
person so accused, even had both charges 
been just and well founded. Where, how- 
ever, of two charges thns laid the true 
one is that which is the less grave, or where, 
though a cliarge is well founded, its degree of 
gravity is wilfully and maliciously exaggerat- 
ed, the offender shall suifer a punishment 
ccjual to the difference between that provided 
for the offence wiiich was justly and that 
provided for the one which was falsely and 
maliciously preferred, or between that provid- 
ed for the falsely preferred greater and the 
justly preferred less offence, with the excep- 
tiou that, if the falseness or exaggeration be 
discovered before the excess of punishment 
over that which was justly due had been 
undergone by the accused, the false accuser 
shall be permitted to commute the whole of 
the penalty, provided it does not exceed that 
of peiuil servitude for 100 days, by the payment 
of a fine calculated at the rate of 25 sen for 
each period of 10 days. If, however, the 
penalty exceed that of penal servitude for 
100 days, then the offender shall be permitted 
to commute only so much of the punishment iis 
exceeds this period. For the purpose of com- 
puting this excess, and also the punishment. Preliminary 
when it exceeds penal servitude for 100 days, ™?A^yM*f n 
to bo undergone by the offender in cases .vrirravathiK 
where the graver of two offences is falsely and light of- 
maliciouj^ly preferred or where an offence is fences. " 
wilfully and maliciously exaggerated, penal 
servitude for 1 year shall be estimated as be- 
ing equivalent to 120 blows, for 1^ years as 
being equivalent to 180 blows, for 2 years to 
240 blows, for 2^ years to 300 blows, for 3 
years to 360 blows, for 5 years to 420 blows, 
for 7 years to 480 blows, and for 10 years to 
540 ])lows, 60 blows being in each instance 
taken as the equivalent of one degree of 
ponisbmeut. This mode of computation and 



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also that of inflicting the penalties above 
detailed are illustrated in the following 
examples. 

a.— Preferring a charge of common assanlt, 
which is an offence punishable bj penal ber- 
vitude for 20 days, when ibe offence really 
committed was only tbat of using abusive 
language, wbich is puuisbable by penal servi- 
tude for 10 days. The difference in this case 
between the punishment due to the falsely pre- 
ferred greater and justly preferred less offence 
is 10 days, and penal servitude for this period 
shall be inflicted on tbe accuser if the accused 
have actually undergone the first mentioned 
penalty before the discovery of the injustice, 
but, if he have not, the accuser shall be per- 
mitted to commute the punishment by tbe 
payment of a fine of 25 sen. 

b. — Preferring a charge of common robbery 
of 60 yeuy punishable by penal servitude for 
1^ yeai*s, when the offence really committed 
was that of a common robbery of 10 yen 
only, punishable by penal servitude for 70 
days. As above slated penal servitude for 
1^ years is equivalent to 180 blows and 
for 70 days to 70 blows. The difference 
therefore of 110 blows, or estimating each 
blow as being equivalent to penal servitude 
for 1 day, penal servitude for 110 days ought 
to be requited on the false accuser, but, as the 
law recognizes no period of penal servitude 
between that of 100 days and that of 1 year, 
the 10 days by which the difference in this 
instance exceeds the former period shall be 
disregarded, and the false accuser sentenced 
only to penal servitude for 100 days. He shall 
also be allowed to commute the whole of this 
penalty by the payment of a fine of 2.50 yen 
if the falseness of his accusation be discovered 
before the accused had undergone the excess 
of punishment over that to which he was 
justly liable. 

c. Preferring a charge of assault in which 
injury not amounting to total blindness was 
caused to both eyes — punishable by peual ser- 
vitude for 2 yeai-8 — when in reality the injury 



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was caused to one eye only — the o£bnce in this 
latter case being punishable by penal servitude 
for 1 year. The difference in this case is 1 
year, and the full penalty of penal servitude 
for this period shall be inflicted on the accuser 
if the accused has undergone the excess of 
punishment over that due to the offence 
with wliich he was properly charged before 
the discovery of the injustice. If not, how- 
ever, the period of I year shall be computed . 
as being equivalent to 120 blows, and penal 
servitude for 100 days as the equivalent of 
100 blows shall be inflicted on the accuser, 
but he shall be allewed to commute the re- 
mainning 20 blows by the payment of a flne of 
50 sen, 

d. — Preferring a charge of viokting a grave 
and mutilating the body that was buried in 
it — punishable by penal servitude for 5 years 
— when the oflTence really committed was that 
of throwing into a river a dead body found 
within the limits of a lot of laud belonging 
to the accused — punishable by penal servitude 
for 90 days. The equivalent of penal servi- 
tude for 5 years is 420 blows, and the punish- 
ment therefore that ought to be requited on 
the false accuser is the equivalent of 330 blows. 
There being, however, no exact equivalent of 
this number, that below it which approaches it 
most nearly is taken instead. This is 300 blows, 
and the additional 30 being disregarded, the 
equivalent of 300 blows, viz, penal servitude for 
2^ years is to be inflicted on the false accuser. 
If, however, the falseness of the accusation 
had been discovered before the accused had 
undergone the excess of punishment, over that 
due to the offence with which he was justly 
chai-ged, the accuser shall be sentenced to 
penal servitude for 100 days as the equivalent 
of 100 blows, and be permitted to commute the 
punishment that would otherwise have been 
inflicted on him as the equivalent of the 
remaining 230 blows by the payment of a fine 
of yew 5,75. 

In all cases where a charge is preferred 
against two or more peraons, the fact that the 



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charge iB, in the case of one of ibem^ just and 
well founded shall not he considered as any 
extenuation of its wilful and malicious falseness 
in the case of another, and any instance of this 
kind shall therefore be dealt with in accordance 
with the provisions above detailed. Where 
the false accusation is contained in a memorial 
addressed to the Emperor the punishment of |)e- 
nal servitude for 2 years shall he the least penal- 
ty inflicted on the accuser, the off'ence bein^ 
considered as a " False statement wilfully made 
to tlie Emperor " and punished accordingly 
under the law contained in the chapter*' For- 
gery and Fiiiud,** in all cases in which the pro- 
visions contained in this law would not admit 
of the infliction of so severe a penalty. If the 
relatives of a prisoner who has been justly and 
properly condemned groundlessly appeal 
against such condemnation, they shall be puni- 
shed for doing so by a penally three degrees 
less severe than that passed on the prisoner, 
such penalty being limited, however, to penal 
servitude for 100 days. 

Informations against Relations. 

One of the provisions of the General Laws enacts that 
relatives shall render themselves liable to no penalty, or 
only to a mitigated penalty, for concealing each other's 
offences or for assisting each other to escape the conse- 
quences of such offences. Not only, however, is this privilege 
allowed, but by the present law the following severe 
penalties are provided for those persons who, disregarding 
the claims and tics of consanguinity, give information to 
the authorities of offences that have been committed by 
their relatives, even though such information prove to bo 
true and well-founded. 

New Code, A person who lays an information against 
ofY**^t?^^" a parent, paternal grandparent, husband, hus- 
tles." band*s parent or grandparent, shall in all 
cases be punished by penal servitude for 2^ 
years, and by penal servitude for life if the 
lU»vi8cd the information be false and malicious. Where 
240 ^^^ *^'^ information is laid against maternal grand- 
parents or a senior relative of the 2nd degree 
of relationship, the penalty shall be penal 
servitude for 90 days ; for 80 days if against a 
senior relative of the 3rd degree ; for 70 days 



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if AgAiDst a senior relative of the 4th degree 
of relationship, and for 60 days if against a 
wife's parents. IP, in any of the above cases 
the information be false and malicious, the 
accuser shall be punished by a penalty 3 
degrees more severe than than that provided 
for ordinary cases, but limited to penal servi- 
tude for 10 years. A pardon shall also always 
be granted for crimes, information of which is 
first given to the authorities by a person with- 
in any of the degrees of relationsliip above 
mentioned to the offender, in the same way as 
though the latter had himself made a voluntary 
confession, except that of the 4th degree, in 
which case, instead of a fnll pardon a mitigation 
of 3 degrees only in the punishment due to the 
accused shall be allowed. The provisions in 
this law shall not be enforced in the case of 
those laying a just and well founded information 
against a mother, adopted mother, or step 
mother of the murder of a father, against adopt- 
ed parents of the murder of natural parents, 
or against any relative not of the Ist degree 
of relationship by whom the accuser has been 
robbed or maltreated. In all these cases 
appeals may be made to the authorities, and the 
proper punishments shall be inflicted on the 
persons that have been so justly accused. 

If the information be laid by a senior against 
a junior relative within the 2nd or 3rd degrees 
of relationship, the latter shall be pardoned 
for the crime, information of which is thus 
given, and, if against a junior relative of the 
4th or 5lh degrees, the punishment which the 
latter would have suffered had the information 
been given by a stranger shall be miti<]jated 
3 degrees. In the case of false and malicious 
informations on the part of senior against ju- 
nior relatives, the ordinary punishment to 
which the accuser would have been liable had 
the information been laid against a stranger 
shall be mitigated 1 degree if the junior rela- 
tive falsely accused were within the 4th or 5th 
degrees of retionship, and 2 degrees if within 
the 2nd degree of relationship. No penalty 
shall be inflicted on a parent or paternal or 
maternal grandparent who lays a false and 



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-78- 

malicious information against a child^ and abni- 
band who lajs such information against a wife, 
a wife against a concubine, or a master against 
a servant shall, in each instance, be allowed a 
mitigation of 3 degrees in the ordinary punish- 
ment. A servant, on the other hand, who 
who lays an information against a master shall 
be punished by penal servitude for 60 days if 
the charge be just and well founded, and if it 
be false and malicious by the ordinary penalty 
increased 3 degrees, provided such increase 
does not make the punishment exceed penal 
servitude for 10 years. 

Inciting and Promoting Litigation. 
New Code, A person who incites another to lay an in- 
i-J"^l!^°*.i formation before the authorities, and who in 
® drawing up the plaint wilfully exaggerates 

the circumstances of the cases, shall be treated 
as a participntor with the false accuser and 
punished accordingly. Any one, again, who 
hires another to prefer a false charge shall be 
punished as though he had himself preferred 
the fulse charge, and the person hired shall be 
punished either under this law or else under 
that of 'Bribery for an Unlawful Purpose' if 
the amount of wage he may have received he 
such as to render him liable to a heavier 
penalty than that herein provided. No penalty 
shall, however, attach to one who advises or 
draws up a plaint on behalf a rude and a un- 
lettered person unable to properly state his 
own wrongs, if in doing so he is not guilty 
of any deviation from the truth either in the 
way of exaggei-ation or extenuation. 

Disobedience to Parents or Grandparents. 
New Code, Children or grandchildren disobeying the 
"ice to commands of their parents or grandparents 
irents." shall, if information of the offence be laid be- 
fore the authorities by the parent or grand- 
parent so offended against, be punished by 
evisecl penal servitude for 100 days; and children or 

j^®' " ^' grandchildren abandoning and neglecting to 
provide for the maintenance of old and 
decrepit parents or grandparents shall be 
punished by penal servitude for 2 years. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 



BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION. 



In this Chapter are described all offences which pertain 
to the acquirement of unlawflil gain otherwise than by an 
act of robbery. Tliese offences are of three kinds, viz : 
"Bribery for an Unlawful Ohjecf," " Bribery for a Lawful 
Object/' and " Pecuniary Malveraatiou.*' 

The firet offence is the one of which an offi- New Code, 
cial shall be convicted, who either prior or "I^relimin-^^ 
subsequent to the decision of any matter sub- *^J^Code 
mitted to him, receives or agrees to receive a "Officials 
present of money or other articles from a suitor receiving 
or a person under his jurisdiction on tlie spe- Presents. * 
cific understanding that he shall commit an 
act of inj notice, or as a reward for an act of New Code, 
injustice which he has already committed for "R^oiving 
the benefit of the giver, or who, on the ^^^se ^J^^'Jjjg ^^ 
plea of public service levies any unjust or un- cision of any 
lawful contribution and appropriates it to his matter." 
own benefit, or who by threats and violence New Code, 
extorts money from pei*sons under his juris- "^^{^'^8 
*l>ction. tioMon'pub- 

licaoconnt." 
New Code, 
"Officiala 
soliciting 
preaents.** 
The second offence is the one of which an New Code, 
official shall bo convicted who receives or "^^JYJ^g 
agrees to receive a present on the specific un- ^^^ oiTnub- 
derstanding that he shall, for the sake of the lie account." 
giveri commit some act which is not in itself 



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New Code, 
" Officials 
soliciting 
presents." 
New Code, 
** Receiving 
oft'erin^ 
from foreip^n- 
ors." 
Revised 
Code, Sec. 
245. 

New Cmle, 
** Detaining 
stolen 
goods. " 

New Code, 
*' Prelimina- 
ry matter." 



New Coile, 
*' Pecuniary 
malversa- 
tion." 

New Code, 
** Levying 
contribu- 
tions on 
imblic 
account.*' 
New Code, 
** Making 
presents 
while 
preferring 
re(|uests.'' 
Revised 
Code, Sec. 
21.S. 

Revised 
Cmle, Soc. 
2M. 



-80— 

an tnjustioe i who levies, though without using 
the plea of public service, any unjust contribu- 
tion fur bis own benefit ; who, on tlie atrength 
oF his influence and authority, borrows or soli- 
cits money from the people under liis jurisdic- 
tion ; who receives from a foreigner any pre- 
sent other than that of eatables or snch articles 
as may be reisonably supposed to be given as 
mementoes of friendly intercourse; or who, if 
a police officer, suppresses the discovery of 
an<l appropriates any stolen property that may 
liave come into his possession in the course of 
the discliarge of liis duty. 

The third offence is that of which any 
person, official or otherwise as the case 
may be, shall be convicted, who is guilty 
of unlawfully receiving any prasents when 
the offence does not come nuder that of 
receiving a bribe to do any specific act 
either lawful or unlawful for the benefit 
of the giver ; who levies any unjust or 
unlawful contribution on the plea of public 
service but does not appropriate it to his own 
benefit ; who makes a present to an official 
after the decision of a caude, or who offers a 
bribe to one whether with the wish of induc- 
ing him to perform au act which is in itself 
an injuBlice or not ; who on taking charge of 
of a jurisdiction acce|)ts presents from those 
under it ; who orders the payment of a 
sum greater than what is right and proper 
as medical expenses in the case of in- 
juries inflicted in an assault ; who collects an 
excessive amount of taxes, or who in the 
construction of public works is guilty of an 
unnecessary or extravagant expenditure of 
either money or labour. 

The punishments that are to be inflicted 
on persons guilty of any of these three offences 
are given iu the table that is contained in the 
chapter on "Robbery and Theft."* In each 
case the sums that may have been received 
on different occasious shall be added together, 
and punishment imposed for the total just 
as though it had been obtained by one act of 



Vide page 80, 



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bribery or pecuniary malverBation, as the ease 
maybe. In the infliction of the punidhments 
detailed in the table the following mitigations 
shall be made whenever the circumstances of 
the case or the position of the offender justify 
them. 

A mitigation of one degree if the offender „^^9?^®* 
in an act of bribery either for a lawful or an p^Qj^^Jj^- 
unlawful purpose is an uuclnssed official, or if presents." 
the offender has only acted as agent be- 
tween the giver and receiver of a bribe, the 
punishment being in this instance limited to 
})enal servitude for 1^ years, provided the 
offender has not himself shared in the bribe. ^^^9^.^^f 
A similar mitigation if an official has ^^''e®^ «,^^t!JI3? 
to accept a bribe, but has not yet act u- fertile deoi- 
ally received it. A mitigation of three de-sionofany 
grees in the punishment provided for extortion matter." 
of money hy officials from persons under ^ New Code, 
their jurisdiction if the offence be committed ijT^ 
by one who has been discharged from office, present^" 
against persons who were nnder his jurisdic- 
tion prior to such discharge, and of two de- New Code, 
grees if it be committed by a membei* of the ".^^™.^,'^ 
household of an official on the strength of his i|Q„gei|Q|^jg 
master's influence. In this last mentioned soliciting 
instance the official, if aware of the illegal acts presents." 
committed by the memher of his household, 
shall be punished as a participator, but such 
puninhment shall not exceed penal servitude 
for 3 years. A mitigation of one degree in Revised 
the punishment provided for the offence of ^?f®* ^®^ 
pecuniary malversation in the case of persons 
who, though they have offered presents to offi- 
cials have not done to so with the wish to 
procure an injustice, or have only done so afler 
the decision of a cause in which they are 
interested. 



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CHAPTER IX. 

FORGERY AND FRAUD. 



Under the bend of forgery the offences of " Forging pub- 
lic or private documenis/* "Counterfeiting official or private 
seals, the onrreney of the realm, or weights, scale."*, or 
measures*' are described, and, under that of fraud, those of 
" Falsely and Deceitfully addressing the Sovereign,'* 
" Falsely Representing one's self as a Government of- 
ficial," "Pretence of sickness or death in order to escape 
public service or the penalties attaching to a previous 
offence," and " Inciting people to transgress the Law?." 

Forging Public or Private Documents. 

Now Code, Forging a document which purports to, or 
Offi "^^"^ falsifying in any way one which does emanate 
documents." ^'"^"^ *^'® Council of State, shall be punighed 
by penal servitude for 2 yeai-s. This 
penalty shall be mitigated two degrees if the 
offence be committed in respect to a document 
of liny of the chief public offices, and five 
degrees if in that of any other public document 
whatsoever. A further remission of one de- 
gree shall be made in each case if the offence 
be discovered before the document forged or 
tampered with has been made use of. If the 
offence be committed with an ulterior corrupt 
motive punishable by a more severe penalty 
than that herein provided for the crime of 
forgery, the heavier penalty shall be inflicted 
instead of that contained in this law, and in 
all cases the officials of the department on 



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which the forgery is committed shall, if while 
cognizant of the offence tliey do not take steps 
to prevents its accomplit^hment, bepunislicd as 
participators with the actual offender. Forging 
any private document, that is one which does llevisml 
not relate in any way to puhlic bn.«^iness, — such ^^^W 
€,g.^ as a contract between two traders — ' 
shall according to (he attendant circumstances 
be consi<lered either as a grave or trivial 
" Impropriety " and puni.^ihcd by the penalties 
provide(i in the law relating to "Improprie- 
ties" that is contained in the chapter on 
Miscellaneous Offences. 



Counterfeiting Official or Private Seals. 

Counterfeiting nn official seal shall bo Kevised 
punished by penal servitude for life if the seal y^^®»24a 
be that of the Council of State; by penal ' 
servitude for o years if it be that «.c^^^^°' 
of one of the chief public oflSces ; by peual feiting 
servitude for 1 year if any other public seal ; Pubhc 
and couuterfeiting a private seal by penal ser- Seaia." 
vitude for 100 days. A mitigation of one New Code, 
degree shall be ma<le in each of these penalties, I'.^P"** p*".* 
if, though the seal has been counterfeited, the vate^^ls!'' 
iniitatiou has not yet been made use of, but in 
every c.isc in which this offence is committed 
with a view to obtain fraudulent possession 
of any property it shall be treated under 
whichever of the laws of robbery apply to it, 
if the value of the property so obtained or at- 
tempted to be obtained is sutficienlly high to 
render the offender liable to a more severe 
penalty tliau any herein contained. 

Counterfeiting tue currency of tue Realm. 

In all cases in which the offence of forging Kevised 
currency has been completed and the forged^®* ^®°* 
coins have been put into circulation prior to 
iU discovery, the principal, or he who contriv- 
ed and suggested the offence, shall be punished 
by decapitation J the accessories, the ariizans 
who manufactured the implements used in the 
oommlssioQ of the offeQce, kuowlug the puv* 



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-«4— 



Revifled 
Code, Sec. 
253. 



Hevised 
Code, Sec. 
250. 
Kevifled 
Code, Sec 
252. 

Kevised 
Code, Sec. 
254. 

Eevised 
Code, Sec. 
267. 



poee for which they were to he employed, ibe 
persons who Assisted lo circulate the forged 
coin, and also those who pnrcliased and made 
use of it knowing that it was forged, sliall 
he punished by pennl servitude for life ; and 
servants wlio have heen employed in miscel- 
laneous offices connected with the forging by 
penal servitude for 10 yeai-s. In all these 
cases a mitigation of one degree shall be allow- 
ed if the offence be discovered hefore the 
forged coin has been put into circulation ; and, 
if it he discovered hefore the forgery is com- 
pleted, the principal shall he punished by 
penal servitude for 3 years, the accessories 
and artizans by penal servitude for 2^ 
years, and the .«*ervant.s by penal servitude 
for 100 days. When the offender repent 
and themselves give information- of (heir 
crime to the authorities, they shall receive a 
free pardon if the coin, though counterfeited, 
had not been put into circulation, but, if it 
had beeu, a mitigation of one degree only in 
the statute punishment. The offence of clip- 
ping genuine coins shall be pnnitihed by penal 
servitude for 3 years, and that of altering 
the writing on the paper currency so as to 
make its value appeal* greater than it really is by 
penal servitude for 6 years. Whoever harbours 
coiners or lends a house to them knowing the 
purpose for which it is to be used, shall be punish- 
ed as an accessory in their offence; and whoever 
knows that the offence is being committed but 
does not give information thereof to the authori- 
ties, shall be punished as having committed a 
grave " Violation of Ordei*8.** Anyone, again, 
who finds that money which has come into 
his possession is forged and who uses it, instead 
of submitting it to the examination of the 
authorities shall be punished as having com- 
mitted a "Grave Impropriety. 



Counterfeiting Weights, Scales, or Measures. 

New Code, This offence shall be punished in the case 
V^«"n^'|eit- ^jf the principal by penal servitude for 5 

MeMTiTM." scries. Altering weights, scales or measures 



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--85— 

80 as to make them either larger or smaller NotificAtion 
than they should properly be shall be punish- ^°" ^^ ^^ 
ed by penal servitude for 1^ yeai's, unless the 1873'^* ' 
offence be very trivial, when it may, according 
to the discretion of the judge, be treated 
either as a grave or trivial Impropriety. 



Falsely and Deceitfully Addressing 
the sovebeign, 

Whoever in an address to the throne either New Code, 
delivered in reply to a Query, in respect ^^Twf^ff^ii 
the discharge of oiBcial duties, or in the form addresainif 
of a memorial of any kind, is guilty either of the Sovere- 
the expression of fiilsehoods or of a failure to ing." 
state the whole of the truth, shall be punished 
by penal servitude for 2 years. Similar Revised 
offences committed in the cases of addresses o^ * ^^' 
to the Government shall be punished by penal * . 
servitude for 1 year, unless the deviation from, 
or snrpression of the truth is very trivial, 
when the period shall be 80 days. 

Falsely kepresenting one's self as a Government 
Official. 

Any person who fraudulently represents 
himself as a Government official, who as- 
sumes the name of a Government official, 
or who, falsely representing himself as the 
emi:isary of a Government department makes 
an arrest, shall be punished by penal servitude 
for 2^ years ; and any one who falsely repre- 
sents himself either as the relative or servant 
of a person in office with the design of effect- 
ing some object on the strength of such re- 
lalionship shall be punished by penal servitude 
for 90 days. If, however, the circumstances 
are of a trivial nature, the period shall in the 
ilrst instance be reduced to 70 and in the 
second to 60 days, unless the fi*aud is used as 
a means of obtaining possession of any proper- 
ty, in which case the punishment shall be in- 
flicted according to the law of common robbery, 
if on oomparisoQ it prove heavier than that 



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—86— 

tlevised horein provided. Giving a false name and 

o^^* ^^' P^*w;e of regisl nition at a hotel shall be consider- 

ed aud puni^ihed ns a '* Trivial Impropriety.*' 



Pretence of Sickness or Death. 

New Code, Any one who alleges a pretence of sickness 
•* False Alle- yf\\\i the view of e^capinj^a difficulty or avoid- 
N^ckncM or "'^ disagreeahlc duty shall be punished by 
Death." penal servitude for 30 days, or for 70 days if 
the matter sought to be avoided were of im- 
portance ; and nny one who, with the design 
of escaping the punishment justly due to 
a prior offence committed by him, causes a 
false report of his death to be made shall be 
punished by penal servitude for H years, 
unless the penalty sought to bo avoided was 
of a heavier degree, when it shall be the 
one inflicted. Any person again who, after 
an affray or quarrel, delibei-ately inflicts 
hijnries on himself in order to lay the 
same to the charge of his adversary and 
thereby ensure an aggravation of the punish- 
ment justly due to I lie latter, shall undergo 
)>cnal servitude for 70 days ; and if he hires 
a third person to inflict such injuries, the 
latter shall be liable to the same punishment^ 
and to penal servitude for 10 years if the in- 
juries be of so severe a nature as to cause the 
death of the person on whom they were in- 
flicted. In all cases any otHcials who connive 
at one or other of these frauds shall be 
punished us pariici[mtord with the actual 
offenders. 



Inciting people to transgress the Laavs. 

New Code, All persons, who by uttering falsehoods in- 

*• Inducing ^jj^ others to oflTend against the laws, and then, 

others by .,• ,, , ^ i i i- x .i 

false pre- either themselves arrest and deliver to the 

tences to authotities those whom they have so incited 
transgress or cause another person tt» <lo so, shall be c<hi- 
the Laws. sidered as i)articipators in any oflfeuce that 

has been so committed at their instigation and 

punished accorduigly. 



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CHAPTER X. 

RAPE AND ADULTERY. 



The Climes detaileil in tliis chapter may be arranged 
under the respective heading:^ t>f Ailnltory, Incest, Rape, 
and Sodomy. They all come under the category of 
"extremely disgracenil t»rtencoa" an»l nohlos and samurai 
guilty of them are therefore not allowed the privilegCH 
of the supplementary puuUhments. 

Adultery. 

Both parties to the commissiou of the offeuce 
of adultery shall be punished by penal servi- 
tude for 1 year, and the husband of the offeud- New Code, 

ine female shall be liable to a similar penalty **^®****1 
./•Ti jsy 'i.* 1 i. I • • i.- *• Intercourse, 

if the oitence was committed at his instigation. Revised 

An official guilty of the oiTonce with the wife Code, Sec. 
of a person under his jurisdiction, or a servant 260. 
with the wife of his master, shall be punished ^^^^J^H^'* 
for 1^ years, the woman in the first of the jV 2gj8'"6 
two latter cases being punished by the ordinary Revised 
peualty, but, in the second, by one equally Code, Sec. 
severe with that inflicted on the male offender. 262-3. 
A mitigation of one degree of punishment 
shall be allowed in all these cases if the offend- 
ing female is a concubine and not a wife. 

Incest. 

Incestuous intercourse with a father's or a New Code, 
grandfather's concubine, a paternal aunt, sister, " ^^'^'"" 
or a son's or grandson's wife shall involve between 
the punishment of penal servitude for 3 Kelations." 



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R«TiMd 
Cod«, Seo. 
261. 



lU vised 
('ode, Sec. 
2(55. 



jMre ; with & maternal aunt or brother's or 
nephew's wife, that of penal servitade for 2 
jeai*8 ; and with a niece, a wife's dan^hter 
by a previous liU9l»and, or with a half sister, 
that of penal servitude for 1 year. As in the 
ease of Adultery, both parties to the offence of 
Incest shall be punished by whichever of the 
penalties is applicable to their case, and in 
those instances in which ' wife ' is mentioned, 
a mitigation of one degree of puulshment 
shall be allowed to both parties if the offend- 
ing female was a concnbine. On the other 
hand, if a woman who has been guilty either 
of adultery or incest is, on the discovery of 
her guilt, driven by a sense of shame to com- 
mit suicide, the punishment of the male 
offender shall be increased one degree even 
though he may have be3n entirely innocent of 
any knowledge of the woman's intention to 
do so. 



Rape. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
2(i0. 

Revised 
Code, Sec. 
201. 



The crime of rape shall in ordinary ca^es 
he punished by penal servitude for 10 years, 
but if the female on whom the offence is com- 
mitted be connected by any tie of relationship 
with the offender, or if any wounds be inflicted 
on her during the commission of the offence, 
the punishment shall be penal servitude for 
New Code, life. Sexual intercourse with a female under 
flrnni^A ^^ ^^ jetLi's of ago, cvcn with her consent, shall in 
all cases be treated and punished as ra))e. At- 
tempted rape shall be punished by a penally one 
degree less severe than that which would have 
been inflicted had the offence been accomplished. 



tercourse. " 



Sodomy. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
26a 



The crime of sodomy shall be punished hy 
penal servitude for 90 days^ and^ if committed 
hy mutual consent^ both parties to the offence 
shall be punished unless the male on whom it 
is committed be under 15 years of age, in 
which case he shall be held guiltless. 



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CHAPTER XI. 

MISCKLLME0U8 OFFENCES. 



Miscellaneous Oifenoes are those the nature of which 
prevents them being included in any of the chapters de- 
voted to the treatment of a particular class of crimes, and 
which are accordingly here collected into one special chap- 
ter. The absence of any similarity or connection between 
these several offences renders it impossible to adopt any 
further system of classification in summarizing them, and 
they are therefore simply detailed here in the same order 
as they occur in the original codes. 

Breaking or Destroying Government Notice 

Boards or Notifications. 
Any person guilty of this offence shall be New Code, 
punished by penal servitude for 3 years. n tice ^^ 

Boards." 

Trafficking in or Smoking Opium; 

Any one who, for the sake of the profit New Code, 
which he may thereby acquire, sells the poison- ^Trafficking 
ous drug known as opium regardless of the 
harm which it causes shall, if a principal in 
the offence, be punished by decapitation, and, 
if an accessory, by penal serviUide for 10 years ; 
and any person who purchases and uses it by 
penal servitude for 2^ years. If, however, 
lh6ugh the offender has purchased the opium 
with the intention of dealing in it, his offence 
be discovered before he has sold any portion of 
it, he shall be punished by penal servitude for 



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—90- 

10 years if the principal, and for 8 years if the 
accessory in the offence. Any one, again, wlio 
incites or persuades another to smoke or eat 
opium shall be punished by hanging; those who 
are accessory to the offence or who have lent 
rooms wherein it might be committed, thougii 
well aware at the time of the uses to 
which the rooms were to be devoted, by penal 
Hervitude for 10 years, and those who, on be- 
ing so incited or persuaded either eat or 
smoke opi-tim, by penal servitude for 1 year. 
In all cases any opium which may be discover- 
ed in the possession of the offender shall be 
confiscated. Officials who connive at the com- 
mission of any of these offences shall be 
punished as participators with the actual 
offenders, but, if their connivance is as- 
cribable to their having been bribed, theu 
they' shall be punished by the penalties 
contained in the law of Bribery for an 
Unlawful Object, if the amount of the bribe 
were such as to render the receiver liable to a 
more severe penalty than what is provided in 
the present law. 



Gambling. 

New Code, ^ Persons who gamble for strikes other than 
'•Gambling, j |^oj,g ^^f eatables or drinkables shall be punish- 
Picvised ^^\ \^y penal servitude for 80 days, or for 1 year 

209*^' ^^ '^ ^^^® offence be committed a third time, and 
the stakes shall, unless they coiisist of immove- 
Ueviaed al>Io property, such as lands or tenements, 

Code, Sec. ^^^ co!ifiscated. Those who open a house for 
gambling purposes, although they may not 
Revised actually take part in the gambling carried on 

Cmle, Sec. tjierein, who lend money at interest while 
knowing that it is to be devoted to gamblinj];, 
Pttnised or who sell cards, dice» or other articles used 

nulo, Sec. f^y^. gambling, shall bo punished as participators 
"' ' with the actual offenders, and in the last men- 

tioned of these three ioslauces, repetition of 
the offence shall involve an increase of one 
degree of severity in the punishment, and a 
second repetition shall involve the punishment 
of penal servitude for 1 year. 



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—91— 

Preferring Solicitations to Officials on Public 
Matters. 

Any person who with the view of procuring ^ ^^^^' ^'odc, 
the commission of an injustice is guilty of pre- 1^ w*^'"^ 
ferring a solicitation in regard to a public (,„ pn\,\\c 
matter to a Government oiHcer, whether formatters." 
his own atlvantage or that of another, shall he 
punished by penal servitude for 40 day?. An 
otiicial who assents to such a request shall be 
treated and punished as a participator, unless 
he has not only given his assent but has actu- 
ally committed the injustice desired, in which 
case he shall be punished by penal servitude 
for 90 days or by such heavier penalty as ho 
would be liable to if his offence were treated 
under the law of "Pronouncing an Unjust 
Decision " that is contained in the chapter on 
** Judgment and Impriaoumeut/' When the 
nature of the injustice is such as would render 
the official complying with the request liable, 
according to the provisiou last mentioned, to 
any penalty heavier than that of penal servi- 
tude for 40 days, the proposer shall, if the 
request have been preferred on behalf of a 
relative or other third person, be punished by 
a penalty three degrees less severe than that 
inflicted on the offending official; hut, if it has 
been prel'erreil on his own behalf, a mitiga* 
tion of two degrees only shall be allowed. h\ 
any case in which the injustice has been avail- 
ed of as a means for the acquisition of unlawful 
gain, the offence shall be dealt with under the 
** Law of Bribery for an Unlawful Object," 

Accidental House-burning. 

A person who accidentally sets fire to a Revised 
forest, grass-plain, or unoccupied house shall S?^ ' * 
be punished by penal servitude for 10 days ; 
one who accidentally sets fire to a dwelling New Code, 
house of which he himself is the occupant "Accidental 
and proprietor by penal servitude for 20*^'*®®* 
days ; if he be only a tenant and not the j. . , 
actual proprietor of such house^ by penal Qq^q^ gee. 
servitude for 30 days; and if the fire ex- 274, / 
tend from Lis own to other houses by peual 



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—92— 



Reviled 
Code, Sec. 
275. 

Notification 
No. 299. 
An^i^ust 12th 
1873. 



Revised 
Code. 
Sea 273. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
277. 



sorTitude for 40 days. An inorease of oue 
degree of severity shall be made in each of these 
penalties whenever the death of any person is 
occasiofied by the fire, but if the death so oc- 
casioned be that of a relative dwelling along 
with the offender, the punishment shall be pe- 
nal servitude for 100 days if the relative were 
of the 1st degree of relationship, and, if of a 
more remote degree, by a i>enalty mitigated one 
degree of severity for each additional degree of 
remoteness that there may be in the relation- 
ship existing between the parties. In all 
cases the person by whom the fire was ac- 
tually kindled is the only one on whom these 
several punishments aie to be inflicted. A 
person, again, who accidentally causes a fire 
within the precincts of the p^ilace or in one of 
the great Shrines at Is^, shall be punished by 
penal servitude for 10 years ; if in any of the 
other Shrines by penal servitude fur a period 
varying from 1 year to 60 days according to 
the class of the Shrine, and if in a Govern- 
ment office or storehouse by penal servitude 
for 100 days. If the superintendent or onsto- 
dian of such office or storehouse avail himself of 
the opportunity afforded by a fire thus kindled 
to appropriate any Government property, be 
shall be punished in proportion to the value of 
the property so obtained by the penalties con- 
tained in the law of embezzlement. When a fire 
extends to the palace, a shrine, or Government 
office or storehouse from without, the person by 
whom it was in the first instance accidentally 
kindled shall be liable to a punishment three 
degrees less severe than those above provided 
for the several cases in which the fire origin- 
ates from within. In any of these cases, or in 
that of a prison, a responsible superintendent 
or custodian who deserts his post on the break- 
ing out of a fire shall l^e punished by penal 
servitude for 70 days. When a house is un- 
intentionally set on fire by persons engaged in 
the commission of a robbeiy, either from their 
having used fire for the purpose of destroying 
doors or locks, or from lanterns or torches 
which they have carried with themi the 
persQQS 80 offending shall ba punished by penal 



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—93— 

servitude for 3 years, or for such longer period 
OS the robberies which they commit would 
reuder them liable to* 

Incendiarism. 

Any ])erson who wilfully sets lire to a New Corle, 
public ofiice or storehouse, or to a dwelling Z*^"*^^"*^***"' 
house other than his own, shall be punished by 
decapitation, and any person who attempts to 
do so, by penal servitude for 10 yeai-s. Miti- 
gation of 3 degrees in this latter punishment Revised 
may, however, in the discretion of the judge be ^^^* ^^' 
allowed when the attempt is made by a ser- 
vant in a momtjiilary fit of indignation against 
a master by whom he has been harshly re- Revised 
proved. If the crime be committed in the S^®' ^®^' 
case of an empty house or in that of grain, 
etc., stored up in fields, it shall be punidhed 
by penal servitude for 7 years, and by penal 
servitude for 10 years if the fire extended to 
inhabited houses, even though the offender 
may not have intended that it should. An 
attempt in either of these cases shall bo 
punished by penal servitude for 3 years. Any 
one, again, who wilfully sets fire to his own Revised 
house shall be punished by penal servitude ^i**^®» ^*^^- 
ior 90 dnyii, a mitigation of one degree being 
allowed in the case of an attempt only; but 
if the tire afterwards extends to other houses Revised 
the punishment shall be increased to that of ^^®» ^^ 
penal servitude for 2^ years, and to penal 
servitude for life if the offender profits by the 
opportunity afforded by the fire to purloin any 
goods or property. 

Making Away with Property that has been 
Entrusted for Safe Keeping. 

Any person who secretly dissipates or New Ccxle, 
uuikes away with any property, whether in ** Making 
the shape of livestock or goods that has b^e" pro^rtythat 
given into his charge for safe keeping sball be has been re- 
lial)le to a punishment one degree less severe ceived into 
than that provided for the crime of " Pecuni- ^^^''S®'" 
ary Malfersation/' but limited to penal servi^ 



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—94— 

tnde for 2^ years ; and, if be falsely alleges 
that such live stock is dead, he shall be liable 
to a punish men t two degrees less severe than 
that provided for " Common Robbery," but 
limited to penal servitude for 3 years, the 
property in either case to be restored to the 
rij^htriil owner. No proceedings are, how- 
ever, to be taken when such property is loj>t 
either by fire or water, or by death in the cabe 
of live stock, or when it is stolen from the 
person to who&c keeping it had been consij^ii- 
ed. 

Detention of Lost Property. 

Nutihcation Any person who finds lost property must 

HI* i*ft-«^^^^ ^^''^'^*^ ^^ ^^ the owner, or, if the owner be 
* ' * unknown, hand it over to the care of the police 
authoiiiies, within a. period of 5 days, from 
the date on which he found it, otherwise he 
will be liable to a punishment, according to 
the value of the property, one degree less 
severe than he would have been had he beeu 
guilty of common robbery of a similar amount. 
A descriplion of the property will be published 
by the police and, if it remains unclaimed for 
the space of 1 year, i he whole of it shall be giveu 
to the finder; but if within that period theowner 
proves his claim to it, it shall be handed to him, 
subject toa deduction of not less than fiveand not 
more than twenty per cent of its value, which 
shall be given to the finder as a reward. No 
person in the employment of the Police De- 
partment in any capacity whatsoever shall bo 
entitled to this reward, and any property 
found by such persons will be handed to the 
owner without any deduction whatsoever. 

Transgression of Prohibitions, Standing Orders or 
Police Regulations. 

New Code, Any person who offends against a prohibi- 
**Tran8gre8- ^^|^^„ j,|jjj|| j^^ pmii?hed l»y penal servitude for 
orders." ^^^ days; any one who offends against a stand- 

Revised ing order by penal servitude for 40 days; and 

Code, Soa any one who ofi'ends against a police regulation, 
287-288. by p^nai servitude for 20 days j a mitigation 



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of one degree shall^ however^ be allowed in 
each of tliese cases when the transgression is 
of a trivial nature. Examples of the offence of 
"Transgression of a Prohibition" are"Break- 
in^ or injuring the relics in the great Shrines," 
"Carrying on a Lottery/* "Torturing a 
prisoner in an illegal manner;" of that of a 
"Trangression of Standing Orders" — " Wilful 
evasion of the conscription," " Lending one's 
seal to another," etc.; and of those against the 
Police Regulations " Tattooing the body," 
" Selling adulterated or decayed food or li- 
quor, or obscene books or pictures," " Passing 
places where * No Thoroughfare ' is marked," 
" Exposing the naked body," " Cutting the 
telegraph wires," " Dog fighting," " Chair 
coolies using insolent language," " Women 
cutting their hair short without any particular 
reason for doing so," * etc. 

iMPROPRIETIES.t 

Any act to which there may not be a specific New Code, 
section in the codes applicable but which is "Improprie- 
nevertheless clearly in violation of propriety * 
and justice, shall be considered an Impropriety, 
and the person guilty of it shall be punished 
by penal servitude for 30 days, or 70 days if 

* In this case it is of conrHo to be remembered, that the offender being 
a female, would have the privilege of commuting the term of penal ser- 
vitude by the payment of a fine calculated according to the table in the 
section " Indulgences to Commonei-s " that is contained in the '* General 
Laws." The same privilege is now extended to male offenders in the 
case of the more trivial offences against the Police Regulations. 

t An illustration of the application of this law was recently afforded 
in the case of a charge that was preferred, through H.B.M.'s Legation, 
against a druggist in Yedo of counterfeiting the manufacturer's labels, 
and also the English Inland Revenue stamp, on the bottles containing 
Dr. J. CoUis Browne's chlorodine, and affixing them to a spurious 
compound made by himself which he sold as genuine. This offence was 
decided to be a "Serious Impropriety" and the druggist was pun- 
ished accordingly by penal servitude for 70 days. The head of the en- 
graving company by which the counterfeits were made, and the artizan 
who actually made them, were both adjudged to be accessories, and 
sentenced to penal servitude for (»0 days, but in the case of the latter tlie 
judge availed himself of the discretionary power vested in him, and " in 
rouaideration of the circumstances " allowed a mitigation of one degree, 
thus reducing the punishment to penal servitude for 50 days. 
The profit which all three had a<K|uired by the commission of the 
offence — the druggist by the sale of the spurious medicine, and Uie 
engravers by manufacturing the labels — was confiscated under the law 
of " Eestltution and Forfeiture of Stolen Goods." 



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^M— 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
289. 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
290-291. 



the AOt be of A serioui nAture. The uboaI cI1b« 
tiuction between principAl and accessory shall 
be observed, when two or more persons to- 
gether commit an ofiTence coming under 
this law, but if their re«pective degrees of 
guilt be such that some are liable to be punish- 
ed for a serious and others only for a light 
impropriety, this distinction and not that of 
principal and accessory shall be observed in 
passing sentence. The offences of breaking 
idols, disseminating false and malicious or 
alarmiug reports and of publishing any 
written matter that causes difficulties in the 
administration of the Government, shall be 
dealt with as serious Improprieties. 



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CHAPTER XII. 

ARREST. 



The laws in tins chapter detail the penalties that are 
to he inflicted (1) on p(»lice oflicers and jailors who fall to 
execnte properly a warrant of arrest ; who, in effecting an 
an est, nse an nnneoeHsary anionnt of violence, or who fail 
to prevent the escape of criminals from custody ; (2) 
on criminals who, when being arrested, resi.st police officers, 
or who rnn away from cnstody or abscond from the con- 
vict depots to which ihey have been remitted ; and (3) on 
those persons who coneeHl persons for whose arrest 
warmnts have been issned or who assist prisonei*s to 
escape. 

Failure to execute a Warrant of Arrest. 

A police officer who, having received a 
warrant for the arrest of a criminal, excnses New Tode, 
himself on any jiretext whatsoever from ** AT^.^ ?/ 
executing it, or who fails to arrest any criminal 
with whose whereabouts he is acquainted, shall 
be punished by penal servitude for 100 days ; 
and one who wilfully connives at the escape 
of a criminal from whom he has received a 
bribe, shall be punished either by the penal- 
ties to which he is liable as a parti- 
cipator in the offence of which the criminal 
was originally guilty or else by those 
contained in the law of "Bribery for an 
Unlawful Purpose,*' according as the form- 
er or the latter may be found to be the 
most severe in each particular instance, but 



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—OS- 
Revised the punishment is in no ease to exceed that of 
So *292 P^°*^ servitude for life. An officer shall also 
be punished as a participator in the guilt of a 
criminal if^ though be receives no bribe, he 
connives at the criminal's escape, or sends him 
such information of the steps that are being 
taken for his an*est as enables him t-o effect his 
escape, but the punishment shall not in this 
case exceed that of penal servitude for 10 
years. 

Maltreating Prisoners. 

If a police officer causes the death of or in- 
flicts cutting wounds on a criminal whose aiTest 
^^JJ«^ Code, he is effecting and who offers no resistance, or 
resiatin"*^*. ^^*^* though he has attempted to rnn away, 
rest." ' ^"^^ been ah'eady secured, he shall be liable to 
the punishment provided in the law of "Quar- 
relling and Fighting," for killing or wounding 
in an aflray, unless the criminal had been guilty 
of a capital offence, in which case an officer 
killing him in a momentary fit of anger shall 
be liable only to the punishment of penal serv- 
itude for 90 days. No penalty, whatso- 
ever, shall attach to an officer if he kills an 
armed criminal who is resisting arrest, or 
one who is running away from custody, or 
if a criminal whom he has pursued and brought 
to bay destroys himself. 

Failing to prevent the Escape of Prisoners. 

New Code, Prison guardians and superintendents who, 
and superiu- ">^ remissness, fail to prevent the escape of 
tendents prisoners from custody shall be punished by 
failing to penal servitude for 40 days, unless the es- 
notify the cape has been effected by prisorf breaking, 
Bo^ers.'''^ when mitigation of one degree of severity 

shall be permitted, or unless the prisoner is 
l^ifi^d re-arrested within a period of 30 days, when a 
^^^* ' mitigation of two degrees of severity shall be 

permitted. Those who, failing to exercise 
l^evised proper supervision over untried criminals, al- 
C^e, Sec. i^j^ ^^Q latter to commit suicide, shall be 

punished by penal servitude for 30 days ; and 



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—99— 

those who wilfully connive at the pri- 
soner's escape whether on account of their 
having been bribed or other reason, shall bo 
punished as participators in the offence of 
which the escaped prisoner was originally 
guilty, or, iu cases where they have been 
bribed, by such heavier penalty as the law of 
"Bribery for an Unlawful Purpose" would 
render them liable to. If, however, in either 
of the latter instances, the prisoner is re-arrest- 
ed either by the culpable officer or ftnother 
person, or if he dies or voluntarily surrenders 
hiui.self to the authorities, a miligation of one 
degree of severity shall be iil lowed. No 
penalties shall attach to jailers whenever they 
are overpowered by a number of brigands 
who break into a prison and rescue the pri- 
soners. Persons, not officially employed as 
jailers, into whose charge a criminal has been 
handed for safe keeping shall, if they suffer 
such criminal to escape, be punished by a 
penalty two degrees less severe than that 
above provided for jailers who fail to prevent 
tbo escape of prisoners. 



pBlSONEtlS KSCAPING FROM CUSTODY OR RESISTING 

Police Officers. 

A criminal who absconds after a charge has 
Kew Oude, been formally laid against.him, or who, at the 
**Perauii8 ^-Jj^q of \^[^ arrest, offers resistance to the 
in.cubtocly ij^^ ^^^g^.g^ ^j. ^ ho, after having been re- 
breSTt placed in custody, takes advantage of an 
of prison " opportuuity afforded by the remissness of his 
jailers to abscond, shall be punished by a 
penalty two degrees more severe than that to 
which he would have been liable for his ori- 
ginal offence had he not been guilty of the 
absconding or resistance, but this aggrava- 
tion of punishment shall not be made if 
by it the sentence would be rendered heavier 
than that of penal servitude for 10 years. 
Revised If^ however, the criminal carries his resist- 
Code, Sec. ^^^^ g^ f^^. ^s to inflict cutting wounds on the 
poUoeoffloer arresting himi he shall be punUhed 



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400— 



Revised 
Code, Sec. 
294. 



Revibed 
Code, Sec. 
2U5. 



New Cmle, 
•'Convicta 
Abscond- 
ing." 



Revised 
Code, Sec 



by hangings and if he kills such officer, or if he 
combiue with others in custody to effect his 
escape by violently breaking out of prison, by 
decapitation. Accessories shall in all these 
cases be allowed the usual mitigation of ooo 
degree of severity. A similar mitigation 
in the punishment due to the crime 
for which a prisoner was in the first instance 
placed in custody shall, provided it was not 
of a capital nature, be allowed to him if, though 
ho has escaped from custody during the con- 
fusion incidental to a conflagration, flood, or 
earthquake, he afterwards voluntarily returns, 
or if, by givhig true and timely information 
he prevents the execution of a plot on the 
part of his fellow prisoners to break out of 
prison. An offender, who absconds from the 
custody of relatives or other guardians to 
whaso safe keeping he has been consigned, 
shall suffer an increase of one degree of 
severity in the punishment of his original 
offence, but neither in this nor in any of those 
cases previously mentioned shall any increase 
be made in the punishment originally due 
to an offender, who, though he has ab- 
sconded fi'om custody, voluntarily returns and 
surrenders himself to the authorities. 

The punishment that shall be inflicted on a 
convict, who having been sentenced to a term 
of penal servitude and remitted to the convict 
depotabsconds and endeavours to escape there- 
from before the expiration of his term, varies 
according to the degree of that which had 
been inflicted on him for his original offence^ 
In all crises the term of penal servitude to 
which he was originally condemned shall, 
without regard to any portion of it which he 
may have worked out prior to absconding, 
commence to be computed anew from tlio 
dale of his recapture and return to the depot. 
He shall, in addition lo this, be liable to the 
following additional penalties : — 

If his original sentence did not exceed pe- 
nal servitude for 100 days he shall on recap- 
ture be placed in the piiioiy for 1 day, and if he 



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repeats ibe offidoce of abscoDding shall bo puii- 
ished bj beiug placed in piliorj for 2 days and 
by Laving bis original sentence changed into 
that of penal servitude for 1 year dating from 
the day of his recapture. If, in addition to abs- 
conding, lie is, while at large, guilty of a fresh 
offence punishable by any period of penal 
servitude not exceeding 100 days, he shall on 
recapture and conviction be sentenced to the 
full term of the punishment provided for both 
the original and second offences, but, if the 
fresh •ffence bo one punishable by a term of 
|)enal servitude for 1 or more years, then on 
recapture and conviction the punishment due 
to the second offence only shall be imposed. 
If, agaiu^ his original sentence was that of Revised 
penal servitude for a term of not less than 1 ^^^ ^^^ 
and not more than 3 years, he shall on recap- 
ture be placed in pillory for 2 days, and, if he 
abscond a second time, the original sentence 
sliall be changed into that of penal servitude 
for life. If, in addition to absconding, a con- Revised 
vict of this class is while at large guilty of a oaa^* ^^* 
fresh offeuce involving a punishment of penal 
servitude for a term not exceeding 3 years, 
he shall on recapture and conviction be 
condemned to undergo the full punishments 
due to both the original and fresh offences, 
provided thai when the periods thereof are add- 
etl together, the total does not exceed 4 years. 
If, however, the offence committed while the 
convict is at large is one punishable by a 
period of penal servitude for 5 or more years, 
then, on recapture and conviction, the balance 
of punishment due to the original offence shall 
be disregarded and that due to the second only 
inflicted. If, again, the original sentence